Idiotypy in Biology and Medicine

Idiotypy in Biology and Medicine

1st Edition - January 28, 1984

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  • Editors: Heinz Köhler, Jacques Urbain, Pierre-André Cazenave
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483269832

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Idiotypy in Biology and Medicine aims to serve the increasing interest and involvement in the practical aspects of idiotypy in biological systems. The concept of idiotypy has received wide recognition and interest far beyond the area of immunology. Experiments and interpretation of findings, reported here, clearly support the general nature of the idiotype concept in manipulating biological systems to correct pathological conditions or to improve the immune adaptation to environmental factors. The book is organized into three sections. Section 1 discusses original concepts of idiotypic manipulations. It reviews old and recent data important for the concept of an idiotype network and reports on attempts to deal with the T-cell receptor paradox; explains the immune system in terms of a circular idiotype network that can be demonstrated by sequential immunization; and emphasizes the need for restrictions in network interactions. Section 2 addresses the role and activity of idiotypic and antiidiotypic antibodies in the regulation of the immune system. Section 3 takes the issue of idiotype-antiidiotype out of the realm of the immune system and discusses it as a new principle to analyze and manipulate biological systems in general.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors


    Section I: Idiotype Concepts

    1. The Immune Network Revisited

    I. Introduction

    II. The B-Cell Idiotype Network

    III. T-Cell Idiotypes

    IV. The Immune Network as an Evolutionary Factor

    V. Idiotypes on Non-Ig Molecules

    VI. The Need for a Network


    2. Idiotypy and Internal Images

    I. Introduction

    II. A Recurrent Idiotype (6, 26)

    III. Classical Idiotypes

    IV. Internal Images


    3. Regulatory Idiotypes

    I. Introduction

    II. Immunochemical Properties of Syngeneic Ab1, Ab2, Ab3, and Ab4

    III. Functional Properties of Syngeneic Ab1, Ab2, Ab3, and Ab4 Antibodies

    IV. Regulatory Idiotype Network


    4. The Uniqueness and Boundaries of the Idiotypic Self

    I. A Change of Paradigm in the Immunological Theory

    II. Are We Concerned with the Most Complex System in Biology?

    III. An Organism-Centered Perspective of the Immune System

    IV. The Immune System is More than an Antiinfectious Machine

    V. Conclusions


    Section II: Idiotypes in the Immune System

    5. Structural Properties and Genetic Control of an Idiotype Associated with Antibodies to the p-Azophenylarsonate Hapten

    I. Introduction

    II. Linkage of CRIA Expression to Genes Controlling CH Regions and Kappa Chains

    III. Preparation of Monoclonal Antibodies with Anti-Ar Activity

    IV. A Minor Intrastrain Cross-Reactive Idiotype (CRIm) in A/J Anti-Ar Antibodies

    V. Relationship of the Idiotypes of Anti-Ar Antibodies A/J and BALB/c Mice

    VI. Strain Distribution of CRI and Concentration of CRI in Individual BALB/c Mice

    VII. Hapten-Binding Specificities of CRIA+ Anti-Ar Antibodies

    VIII. An Unrelated Major Idiotype Associated with Antibodies to the Phenylarsonate Hapten in A/J Mice

    IX. Serological Properties of Monoclonal CRIA+ HP

    X. Amino Acid Sequencing of CRIA+ Antibodies from Serum and Hybridomas

    XI. Investigations of Genes Controlling the Synthesis of H Chains of CRIA+ Molecules

    XII. Random Somatic Mutation versus Programmed Expression of Idiotypes


    6. Idiotype-Specific T Helper Cells

    I. The Role of T Cells in Idiotype Networks

    II. Induction of Idiotype-Specific T Helper Cells

    III. Cells Involved in the Induction Circuit of Idiotype-Specific T Helper Cells

    IV. Specificity of Idiotype-Recognizing T Helper Cells

    V. Conclusions


    7. Manipulating an Idiotypic System with Asymmetric Circuitry: Antiidiotypic Antibodies versus Idiotype-Recognizing T Cells

    I. The B-Cell Predominant Idiotype and the T Helper Cell Idiotypes: Occupants of Separate Universes

    II. Driving B-Cell Maturation with T Cells and Other Agents

    III. Modulation of IdXL-Bearing B Cells in Responder Strain Mice

    IV. Effect of Anti-IdXL on Ts in Nonresponder H-2b Mice

    V. Conclusions: the Relative Roles of Antiidiotype Antibodies and Idiotype-Recognizing T Cells

    VI. Summary


    8. Biochemical, Functional, and Genetic Aspects of T-Cell Idiotypes

    I. Introduction

    II. The Concept of Antigen-Antibody Interactions and the Use of Anti-Id Antibodies

    III. Model System for the Study of T-Cell Idiotypes

    IV. Idiotypes on Normal and In Vivo/In Vitro Immunized T Cells

    V. Interaction of Anti-Id Antibodies and T Cells

    VI. Induction of Specific T Cells by Anti-Id Antibodies

    VII. Detection of Idiotypes on T-Cell Products Isolated by Antigen-Specific Immunoadsorbents

    VIII. Studies on the Genes Responsible for the Synthesis of T-Cell Idiotypes

    IX. Function of T-Cell Idiotypes

    X. Biochemical Analysis of 5936-Id Bearing T-Cell Proteins

    XI. Molecular Biology of T-Cell Receptor Genes

    XII. Conclusions


    9. Ontogeny of the HA-Responsive B-Cell Repertoire: Interaction of Heritable and Inducible Mechanisms in the Establishment of Phenotype

