Idiotypy in Biology and Medicine - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124177802, 9781483269832

Idiotypy in Biology and Medicine

1st Edition

Editors: Heinz Köhler Jacques Urbain Pierre-André Cazenave
eBook ISBN: 9781483269832
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1984
Page Count: 468
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Idiotypy in Biology and Medicine aims to serve the increasing interest and involvement in the practical aspects of idiotypy in biological systems. The concept of idiotypy has received wide recognition and interest far beyond the area of immunology. Experiments and interpretation of findings, reported here, clearly support the general nature of the idiotype concept in manipulating biological systems to correct pathological conditions or to improve the immune adaptation to environmental factors. The book is organized into three sections. Section 1 discusses original concepts of idiotypic manipulations. It reviews old and recent data important for the concept of an idiotype network and reports on attempts to deal with the T-cell receptor paradox; explains the immune system in terms of a circular idiotype network that can be demonstrated by sequential immunization; and emphasizes the need for restrictions in network interactions. Section 2 addresses the role and activity of idiotypic and antiidiotypic antibodies in the regulation of the immune system. Section 3 takes the issue of idiotype-antiidiotype out of the realm of the immune system and discusses it as a new principle to analyze and manipulate biological systems in general.

Table of Contents



Section I: Idiotype Concepts

1. The Immune Network Revisited

I. Introduction

II. The B-Cell Idiotype Network

III. T-Cell Idiotypes

IV. The Immune Network as an Evolutionary Factor

V. Idiotypes on Non-Ig Molecules

VI. The Need for a Network


2. Idiotypy and Internal Images

I. Introduction

II. A Recurrent Idiotype (6, 26)

III. Classical Idiotypes

IV. Internal Images


3. Regulatory Idiotypes

I. Introduction

II. Immunochemical Properties of Syngeneic Ab1, Ab2, Ab3, and Ab4

III. Functional Properties of Syngeneic Ab1, Ab2, Ab3, and Ab4 Antibodies

IV. Regulatory Idiotype Network


4. The Uniqueness and Boundaries of the Idiotypic Self

I. A Change of Paradigm in the Immunological Theory

II. Are We Concerned with the Most Complex System in Biology?

III. An Organism-Centered Perspective of the Immune System

IV. The Immune System is More than an Antiinfectious Machine

V. Conclusions


Section II: Idiotypes in the Immune System

5. Structural Properties and Genetic Control of an Idiotype Associated with Antibodies to the p-Azophenylarsonate Hapten

I. Introduction

II. Linkage of CRIA Expression to Genes Controlling CH Regions and Kappa Chains

III. Preparation of Monoclonal Antibodies with Anti-Ar Activity

IV. A Minor Intrastrain Cross-Reactive Idiotype (CRIm) in A/J Anti-Ar Antibodies

V. Relationship of the Idiotypes of Anti-Ar Antibodies A/J and BALB/c Mice

VI. Strain Distribution of CRI and Concentration of CRI in Individual BALB/c Mice

VII. Hapten-Binding Specificities of CRIA+ Anti-Ar Antibodies

VIII. An Unrelated Major Idiotype Associated with Antibodies to the Phenylarsonate Hapten in A/J Mice

IX. Serological Properties of Monoclonal CRIA+ HP

X. Amino Acid Sequencing of CRIA+ Antibodies from Serum and Hybridomas

XI. Investigations of Genes Controlling the Synthesis of H Chains of CRIA+ Molecules

XII. Random Somatic Mutation versus Programmed Expression of Idiotypes


6. Idiotype-Specific T Helper Cells

I. The Role of T Cells in Idiotype Networks

II. Induction of Idiotype-Specific T Helper Cells

III. Cells Involved in the Induction Circuit of Idiotype-Specific T Helper Cells

IV. Specificity of Idiotype-Recognizing T Helper Cells

V. Conclusions


7. Manipulating an Idiotypic System with Asymmetric Circuitry: Antiidiotypic Antibodies versus Idiotype-Recognizing T Cells

I. The B-Cell Predominant Idiotype and the T Helper Cell Idiotypes: Occupants of Separate Universes

II. Driving B-Cell Maturation with T Cells and Other Agents

III. Modulation of IdXL-Bearing B Cells in Responder Strain Mice

IV. Effect of Anti-IdXL on Ts in Nonresponder H-2b Mice

V. Conclusions: the Relative Roles of Antiidiotype Antibodies and Idiotype-Recognizing T Cells

VI. Summary


8. Biochemical, Functional, and Genetic Aspects of T-Cell Idiotypes

I. Introduction

II. The Concept of Antigen-Antibody Interactions and the Use of Anti-Id Antibodies

III. Model System for the Study of T-Cell Idiotypes

IV. Idiotypes on Normal and In Vivo/In Vitro Immunized T Cells

V. Interaction of Anti-Id Antibodies and T Cells

VI. Induction of Specific T Cells by Anti-Id Antibodies

VII. Detection of Idiotypes on T-Cell Products Isolated by Antigen-Specific Immunoadsorbents

VIII. Studies on the Genes Responsible for the Synthesis of T-Cell Idiotypes

IX. Function of T-Cell Idiotypes

X. Biochemical Analysis of 5936-Id Bearing T-Cell Proteins

XI. Molecular Biology of T-Cell Receptor Genes

XII. Conclusions


9. Ontogeny of the HA-Responsive B-Cell Repertoire: Interaction of Heritable and Inducible Mechanisms in the Establishment of Phenotype

