Igneous Petrology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444420114, 9781483289694

Igneous Petrology, Volume 7

1st Edition

Authors: C.J. Hughes
eBook ISBN: 9781483289694
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 1st March 1982
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Table of Contents


Preface

Glossary

Chapter 1 - Mineralogy of Igneous Rocks

1.1. Introduction

1.2. Chemical Considerations

1.2.1. The Chemical Elements

1.2.2. Clarkes

1.2.3. Valency

1.3. Factors Governing Structures of Silicate Minerals

1.3.1. Relative Abundance of Oxygen to Cations in Igneous and Crustal Rocks

1.3.2. The Role of Oxygen in the Structure of Silicate Minerals

1.3.3. Ionic Radii

1.3.4. The Si04 Tetrahedron

1.3.5. Resultant Silicate Structures

1.4. Principles Governing Crystalline Solution

1.5. Nomenclature, Composition, and Paragenesis of Igneous Rock-Forming Minerals

1.6. Recognition of Minerals in Thin Section

Chapter 2 - Volcanic Activity

2.1. Introduction

2.2. Volcanic Activity Described by Natural Groupings

2.2.1. Basalts

2.2.2. Andesites

2.2.3. Rhyolites

2.2.4. Kimberlites

2.3. Fragmental Volcanic Rocks

2.3.1. Autoclastic Rocks

2.3.2. Pyroclastic Rocks

2.3.3. Epiclastic Rocks

Chapter 3 - Forms and Structures of Intrusive Rocks

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Basic Intrusions into Continental Crust

3.2.1. Dykes

3.2.3. Large Basic Intrusions

3.3. Ophiolite Association

3.4. Subvolcanic and Central Complexes

3.5. Deep-Seated Granitic Rocks

3.5.1. Introduction

3.5.2. Contrasted Approaches of Bowen and Read

3.5.3. Granitization Defined

3.5.4. Approach of Buddington

3.5.5. Katazonal Granitic Rocks

3.5.6. Mesozonal Granitic Rocks

3.5.7. Discussion

3.6. Features to Map and Sample in Intrusive Rocks

Chapter 4 - Classification of Igneous Rocks

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Presentation of Compositional Data

4.2.1. Igneous Rock Analyses

4.2.2. Norms

4.2.3. Procedure for Calculating the CIPW Norm

4.3. Reflection of Chemistry in Mineralogy

4.3.1. Silica Content

4.3.2. Principle of Silica Saturation

4.3.3. Alumina Saturation

4.3.4. Colour Index

4.3.5. Feldspar Proportions

4.4. Classification

4.4.1. Occurrence and Grain Size

4.4.2. Rationale of Classification Adopted in this Chapter

4.4.3. Aphanitic Mafic Rocks

4.4.4. Aphanitic Intermediate and Acid Rocks

4.4.5. Cumulates

4.4.6. Other Plutonic Mafic and Ultramafic Rocks

4.4.7. Granitic Plutonic Rocks

4.4.8. Lamprophyres and Kimberlites

4.4.9. Carbonatites and Associated Rocks

4.4.10. Spilite and Keratophyre

Chapter 5 - Petrography of Igneous Rocks

5.1. Introduction

5.2. Procedure

5.3. A Working Vocabulary

5.3.1. Terms Used in Description of Igneous Processes

5.3.2. Terms Used to Describe Structural Features of Igneous Rocks

5.3.3. Terms Used to Describe Mineral Shapes

5.3.4. Terms Used for Overall Mineralogical Features

5.3.5. Terms of General Application Used to Describe Textures

5.3.6. Terms Used to Describe Specific Intergrain Textures

5.3.7. Terms Used to Describe Intragrain Textures Produced by Exsolution

Chapter 6 - Physical Properties and Physical Chemistry of Magmas

6.1. Physical Properties of Magma

6.1.1. Temperature

6.1.2. Gas Content of Magmas

6.1.3. Viscosity

6.1.4. Density

6.2. Kinetics of Crystallization of Magma

6.2.1. Introduction

6.2.2. Effect of Kinetic Factors on Igneous Rock Textures

6.3. Studies in the Equilibrium Crystallization of Synthetic Melts and their Bearing on Magmatic Cooling History, Igneous Rock Compositions and Textures

