Imaging of the Human Brain in Health and Disease - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124186774, 9780124186842

Imaging of the Human Brain in Health and Disease

1st Edition

Editors: Philip Seeman Bertha Madras
eBook ISBN: 9780124186842
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124186774
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 24th January 2013
Page Count: 532
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Description

Brain imaging technology remains at the forefront of advances in both our understanding of the brain and our ability to diagnose and treat brain disease and disorders. Imaging of the Human Brain in Health and Disease examines the localization of neurotransmitter receptors in the nervous system of normal, healthy humans and compares that with humans who are suffering from various neurologic diseases.

Opening chapters introduce the basic science of imaging neurotransmitters, including sigma, acetylcholine, opioid, and dopamine receptors. Imaging the healthy and diseased brain includes brain imaging of anger, pain, autism, the release of dopamine, the impact of cannabinoids, and Alzheimer's disease.

This book is a valuable companion to a wide range of scholars, students, and researchers in neuroscience, clinical neurology, and psychiatry, and provides a detailed introduction to the application of advanced imaging to the treatment of brain disorders and disease.

Key Features

  • A focused introduction to imaging healthy and diseased brains
  • Focuses on the primary neurotransmitter release
  • Includes sigma, acetylcholine, opioid, and dopamine receptors
  • Presents the imaging of healthy and diseased brains via anger, pain, autism, and Alzheimer's disease

Readership

Neuroscience, Neurology, Psychiatry

Table of Contents

List of Contributors

Chapter One. Neuroimaging of Addiction

Abstract

Acknowledgments

1 Introduction

2.1 Magnetic Resonance-Based Imaging Techniques

2.2 Nuclear Medicine Imaging Techniques

2.3 Clinical Applications of Imaging

3 Conclusions

References

Chapter Two. Brain PET Imaging in the Cannabinoid System

Abstract

1 Introduction

2.1 First Attempts at Imaging CB1R with PET: A Historical Perspective

2.2 The Currently Available PET Radioligands

2.3 Applications of Cannabinoid Imaging

3 Conclusions

References

Chapter Three. Brain Imaging of Cannabinoid Receptors

Abstract

1 Introduction

1.2 ECS in Brain Pathology

2.1 Molecular Imaging of the ECS

2.2 Imaging of Cannabinoid Receptors

3 Conclusions

References

Chapter Four. Human Brain Imaging of Opioid Receptors: Application to CNS Biomarker and Drug Development

Abstract

Acknowledgments

1 Introduction

2.1 CNS Opioid Receptors

2.2 OR-Radiolabeled Tracers

2.3 PET Imaging of µ-OR

2.4 PET Imaging of δ-OR and κ-OR

2.5 PET Imaging Studies of the µ-OR and Drug Use

2.6 Characterizing Actions of Putative OR-Acting Analgesics: Combined Molecular Imaging of Occupancy of µ-OR in Tandem with Reward-Related or Pain-Related Functional Brain Activation in Humans

