Immune Rebalancing

Immune Rebalancing

The Future of Immunosuppression

1st Edition - January 21, 2016

Write a review

  • Editors: Diana Boraschi, Giselle Penton-Rol
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128033029
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128033364

Purchase options

Purchase options
DRM-free (EPub, Mobi, PDF)
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out

Institutional Subscription

Free Global Shipping
No minimum order


Immune Rebalancing: The Future of Immunosuppression summarizes the most promising perspectives of immunopharmacology, in particular in the area of immunosuppression by considering molecular pathways, personalized medicine, microbiome and nanomedicine. Modulation of immune responses for therapeutic purposes is a particularly relevant area, given the central role of anomalous immunity in diseases. These diseases vary from the most typically immune-related syndromes (autoimmune diseases, allergy and asthma, immunodeficiencies) to those in which altered immunity and inflammation define the pathological outcomes (chronic infections, tumours, chronic inflammatory and degenerative diseases, metabolic disorders, etc.

Key Features

  • Visits immunosuppression from a modern point of view of signalling mechanisms at the light of the current knowledge of signalling mechanisms and regulatory networks allows the reader to formulate new ideas and concepts on how to use immunosuppression the therapeutic purposes
  • Encourages researchers to engage into exploring the field of pharmacological modulation of immune responses in depth, and with the new knowledge and tools available, designs more effective therapeutic strategies to autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, cancer, degenerative diseases and infections
  • Examines the link between molecular pathways associated to immune-suppression and the new immunopharmacology approaches
  • Provides information on the new strategies for drug development in this field
  • Considers the role of microbes in the development of the mammalian immune system and immune responses, which will widen the reader’s strategy for addressing therapeutic immune modulations


Researchers and scientists in the field of immunology, pharmacology and biomedical research and industrial researchers involved in developing new therapeutic products. Also for clinicians and medical doctors interested in evaluating new treatment options. Secondary audience: Graduate and advanced students.