6.3.1. Historical Review

6.3.2. Equilibrium and the Phase Rule

6.3.3. Melting Points of the Pure End-Members of Some Common Rock-Forming Mineral Species

6.3.4. The System Diopside—Anorthite, a Binary System with a Eutectic

6.3.5. The Plagioclase Solid-Solution Series

6.3.6. The Ternary System Diopside—Anorthite—Albite

6.3.7. Other Simple Systems Relevant to an Understanding of the Crystallization of Mafic Magmas

6.3.8. Effect of Pressure on Crystallization Temperatures

6.3.9. Experimental Systems Relating to Felsic Rock Melts

Chapter 7 - Differentiation of Igneous Rocks

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Differentiation Processes within Liquid Magma

7.2.1. Diffusion and Gaseous Transfer Processes within Liquid Magma

7.2.2. Liquid Immiscibility

7.3. Hybridization

7.4. Assimilation

7.4.1. Principles

7.4.2. Limited Extent of Assimilation by Mafic Magmas at Upper Crustal Levels

7.4.3. Assimilation Phenomena Involving Granitic Rocks

7.5. Autometasomatism

7.6. Crystal Fractionation

7.6.1. Flow Differentiation

7.6.2. Congelation Crystallization

7.6.3. Gravitational Crystal Fractionation

7.6.4. Filter Differentiation

7.6.5. Autointrusion

7.6.6. Fractionation in Nuée Ardente Eruptions

Chapter 8 - Igneous Rock Series

8.1. Historical Review

8.2. Definition of Terms

8.3. Tholeiite and Alkali Basalt

8.4. Thermodynamic Basis of Classification Based on Silica Activity

8.5. Basis of Classification of Igneous Rock Series Followed in this Book

8.6. Useful Parameters, Indices and Variation Diagrams

8.7. Complications Affecting Simple Fractionation Models

Chapter 9 - Igneous Rocks of Oceanic Areas

9.1. Oceanic Crust

9.2. Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts (MORB)

9.3. Oceanic Island Tholeiites (OIT)

9.4. Alkali Basalt Series and Basanites

9.5. Highly Alkaline Rocks of Oceanic Islands

Chapter 10 - Igneous Rocks of Continental Areas

10.1. Introduction

10.2. Kimberlites and Related Rocks

10.3. Carbonatites

10.4. Highly Potassium-Rich Series

10.4.1. Lamproites of Western Australia

10.4.2. Highly Alkaline Rocks of the Western East African Rift Valley

10.4.3. Other Examples of Highly Potassium-Rich Rocks

10.5. Various Alkaline Series as Exemplified by Igneous Activity in the Kenya Dome

10.6. Igneous Activity in the Afro-Arabian Dome Associated with Plate Separation

10.7. Continental Flood Basalts Mainly of Tholeiitic Composition

10.7.1. Columbia River Basalts

10.7.2. Keweenawan Lavas

10.7.3. Karroo Volcanic Cycle

10.7.4. Deccan Traps

10.7.5. Tasmanian and Ferrar Diabases

10.7.6. Blosseville Coast Basalts of East Greenland

10.8. Intrusive Rocks of Anorogenic Continental Terrain

10.8.1. The Oslo Region

10 8.2. The Younger Granites of Northern Nigeria

10.8.3. The White Mountain Plutonic Series of New Hampshire

10.8.4. The Tertiary Volcanic Province of the Inner Hebrides, Scotland

10.8.5. The Gardar Province

10.9. Conclusions

Chapter 11 - Igneous Rocks Above Benioff Seismic Zones

11.1. Introduction

11.2. Variation Among Young SBZ Volcanic Rocks

11.2.1. The Scotia Arc: An Island-Arc Tholeiite Series

11.2.2. Fiji — A Product of Mature Island-Arc Igneous Activity Comprising Rocks of the Island-Arc Tholeiite, Calc-Alkaline, and Shoshonite Series

11.2.3. Comparison of Petrographical and Chemical Features of Rocks Belonging to the Island-Arc Tholeiite Series, Calc-Alkaline, and Shoshonite Series

