Imaging of the Human Brain in Health and Disease

1st Edition

Editors: Philip Seeman Bertha Madras
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124186774
eBook ISBN: 9780124186842
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 24th January 2013
Page Count: 532
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Description

Brain imaging technology remains at the forefront of advances in both our understanding of the brain and our ability to diagnose and treat brain disease and disorders. Imaging of the Human Brain in Health and Disease examines the localization of neurotransmitter receptors in the nervous system of normal, healthy humans and compares that with humans who are suffering from various neurologic diseases.

Opening chapters introduce the basic science of imaging neurotransmitters, including sigma, acetylcholine, opioid, and dopamine receptors. Imaging the healthy and diseased brain includes brain imaging of anger, pain, autism, the release of dopamine, the impact of cannabinoids, and Alzheimer's disease.

This book is a valuable companion to a wide range of scholars, students, and researchers in neuroscience, clinical neurology, and psychiatry, and provides a detailed introduction to the application of advanced imaging to the treatment of brain disorders and disease.

Key Features

  • A focused introduction to imaging healthy and diseased brains
  • Focuses on the primary neurotransmitter release
  • Includes sigma, acetylcholine, opioid, and dopamine receptors
  • Presents the imaging of healthy and diseased brains via anger, pain, autism, and Alzheimer's disease

Readership

Neuroscience, Neurology, Psychiatry

Table of Contents

List of Contributors

Chapter One. Neuroimaging of Addiction

Abstract

Acknowledgments

1 Introduction

2.1 Magnetic Resonance-Based Imaging Techniques

2.2 Nuclear Medicine Imaging Techniques

2.3 Clinical Applications of Imaging

3 Conclusions

References

Chapter Two. Brain PET Imaging in the Cannabinoid System

Abstract

1 Introduction

2.1 First Attempts at Imaging CB1R with PET: A Historical Perspective

2.2 The Currently Available PET Radioligands

2.3 Applications of Cannabinoid Imaging

3 Conclusions

References

Chapter Three. Brain Imaging of Cannabinoid Receptors

Abstract

1 Introduction

1.2 ECS in Brain Pathology

2.1 Molecular Imaging of the ECS

2.2 Imaging of Cannabinoid Receptors

3 Conclusions

References

Chapter Four. Human Brain Imaging of Opioid Receptors: Application to CNS Biomarker and Drug Development

Abstract

Acknowledgments

1 Introduction

2.1 CNS Opioid Receptors

2.2 OR-Radiolabeled Tracers

2.3 PET Imaging of µ-OR

2.4 PET Imaging of δ-OR and κ-OR

2.5 PET Imaging Studies of the µ-OR and Drug Use

2.6 Characterizing Actions of Putative OR-Acting Analgesics: Combined Molecular Imaging of Occupancy of µ-OR in Tandem with Reward-Related or Pain-Related Functional Brain Activation in Humans

3 Conclusions

References

Chapter Five. Brain Imaging of Sigma Receptors

Abstract

1 Introduction

2.1 Postmortem Studies

2.2 Radioligands for Imaging Sigma Receptors

2.3 Human Pet Imaging of the Sigma1 Receptor

3 Conclusions

Abbreviations

References

Chapter Six. Human Brain Imaging of Acetylcholine Receptors

Abstract

1 Introduction

2.1 Postmo

Details

No. of pages:
532
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780124186842
Hardcover ISBN:
9780124186774

About the Editor

Philip Seeman

Philip Seeman was born in Winnipeg, Canada. He received a B.Sc. and an M.D. from McGill University. He received a Ph.D. in Life Sciences in 1966, working with Dr. George Palade (1974 Nobel Laureate, Medicine/Physiology) at Rockefeller University. Since 1967 he has been at the University of Toronto, Department of Pharmacology, and served as its Chairman between 1977 and 1987. He is cross-appointed as a Professor of Psychiatry, and has held the University’s Tanenbaum Chair in Neuroscience. His work between 1964 and 1974 on the membrane actions of drugs led him to his discovery of the antipsychotic receptor, now re-named the dopamine D2 receptor. This research forms an experimental basis for the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia. In 1990-91 Dr. Seeman and his research group, including H.B. Niznik, H. Van Tol and R. Sunahara, cloned three dopamine receptors: D1, D4 and D5. He has trained over 100 graduate students and Fellows. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada. He has received 25 awards, including the Lieber Award of NARSAD (the National Alliance for Research in Schizophrenia and Depression), the Lifetime Achievement Award of the Society for Biological Psychiatry, the Ariens Receptor award of the Dutch Pharmacology Society, the Stanley Dean Award of the American College of Psychiatrists, the first Prix Galien award in North America, the Pasarow Foundation award in Neuropsychiatry, the Canada Council Killam Prize, and the Order of Canada. He has written approximately 750 publications.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

Bertha Madras

Dr. Madras is Professor of Psychobiology at Harvard Medical School (HMS), is cross-appointed at the Massachusetts General Hospital and founded the Division of Neurochemistry at the HMS Primate Center. She served as Deputy Director for Demand Reduction in the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), a Presidential appointment confirmed unanimously by the Senate. Her discoveries in addiction neurobiology and pharmacology informed her development of candidate medications and brain imaging probes, the latter widely used in clinical research of drug mechanisms, neurotoxicity, Parkinson’s disease diagnosis, ADHD, other neuropsychiatric disorders. The Division also developed naturalistic primate genotype/phenotype models of psychiatric disorders. Her current research focuses on molecular adaptations which conceivably alter the trajectory of brain development in adolescent drug users. She has authored numerous scientific manuscripts, co-edited the “The Cell Biology of Addiction”, and received 19 patents with collaborators. Her commitment to academic and public education is reflected in her mentorship of students, creation of courses on addiction biology (HMS, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory) and a Boston Museum of Science exhibit and CD (licensed by Disney Corp. in 2006) on how drugs affect the brain. At ONDCP, her public health approach to Demand Reduction featured medicalization of Screening, Brief Intervention, Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) services. She spearheaded approval of SBIRT CPT® Medicaid and Medicare billing codes, web-based screening/training, and a UN endorsement of SBIRT. Recognition includes NIH-NIDA MERIT, Public Service and Career Scientist awards, an American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry Founders’ Award, Marian Fischman Award, and designation of the imaging agent altropane in “The Better World Report, 2006”, as one of “25 technology transfer innovations that changed the world”. She has delivered hundreds of presentations on addiction

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA, USA