Table of Contents

    • List of Contributors
    • Chapter 1. Pharmacological Strategies Using Biologics as Immunomodulatory Agents
      • Abstract
      • 1.1 Introduction
      • 1.2 From Nonspecific to Targeted Immunosuppression
      • 1.3 From Immunosuppression to Immune Rebalancing
      • 1.4 Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Part I: Mechanisms of Immune-Related Pathologies and their Current Treatment
      • Chapter 2. Advance in Therapies for Rheumatoid Arthritis: New Perspectives
        • Abstract
        • 2.1 Introduction
        • 2.2 Rheumatoid Arthritis Management
        • 2.3 New Alternatives for the Treatment of RA
        • 2.4 Loss of Immune Tolerance as a Factor for RA Development: A Possible Target
        • 2.5 Resolution of Inflammation
        • 2.6 Challenges
        • 2.7 Concluding Remarks
        • References
      • Chapter 3. Immune Based Therapies for Inflammatory Bowel Disease
        • Abstract
        • 3.1 Introduction
        • 3.2 Immune Regulation in IBD
        • 3.3 Current Immune Based Therapies in IBD
        • 3.4 Immunomodulators
        • 3.5 Biological Agents
        • 3.6 Next Generation Immune Based Therapies in IBD
        • 3.7 Conclusion
        • References
      • Chapter 4. Multiple Sclerosis and Neurodegenerative Diseases
        • Abstract
        • 4.1 Introduction
        • References
      • Chapter 5. Therapeutic Approaches in Allergic Diseases
        • Abstract
        • 5.1 General Aspects of Allergic Diseases
        • 5.2 Modulation of Allergen-Specific Responses
        • 5.3 Targeting Th2 Cytokines: IL-5, IL-4, and IL-13
        • 5.4 Targeting IgE and FcεRI
        • 5.5 Targeting Mast Cells and Eosinophils
        • 5.6 Conclusions
        • References
      • Chapter 6. Immunotherapy for Transforming Advanced Cancer into a Chronic Disease: How Far Are We?
        • Abstract
        • 6.1 Introduction: The Basic Biology of Chronic Diseases
        • 6.2 The Evidence of a Transition to Chronicity
        • 6.3 The Pharmacologic Consequence: Anticancer Drugs for Long-Term Use
        • 6.4 The Expanding Role of Immunotherapy
        • 6.5 A Methodological Consequence: The Need of Novel Approaches to Clinical Trial Design and Evaluation
        • 6.6 Immune Rebalancing: The Research Agenda for the Age of Chronicity
        • References
    • Part II: Biologics as Immunosuppressive Agents
      • Chapter 7. Modulation of Macrophage Activation
        • Abstract
        • 7.1 Introduction
        • 7.2 An Overview on Macrophage Polarization/Activation
        • 7.3 M1/M2 Skewing: Detrimental and Beneficial Consequences
        • 7.4 Mechanisms of Macrophage Activation
        • 7.5 Local Conditions and Cell–Cell Interactions: Other Cues in Macrophage Polarization
        • 7.6 Therapeutic Applications Based on Modulation of Macrophage Polarization/Activation in the Tumor
        • 7.7 Conclusions
        • Acknowledgments
        • Conflict of Interest
        • References
      • Chapter 8. Modulating Inflammatory Cytokines: IL-1
        • Abstract
        • 8.1 Introduction
        • 8.2 Biologicals Targeting IL-1
        • 8.3 Blocking IL-1 in Disease
        • 8.4 Conclusions
        • References
      • Chapter 9. Systems Medicine of Autoimmune Diseases: From Understanding Complexity to Precision Treatments
        • Abstract
        • 9.1 Introduction
        • 9.2 From Systems Biology to Systems Medicine
        • 9.3 Systems Biology and the Emerging Technologies
        • 9.4 Application of Emerging Technologies in Autoimmune Research
        • 9.5 From Systems Medicine to Precision Medicine
        • References
      • Chapter 10. The Microbiota and Its Modulation in Immune-Mediated Disorders
        • Abstract
        • 10.1 Introduction
        • 10.2 Development of the Gut Microbiota
        • 10.3 Microbiota Effects on Immune Development
        • 10.4 Microbiota Modulation
        • 10.5 Microbiota Involvement in Prevalence and Progression Immune-Related Disease
        • 10.6 Summary and Conclusions
        • Acknowledgements
        • References
      • Chapter 11. Natural Products: Immuno-Rebalancing Therapeutic Approaches
        • Abstract
        • 11.1 Introduction
        • 11.2 Modulation of Immune Responses for Disease Prevention and Treatment
        • 11.3 Traditional Medicinal Preparations have Immunoactive Properties
        • 11.4 Natural Products can Influence and Modify Intersystem Interactions and Infection Resistance
        • 11.5 Immunosuppression is not the Abrogation but the Rebalancing of Immune Functions
        • 11.6 The Oxidant versus Antioxidant Argument does not Provide Responses but Creates Uncertainty
        • 11.7 Neuroprotection/Restoration is Achievable by Natural Products
        • 11.8 C-Phycocyanin/Phycocyanobilin Properties, Mechanisms and Prospects
        • 11.9 Conclusions
        • References
      • Chapter 12. Nanomedicine
        • Abstract
        • 12.1 Why Nanomaterials?
        • 12.2 Products on the Market or in Development
        • 12.3 Suppressing Immunity: Autoimmunity and Other Cases
        • 12.4 Activating Immunity: The Future of Vaccines?
        • 12.5 Cancer as an Immunological Disease
        • 12.6 Allergy
        • 12.7 What Are We Really Using?
        • 12.8 Rebalancing Exciting New Prospects and Over-Optimistic Hype
        • 12.9 Acknowledgements
        • References
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 298
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2016
  • Published: January 21, 2016
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128033029
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128033364