11.2.4. Polarity in Areas of SBZ Igneous Activity

11.2.5. Review of Terminology of SBZ Igneous Rock Series

11.2.6. Back-Arc Spreading

11.2.7. The North Island of New Zealand — A Cautionary Tale

11.2.8. Basin and Range Province

11.2.9. Lateral Variation in SBZ Parental Magmas Including Alkali Basalt as Shown by Rocks of the Lesser Antilles

11.2.10. Volcanism of the Central Andes: Voluminous Andesite and Rhyolite with no Basic Rocks

11.3. Plutonic Rocks Apparently Formed During SBZ Eruptive Activity

11.3.1. The Low-Potassium Island-Arc Plutonic Complex of Tanzawa

11.3.2. Ultramafic Rocks of Alaskan Pipe Type

11.3.3. Coastal Batholith of Peru

11.3.4. Porphyry Coppers

11.3.5. Contrasting Styles of Batholith Emplacement and Genesis

Chapter 12 - Igneous Rocks of the Precambrian

12.1. Introduction

12.2. Extraterrestrial Igneous Rocks

12.2.1. Meteorites

12.2.2. The Moon

12.3. Astroblemes and Related Igneous Activity on the Earth

12.4. Archaean Igneous Rocks

12.4.1. Introduction

12.4.2. Oldest Crustal Rocks

12.4.3. Greenstone Belts

12.5. Igneous Activity in Proterozoic Time

12.5.1. Introduction

12.5.2. Early Mafic Intrusives

12.5.3. Proterozoic "Orogenic" Belts

12.5.4. Shear Belts, Some with Associated Mafic and Ultramafic Rocks

12.5.5. Anorthosites

12.5.6. Distinctive Acid Eruptive Rocks, Notably Rapakivi Granites

12.5.7. Massive Mafic Eruptions Possibly Constituting Proterozoic Ocean Crust

12.5.8. Proterozoic Belts with Possible Plate Boundary Features and Associated Igneous Rocks

Chapter 13 - Petrogenesis of Igneous Rocks

13.1. Introduction

13.2. Composition of Upper Mantle

13.3. Experimental Work

13.3.1. Starting Material for Experimental Work at High Pressures

13.3.2. Results of Early Experimental Work

13.4. The Mantle—Magma System

13.4.1. Temperature Regime in the Mantle

13.4.2. Partial Melting in the Mantle

13.4.3. Upward Ascent of Magma

13.5. Trace Elements in Mafic Rocks

13.6. Status of Parental Magma in Petrogenetic Work

13.7. Conclusions

13.7.1. Tholeiites and Alkali Basalts

13.7.2. Komatiites and High-Magnesium Basalts

13.7.3. Basanites, Nephelinites, and Melilitites

13.7.4. Kimberlites

13.7.5. Andesites and Associated Rocks

13.7.6. Granitic Rocks

Chapter 14 - Degradation of Igneous Rocks

14.1. Introduction

14.2. Spilite and Keratophyre

14.3. Metasomatism in Degraded Volcanic Rocks

14.4. Determination of Magmatic Affinity of Degraded Volcanic Rocks

14.4.1. Application of Conventional Criteria to the Analytical Data

14.4.2. Petrography

14.4.3. Plutonic Equivalents of Extrusive Rocks

14.4.4. Immobile Trace Elements

14.4.5. Relict Augite Phenocrysts

14.5. Discussion

Epilogue

References

Name Index

Locality Index

General Index

Description

A balanced text that bridges the gap between introductory petrography-oriented texts and the more advanced texts that have a thermodynamic and/or chemical approach. Well-indexed, well-referenced and written in a particularly readable style, it leads the reader from classical to modern concepts in igneous petrology.


Details

Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier Science 1982
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier Science
eBook ISBN:
9781483289694

Reviews

@qu:This is a good descriptive reference book with a wealth of analytical and diagrammatic data. It provides a basis for the comprehension of much of the petrological material appearing in the specialist literature and offers an entry into the even more erudite geochemistry and thermodynamics which surround modern discussions of the nature of planet Earth and the geosphere. @source: Australian Mineral Foundation


About the Authors

C.J. Hughes Author