3 Conclusions

References

Chapter Five. Brain Imaging of Sigma Receptors

Abstract

1 Introduction

2.1 Postmortem Studies

2.2 Radioligands for Imaging Sigma Receptors

2.3 Human Pet Imaging of the Sigma1 Receptor

3 Conclusions

Abbreviations

References

Chapter Six. Human Brain Imaging of Acetylcholine Receptors

Abstract

1 Introduction

2.1 Postmortem Studies

2.2 Radioligands for Imaging AChRs

2.3 Human SPECT/PET Imaging of mAChR

2.4 Human SPECT/PET imaging of mAChR in the Diseased Brain

2.5 Human SPECT/PET Imaging of α4β2 nAChR

2.6 Human SPECT/PET Imaging of α7 nAChR

3 Conclusions

Abbreviations

References

Chapter Seven. Human Brain Imaging of Adenosine Receptors

Abstract

1 Introduction

2.1 Postmortem Studies

2.2 Imaging of A1 and A2A Receptors

2.3 Quantification of Adenosine Receptors

3 Conclusions

Abbreviations

References

Chapter Eight. Human Brain Imaging of Dopamine D1 Receptors

Abstract

1 Introduction

2.1 Affective and Cognitive Functions and D1 Receptors in Humans

2.2 D1 Receptor and Psychiatric Disorders

3 Conclusions

References

Chapter Nine. Human Brain Imaging of Dopamine Transporters

Abstract

1 Introduction

2.1 In Vivo Imaging of the DAT - PART I

2.2 In Vivo Imaging of the DAT - PART II

2.3 In Vivo Imaging of the DAT - PART III

3 Conclusions

References

Chapter Ten. Imaging of Dopamine and Serotonin Receptors and Transporters

Abstract

Acknowledgments

1 Introduction

2.1 Parkinson’s Disease as a Model for Understanding Molecular Imaging

2.2 Tracers for the Assessment of Presynaptic Dopamine Function

2.3 Transporters

2.4 Tracers for the Assessment of Postsynaptic Dopamine Function

2.5 Other Tracers: Serotonergic Binding Ligands

2.6 Clinical Relevance

3. Conclusions

References

Chapter Eleven. Imaging the Dopamine D3 Receptor In Vivo

Abstract

1 Introduction

2.1 PET imaging with [11C]-(+)-PHNO

2.2 D3 Receptor Imaging in Neuropsychiatric Illness

3 Conclusions

References

Chapter Twelve. Dopamine Receptors and Dopamine Release

Abstract

1 Introduction

2.1 Dopamine D1 Family Receptors

2.2 Clinical Studies of the Dopamine D1 Receptor

2.3 DOPAMINE D2 Family Receptors

2.4 Effects of Extracellular DA Levels on Dopamine D2/3 Receptor Binding

2.5 Clinical Studies Using Dopamine D2 Type Receptor Ligands

3 Conclusions

References

Chapter Thirteen. Dopamine Receptor Imaging in Schizophrenia: Focus on Genetic Vulnerability

Abstract

1 Introduction

2.1 Overview of Molecular Imaging Techniques

2.2 Dopamine D2 Receptor Imaging in Schizophrenia

2.3 Dopamine D1 Receptor Imaging in Schizophrenia

2.4 Summary: The Dopamine Hypothesis of Schizophrenia Vulnerability

3 Conclusions

References

Chapter Fourteen. Human Brain Imaging in Tardive Dyskinesia

Abstract

1 Introduction

2.1 Nuclear Medicine Modalities

2.2 Magnetic Resonance Imaging

2.3 Computed Tomography

3 Conclusions

References

Chapter Fifteen. Human Brain Imaging of Autism Spectrum Disorders

Abstract

Acknowledgments

1 Introduction

1.2 Cognitive Psychology

1.3 Neuropathology

1.4 Brain Imaging

2.1 Structural Human Brain Imaging of Autism Spectrum Disorders

2.2 Functional Human Brain Imaging of Autism Spectrum Disorders

3 Conclusions

References

Chapter Sixteen. Radiotracers Used to Image the Brains of Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease

Abstract

1 Introduction

2.1 Overview

2.2 Amyloid Plaques

2.3 Tau Imaging Agents

3 Conclusions

References

Chapter Seventeen. Human Brain Imaging of Anger

Abstract

1 Introduction

2.1 Angered: Neuroimaging of the Subjective Experience of Anger

2.2 Angry Faces, Bodies, and Voices: Neuroimaging of the Perception of Anger

2.3 From Anger to Aggression to Violence

3 Conclusions

References

Chapter Eighteen. Imaging Pain in the Human Brain

Abstract

Acknowledgments

1 Introduction

2.1 Pain Processing in the Brain

2.2 The Descending Pain Modulatory Pathway

2.3 Psychological Modulation of Pain

2.4 Chronic Pain

3 Conclusions

References

Chapter Nineteen. Imaging of Neurochemical Transmission in the Central Nervous System

