Igneous Petrology

Igneous Petrology

1st Edition - March 1, 1982

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  • Author: C.J. Hughes
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483289694

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Description

A balanced text that bridges the gap between introductory petrography-oriented texts and the more advanced texts that have a thermodynamic and/or chemical approach. Well-indexed, well-referenced and written in a particularly readable style, it leads the reader from classical to modern concepts in igneous petrology.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    Glossary

    Chapter 1 - Mineralogy of Igneous Rocks

    1.1. Introduction

    1.2. Chemical Considerations

    1.2.1. The Chemical Elements

    1.2.2. Clarkes

    1.2.3. Valency

    1.3. Factors Governing Structures of Silicate Minerals

    1.3.1. Relative Abundance of Oxygen to Cations in Igneous and Crustal Rocks

    1.3.2. The Role of Oxygen in the Structure of Silicate Minerals

    1.3.3. Ionic Radii

    1.3.4. The Si04 Tetrahedron

    1.3.5. Resultant Silicate Structures

    1.4. Principles Governing Crystalline Solution

    1.5. Nomenclature, Composition, and Paragenesis of Igneous Rock-Forming Minerals

    1.6. Recognition of Minerals in Thin Section

    Chapter 2 - Volcanic Activity

    2.1. Introduction

    2.2. Volcanic Activity Described by Natural Groupings

    2.2.1. Basalts

    2.2.2. Andesites

    2.2.3. Rhyolites

    2.2.4. Kimberlites

    2.3. Fragmental Volcanic Rocks

    2.3.1. Autoclastic Rocks

    2.3.2. Pyroclastic Rocks

    2.3.3. Epiclastic Rocks

    Chapter 3 - Forms and Structures of Intrusive Rocks

    3.1. Introduction

    3.2. Basic Intrusions into Continental Crust

    3.2.1. Dykes

    3.2.3. Large Basic Intrusions

    3.3. Ophiolite Association

    3.4. Subvolcanic and Central Complexes

    3.5. Deep-Seated Granitic Rocks

    3.5.1. Introduction

    3.5.2. Contrasted Approaches of Bowen and Read

    3.5.3. Granitization Defined

    3.5.4. Approach of Buddington

    3.5.5. Katazonal Granitic Rocks

    3.5.6. Mesozonal Granitic Rocks

    3.5.7. Discussion

    3.6. Features to Map and Sample in Intrusive Rocks

    Chapter 4 - Classification of Igneous Rocks

    4.1. Introduction

    4.2. Presentation of Compositional Data

    4.2.1. Igneous Rock Analyses

    4.2.2. Norms

    4.2.3. Procedure for Calculating the CIPW Norm

    4.3. Reflection of Chemistry in Mineralogy

    4.3.1. Silica Content

    4.3.2. Principle of Silica Saturation

    4.3.3. Alumina Saturation

    4.3.4. Colour Index

    4.3.5. Feldspar Proportions

    4.4. Classification

    4.4.1. Occurrence and Grain Size

    4.4.2. Rationale of Classification Adopted in this Chapter

    4.4.3. Aphanitic Mafic Rocks

    4.4.4. Aphanitic Intermediate and Acid Rocks

    4.4.5. Cumulates

    4.4.6. Other Plutonic Mafic and Ultramafic Rocks

    4.4.7. Granitic Plutonic Rocks

    4.4.8. Lamprophyres and Kimberlites

    4.4.9. Carbonatites and Associated Rocks

    4.4.10. Spilite and Keratophyre

    Chapter 5 - Petrography of Igneous Rocks

    5.1. Introduction

    5.2. Procedure

    5.3. A Working Vocabulary

    5.3.1. Terms Used in Description of Igneous Processes

    5.3.2. Terms Used to Describe Structural Features of Igneous Rocks

    5.3.3. Terms Used to Describe Mineral Shapes

    5.3.4. Terms Used for Overall Mineralogical Features

    5.3.5. Terms of General Application Used to Describe Textures

    5.3.6. Terms Used to Describe Specific Intergrain Textures

    5.3.7. Terms Used to Describe Intragrain Textures Produced by Exsolution

    Chapter 6 - Physical Properties and Physical Chemistry of Magmas

    6.1. Physical Properties of Magma

    6.1.1. Temperature

    6.1.2. Gas Content of Magmas

    6.1.3. Viscosity

    6.1.4. Density

    6.2. Kinetics of Crystallization of Magma

    6.2.1. Introduction

    6.2.2. Effect of Kinetic Factors on Igneous Rock Textures

    6.3. Studies in the Equilibrium Crystallization of Synthetic Melts and their Bearing on Magmatic Cooling History, Igneous Rock Compositions and Textures