I. Introduction

II. Early Studies of Antibody Repertoire Ontogeny

III. Genetics of Antibody Repertoire Formation

IV. Dynamics of the Emerging Primary B-Cell Pool

V. Longevity and the Basis of Ligand-Induced Effects

VI. The "Moving Window" Model of Primary Repertoire Expression


10. Ontogeny of Antilevan and Inulin Antibody Responses

I. Introduction

II. Characteristics of the Antibacterial Levan Immune Response

III. Ontogeny of the ß2-6 Fructosan Response

IV. Ontogeny of the ß2-1 Fructose Response

V. Conclusions


11. Selective Alteration of the Humoral Response to α1-3 Dextran and Phosphorylcholine by Early Administration of Monoclonal Antiidiotype Antibody

I. Introduction

II. Description of Methodology

III. Id-Specific B-Cell Unresponsiveness after MAID Exposure

IV. Mechanism of MAID-Induced, Id-Specific B-Cell Unresponsiveness

V. Summary


12. Isogeneic Antiidiotype Repertoire and Modulation of Idiotype Expression in the Antidextran System

I. Introduction

II. The Isogeneic Antiidiotypic Repertoire

III. Idiotype Expression Manipulated by Passive Antiidiotype

IV. Igh-Dependent Congeneic Rejection of the Antidextran Response

V. Conclusion


13. Idiotypic Manipulation of the Rabbit Immune Response against Micrococcus luteus

I. Introduction

II. Antigenic and Idiotypic Properties of Antibodies Induced by Micrococcus luteus

III. Manipulations of the Immune Response with Antiidiotypic Reagents

IV. Immunochemical Studies on Cross-Reactive Idiotypes

V. Conclusions


14. Idiotypes of Anti-MHC Monoclonal Antibodies

I. Introduction

II. Production, Purification, and Specificity of (Anti-MHC) Antiidiotypes

III. Prevalence of MHC Idiotypes in Conventional Alloantisera

IV. In Vivo Effects of Antiidiotypes

V. Modification of the Expressed Anti-MHC Repertoire by In Vivo Treatment with Anti-Id

VI. Conclusions and Future Approaches


Section III: Idiotypes in Other Biological Systems

15. Production of Monoclonal Antibodies to Integral Membrane Transport and Receptor Proteins and Their Use in Structural Elucidation

I. Introduction

II. Production of Monoclonal Antibodies to Membranes

III. Antibody Assays for Functional Proteins (Receptors and Transport)

IV. Indirect Immunoprecipitation Assays

V. Immunoaffinity Chromatography of ß-Adrenergic Receptors Using Monoclonal Antibodies

VI. Elucidation of Receptor Structure and Function

VII. Antiidiotypic Antibodies and Receptors

VIII. Conclusions


16. Studies on Idiotypes Shared by Neuronal and Lymphoid Cells

I. Introduction

II. Role of the Reovirus Sigma 1 Protein

III. Identification of the Id3 Determinant

IV. Expression of HA-Specific Idiotype on Tc Cells

V. Summary


17. Idiotypy in Autoimmune Central Nervous System Demyelinating Disease: Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis and Multiple Sclerosis

I. Introduction

II. Experimental Studies

III. Discussion

IV. Relevance of These Studies to Human CNS Demyelinating Disease


18. Idiotypes in Myasthenia Gravis

I. Introduction

II. Autoantibodies against the Acetylcholine Receptor (AChR)

III. Experimental MG: Production of Monoclonal Antibodies (MAbs) and T-Cell Lines Specific for AChR

IV. Idiotypic Analysis in MG

V. Summary


19. Antiidiotypic Antibodies as Immunological Internal Images of Hormones

I. Introduction

II. Similarities in Binding Properties of Receptors and Antibodies

III. Interaction of Antiidiotypic Antibodies with Receptors

IV. Antiidiotypic Antireceptor Antibodies and Autoimmune Diseases

V. The Nature of the Interaction between the Antiidiotypic Antibody and the Receptor

VI. Potential Applications of Antiidiotypic Antibodies in Basic Research

VII. Medical Applications of Antiidiotypic Antibodies

VIII. Prospects


20. Immunization to Insulin Generates Antiidiotypes That Behave as Antibodies to the Insulin Hormone Receptor and Cause Diabetes Mellitus

I. Hormone Receptor Antibody: the Immune System Image of a Hormone

II. The Insulin Molecule: Structure-Function Relationships

III. Four Questions

IV. Experimental Approach

V. Insulin Receptor Antibodies Generated as Specific Antiidiotypes

VI. Selectivity of the Immunological Network

VII. Effect of Antiidiotypic (Receptor) Antibodies on Glucose Homeostasis

VIII. Down-Regulation and Desensitization of Insulin Receptors

IX. Receptor Antibodies in Human Patients

X. Summary: Four Answers


21. Induction of Protective Immunity Using Antiidiotypic Antibodies: Immunization against Experimental African Trypanosomiasis

I. Introduction

II. Immunization with Anti-Id Antibodies

III. Idiotype Expression in Anti-Id-Treated Mice

IV. Genetic Control of Idiotype Induction

V. Specificity of Induced Idiotypes

VI. Summary


22. The Idiotype Network: Theoretical and Practical Implications for Autoimmune Disease

I. Introduction

II. Systematic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)

III. Cryoglobulins

IV. Rheumatoid Factor

V. Antitetanus Toxoid Antibodies

VI. Leukemia and Lymphoma

VII. Conclusions


23. Human Antiidiotypic Antibodies

I. Introduction

II. Auto-Antiidiotypic Antibodies

III. Antiidiotypic Antibodies against Stimulated T Cells

IV. Antiidiotypic Antibodies against Maternal Antibodies

V. Summary




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© Academic Press 1984
Academic Press
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About the Editor

Heinz Köhler

Jacques Urbain

Pierre-André Cazenave

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