Abstract

1 Introduction

2.1 Imaging of DA Transmission

2.2 Imaging of Serotonin Transmission

2.3 Imaging of Gamma-Aminobutyric acid Transmission

2.4 Imaging of Glutamate Transmission

2.5 Imaging of Opioid Transmission

3 Conclusions

References

Chapter Twenty. Characterizing Recovery of the Human Brain following Stroke: Evidence from fMRI Studies

Abstract

Acknowledgments

1 Introduction

2.1 fMRI and Stroke

3 Conclusions

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
532
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780124186842
Hardcover ISBN:
9780124186774

About the Editor

Philip Seeman

Philip Seeman was born in Winnipeg, Canada. He received a B.Sc. and an M.D. from McGill University. He received a Ph.D. in Life Sciences in 1966, working with Dr. George Palade (1974 Nobel Laureate, Medicine/Physiology) at Rockefeller University. Since 1967 he has been at the University of Toronto, Department of Pharmacology, and served as its Chairman between 1977 and 1987. He is cross-appointed as a Professor of Psychiatry, and has held the University’s Tanenbaum Chair in Neuroscience. His work between 1964 and 1974 on the membrane actions of drugs led him to his discovery of the antipsychotic receptor, now re-named the dopamine D2 receptor. This research forms an experimental basis for the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia. In 1990-91 Dr. Seeman and his research group, including H.B. Niznik, H. Van Tol and R. Sunahara, cloned three dopamine receptors: D1, D4 and D5.

He has trained over 100 graduate students and Fellows. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada. He has received 25 awards, including the Lieber Award of NARSAD (the National Alliance for Research in Schizophrenia and Depression), the Lifetime Achievement Award of the Society for Biological Psychiatry, the Ariens Receptor award of the Dutch Pharmacology Society, the Stanley Dean Award of the American College of Psychiatrists, the first Prix Galien award in North America, the Pasarow Foundation award in Neuropsychiatry, the Canada Council Killam Prize, and the Order of Canada. He has written approximately 750 publications.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

Bertha Madras

Dr. Madras is Professor of Psychobiology at Harvard Medical School (HMS), is cross-appointed at the Massachusetts General Hospital and founded the Division of Neurochemistry at the HMS Primate Center. She served as Deputy Director for Demand Reduction in the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), a Presidential appointment confirmed unanimously by the Senate. Her discoveries in addiction neurobiology and pharmacology informed her development of candidate medications and brain imaging probes, the latter widely used in clinical research of drug mechanisms, neurotoxicity, Parkinson’s disease diagnosis, ADHD, other neuropsychiatric disorders. The Division also developed naturalistic primate genotype/phenotype models of psychiatric disorders. Her current research focuses on molecular adaptations which conceivably alter the trajectory of brain development in adolescent drug users. She has authored numerous scientific manuscripts, co-edited the “The Cell Biology of Addiction”, and received 19 patents with collaborators. Her commitment to academic and public education is reflected in her mentorship of students, creation of courses on addiction biology (HMS, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory) and a Boston Museum of Science exhibit and CD (licensed by Disney Corp. in 2006) on how drugs affect the brain. At ONDCP, her public health approach to Demand Reduction featured medicalization of Screening, Brief Intervention, Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) services. She spearheaded approval of SBIRT CPT® Medicaid and Medicare billing codes, web-based screening/training, and a UN endorsement of SBIRT. Recognition includes NIH-NIDA MERIT, Public Service and Career Scientist awards, an American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry Founders’ Award, Marian Fischman Award, and designation of the imaging agent altropane in “The Better World Report, 2006”, as one of “25 technology transfer innovations that changed the world”. She has delivered hundreds of presentations on addiction and related topics to various groups nationally and globally.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA, USA