    6.3.1. Historical Review

    6.3.2. Equilibrium and the Phase Rule

    6.3.3. Melting Points of the Pure End-Members of Some Common Rock-Forming Mineral Species

    6.3.4. The System Diopside—Anorthite, a Binary System with a Eutectic

    6.3.5. The Plagioclase Solid-Solution Series

    6.3.6. The Ternary System Diopside—Anorthite—Albite

    6.3.7. Other Simple Systems Relevant to an Understanding of the Crystallization of Mafic Magmas

    6.3.8. Effect of Pressure on Crystallization Temperatures

    6.3.9. Experimental Systems Relating to Felsic Rock Melts

    Chapter 7 - Differentiation of Igneous Rocks

    7.1. Introduction

    7.2. Differentiation Processes within Liquid Magma

    7.2.1. Diffusion and Gaseous Transfer Processes within Liquid Magma

    7.2.2. Liquid Immiscibility

    7.3. Hybridization

    7.4. Assimilation

    7.4.1. Principles

    7.4.2. Limited Extent of Assimilation by Mafic Magmas at Upper Crustal Levels

    7.4.3. Assimilation Phenomena Involving Granitic Rocks

    7.5. Autometasomatism

    7.6. Crystal Fractionation

    7.6.1. Flow Differentiation

    7.6.2. Congelation Crystallization

    7.6.3. Gravitational Crystal Fractionation

    7.6.4. Filter Differentiation

    7.6.5. Autointrusion

    7.6.6. Fractionation in Nuée Ardente Eruptions

    Chapter 8 - Igneous Rock Series

    8.1. Historical Review

    8.2. Definition of Terms

    8.3. Tholeiite and Alkali Basalt

    8.4. Thermodynamic Basis of Classification Based on Silica Activity

    8.5. Basis of Classification of Igneous Rock Series Followed in this Book

    8.6. Useful Parameters, Indices and Variation Diagrams

    8.7. Complications Affecting Simple Fractionation Models

    Chapter 9 - Igneous Rocks of Oceanic Areas

    9.1. Oceanic Crust

    9.2. Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts (MORB)

    9.3. Oceanic Island Tholeiites (OIT)

    9.4. Alkali Basalt Series and Basanites

    9.5. Highly Alkaline Rocks of Oceanic Islands

    Chapter 10 - Igneous Rocks of Continental Areas

    10.1. Introduction

    10.2. Kimberlites and Related Rocks

    10.3. Carbonatites

    10.4. Highly Potassium-Rich Series

    10.4.1. Lamproites of Western Australia

    10.4.2. Highly Alkaline Rocks of the Western East African Rift Valley

    10.4.3. Other Examples of Highly Potassium-Rich Rocks

    10.5. Various Alkaline Series as Exemplified by Igneous Activity in the Kenya Dome

    10.6. Igneous Activity in the Afro-Arabian Dome Associated with Plate Separation

    10.7. Continental Flood Basalts Mainly of Tholeiitic Composition

    10.7.1. Columbia River Basalts

    10.7.2. Keweenawan Lavas

    10.7.3. Karroo Volcanic Cycle

    10.7.4. Deccan Traps

    10.7.5. Tasmanian and Ferrar Diabases

    10.7.6. Blosseville Coast Basalts of East Greenland

    10.8. Intrusive Rocks of Anorogenic Continental Terrain

    10.8.1. The Oslo Region

    10 8.2. The Younger Granites of Northern Nigeria

    10.8.3. The White Mountain Plutonic Series of New Hampshire

    10.8.4. The Tertiary Volcanic Province of the Inner Hebrides, Scotland

    10.8.5. The Gardar Province

    10.9. Conclusions

    Chapter 11 - Igneous Rocks Above Benioff Seismic Zones

    11.1. Introduction

    11.2. Variation Among Young SBZ Volcanic Rocks

    11.2.1. The Scotia Arc: An Island-Arc Tholeiite Series

    11.2.2. Fiji — A Product of Mature Island-Arc Igneous Activity Comprising Rocks of the Island-Arc Tholeiite, Calc-Alkaline, and Shoshonite Series