About the Editors

Diana Boraschi

Diana Boraschi

Diana Boraschi is an immunologist that built her experience both in academic institutions (Italian National Council for Nuclear Energy, Italian National Research Council, National Cancer Institute in Bethesda, MD, Mario Negri Institute in Milan, Italy, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI) and industrial settings (the vaccine company Sclavo in Siena, Italy; the pharmaceutical company Dompé in L’Aquila, Italy). She is presently Research Director at the Institute of Protein Biochemistry of the Italian National Research Council in Naples. She has served as Director of Fellowships at the Human Frontier Science Program Organization in Strasbourg, France, and as external expert evaluator for the research programmes (FP5, FP6, FP7, H2020, EDCTP) of the EU Commission, the Singapore National Medical Council, and the US National Science Foundation. She is author of 156 peer-reviewed research articles in immunology, editor/author of 17 books, and inventor in eight patents, in addition to numerous monographic and divulging publications. She is particularly involved in higher education training activities and capacity building actions in Africa, in the field of poverty-related diseases and health care systems and delivery.

Diana Boraschi studies the mechanisms of innate defence responses, focussing in particular on the role of macrophages and inflammatory cytokines in the effector phase of defence reactions against infections and tumours. Her main interests are the receptors of the IL-1R/TLR family and their cytokine ligands (IL-1 and IL-18). A fragment of IL-1 endowed with immunostimulatory activity is now defined as the “Boraschi loop”. She is currently studying the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of diseases (from autoimmune syndromes to degenerative diseases such as ALS, and in ageing), with particular emphasis on abnormalities in the activation of macrophages. Within the study of the initiating mechanisms causing chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, she has recently addressed the possible impact of engineered nanoparticles, and of their interaction with microbial derived factors, in initiating or modulating pathology-related inflammation. She has initiated the “Immunosafety Task Force” within the NanoSafety Cluster (an initiative sponsored by the EU Commission), a focus group aiming at defining and standardising the immunosafety assessment as central part of nanosafety regulations.

Affiliations and Expertise

PhD, Research Director, Institute of Biomedical Technologies, Italian National Research Council, Pisa, Italy

Giselle Penton-Rol

Giselle Penton-Rol
Giselle Pentón-Rol graduated with honors as a medical doctor and soon achieved a young researcher’s position at CIGB working in Molecular Genetics, Immunology and Experimental Pharmacology, to complete her first specialty degree in Clinical Biochemistry in 1993. In 1994 she was selected for a five year fellowship grant at the Mario Negri Pharmacology Institute in Milan, with Prof. Alberto Mantovani in the interleukin 1 (IL-1) system, its receptor, effectors, interacting drugs and relationships with other systems. She obtained her PhD in Pharmacological Sciences, which was validated in Cuba in the year 2002. However, her greatest achievement at that time was the birth of her twin sons in the year 2000, who are the love of her life. This, however, did not slow down her professional career, but extended her interests to medical Immunology teaching and drug research, including natural and cytoprotective products and mechanisms, mainly related to the central nervous system and autoimmune diseases. She has dozens of published papers on these topics in high impact peer-reviewed national and international scientific journals and other results have been presented in international congresses and protected by patents. Thus, in 2004 Giselle obtained her second specialty degree in Clinical Biochemistry and she later became senior researcher at CIGB (2012) and senior professor at MUH in 2014. This same year Giselle applied and obtained a special visiting researcher’s post at the University of Belo Horizonte, Brazil after having co-chaired with Dr. Boraschi, her friend and admired colleague, the Immunopharmacology Workshop of the International Congress of Immunology in Milan, 2013, where the idea of the present book was first conceived. Giselle is the head of the Cellular Biology Dpt. of the Biomedical Direction of CIGB and has received national awards from the Cuban Ministry of Public Health and Academy of Sciences, she is a member of the Cuban Societies for Immunology and Pharmacology.

Affiliations and Expertise

Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (CIGB), Havana, Cuba

Ratings and Reviews

Write a review

There are currently no reviews for "Immune Rebalancing"