    11.2.3. Comparison of Petrographical and Chemical Features of Rocks Belonging to the Island-Arc Tholeiite Series, Calc-Alkaline, and Shoshonite Series

    11.2.4. Polarity in Areas of SBZ Igneous Activity

    11.2.5. Review of Terminology of SBZ Igneous Rock Series

    11.2.6. Back-Arc Spreading

    11.2.7. The North Island of New Zealand — A Cautionary Tale

    11.2.8. Basin and Range Province

    11.2.9. Lateral Variation in SBZ Parental Magmas Including Alkali Basalt as Shown by Rocks of the Lesser Antilles

    11.2.10. Volcanism of the Central Andes: Voluminous Andesite and Rhyolite with no Basic Rocks

    11.3. Plutonic Rocks Apparently Formed During SBZ Eruptive Activity

    11.3.1. The Low-Potassium Island-Arc Plutonic Complex of Tanzawa

    11.3.2. Ultramafic Rocks of Alaskan Pipe Type

    11.3.3. Coastal Batholith of Peru

    11.3.4. Porphyry Coppers

    11.3.5. Contrasting Styles of Batholith Emplacement and Genesis

    Chapter 12 - Igneous Rocks of the Precambrian

    12.1. Introduction

    12.2. Extraterrestrial Igneous Rocks

    12.2.1. Meteorites

    12.2.2. The Moon

    12.3. Astroblemes and Related Igneous Activity on the Earth

    12.4. Archaean Igneous Rocks

    12.4.1. Introduction

    12.4.2. Oldest Crustal Rocks

    12.4.3. Greenstone Belts

    12.5. Igneous Activity in Proterozoic Time

    12.5.1. Introduction

    12.5.2. Early Mafic Intrusives

    12.5.3. Proterozoic "Orogenic" Belts

    12.5.4. Shear Belts, Some with Associated Mafic and Ultramafic Rocks

    12.5.5. Anorthosites

    12.5.6. Distinctive Acid Eruptive Rocks, Notably Rapakivi Granites

    12.5.7. Massive Mafic Eruptions Possibly Constituting Proterozoic Ocean Crust

    12.5.8. Proterozoic Belts with Possible Plate Boundary Features and Associated Igneous Rocks

    Chapter 13 - Petrogenesis of Igneous Rocks

    13.1. Introduction

    13.2. Composition of Upper Mantle

    13.3. Experimental Work

    13.3.1. Starting Material for Experimental Work at High Pressures

    13.3.2. Results of Early Experimental Work

    13.4. The Mantle—Magma System

    13.4.1. Temperature Regime in the Mantle

    13.4.2. Partial Melting in the Mantle

    13.4.3. Upward Ascent of Magma

    13.5. Trace Elements in Mafic Rocks

    13.6. Status of Parental Magma in Petrogenetic Work

    13.7. Conclusions

    13.7.1. Tholeiites and Alkali Basalts

    13.7.2. Komatiites and High-Magnesium Basalts

    13.7.3. Basanites, Nephelinites, and Melilitites

    13.7.4. Kimberlites

    13.7.5. Andesites and Associated Rocks

    13.7.6. Granitic Rocks

    Chapter 14 - Degradation of Igneous Rocks

    14.1. Introduction

    14.2. Spilite and Keratophyre

    14.3. Metasomatism in Degraded Volcanic Rocks

    14.4. Determination of Magmatic Affinity of Degraded Volcanic Rocks

    14.4.1. Application of Conventional Criteria to the Analytical Data

    14.4.2. Petrography

    14.4.3. Plutonic Equivalents of Extrusive Rocks

    14.4.4. Immobile Trace Elements

    14.4.5. Relict Augite Phenocrysts

    14.5. Discussion

    Epilogue

    References

    Name Index

    Locality Index

    General Index

Product details

  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 1982
  • Published: March 1, 1982
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483289694

About the Author

C.J. Hughes

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