    I. Introduction

    II. Early Studies of Antibody Repertoire Ontogeny

    III. Genetics of Antibody Repertoire Formation

    IV. Dynamics of the Emerging Primary B-Cell Pool

    V. Longevity and the Basis of Ligand-Induced Effects

    VI. The "Moving Window" Model of Primary Repertoire Expression


    10. Ontogeny of Antilevan and Inulin Antibody Responses

    I. Introduction

    II. Characteristics of the Antibacterial Levan Immune Response

    III. Ontogeny of the ß2-6 Fructosan Response

    IV. Ontogeny of the ß2-1 Fructose Response

    V. Conclusions


    11. Selective Alteration of the Humoral Response to α1-3 Dextran and Phosphorylcholine by Early Administration of Monoclonal Antiidiotype Antibody

    I. Introduction

    II. Description of Methodology

    III. Id-Specific B-Cell Unresponsiveness after MAID Exposure

    IV. Mechanism of MAID-Induced, Id-Specific B-Cell Unresponsiveness

    V. Summary


    12. Isogeneic Antiidiotype Repertoire and Modulation of Idiotype Expression in the Antidextran System

    I. Introduction

    II. The Isogeneic Antiidiotypic Repertoire

    III. Idiotype Expression Manipulated by Passive Antiidiotype

    IV. Igh-Dependent Congeneic Rejection of the Antidextran Response

    V. Conclusion


    13. Idiotypic Manipulation of the Rabbit Immune Response against Micrococcus luteus

    I. Introduction

    II. Antigenic and Idiotypic Properties of Antibodies Induced by Micrococcus luteus

    III. Manipulations of the Immune Response with Antiidiotypic Reagents

    IV. Immunochemical Studies on Cross-Reactive Idiotypes

    V. Conclusions


    14. Idiotypes of Anti-MHC Monoclonal Antibodies

    I. Introduction

    II. Production, Purification, and Specificity of (Anti-MHC) Antiidiotypes

    III. Prevalence of MHC Idiotypes in Conventional Alloantisera

    IV. In Vivo Effects of Antiidiotypes

    V. Modification of the Expressed Anti-MHC Repertoire by In Vivo Treatment with Anti-Id

    VI. Conclusions and Future Approaches


    Section III: Idiotypes in Other Biological Systems

    15. Production of Monoclonal Antibodies to Integral Membrane Transport and Receptor Proteins and Their Use in Structural Elucidation

    I. Introduction

    II. Production of Monoclonal Antibodies to Membranes

    III. Antibody Assays for Functional Proteins (Receptors and Transport)

    IV. Indirect Immunoprecipitation Assays

    V. Immunoaffinity Chromatography of ß-Adrenergic Receptors Using Monoclonal Antibodies

    VI. Elucidation of Receptor Structure and Function

    VII. Antiidiotypic Antibodies and Receptors

    VIII. Conclusions


    16. Studies on Idiotypes Shared by Neuronal and Lymphoid Cells

    I. Introduction

    II. Role of the Reovirus Sigma 1 Protein

    III. Identification of the Id3 Determinant

    IV. Expression of HA-Specific Idiotype on Tc Cells

    V. Summary


    17. Idiotypy in Autoimmune Central Nervous System Demyelinating Disease: Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis and Multiple Sclerosis

    I. Introduction

    II. Experimental Studies

    III. Discussion

    IV. Relevance of These Studies to Human CNS Demyelinating Disease


    18. Idiotypes in Myasthenia Gravis

    I. Introduction

    II. Autoantibodies against the Acetylcholine Receptor (AChR)

    III. Experimental MG: Production of Monoclonal Antibodies (MAbs) and T-Cell Lines Specific for AChR

    IV. Idiotypic Analysis in MG

    V. Summary


    19. Antiidiotypic Antibodies as Immunological Internal Images of Hormones

    I. Introduction

    II. Similarities in Binding Properties of Receptors and Antibodies

    III. Interaction of Antiidiotypic Antibodies with Receptors

    IV. Antiidiotypic Antireceptor Antibodies and Autoimmune Diseases

    V. The Nature of the Interaction between the Antiidiotypic Antibody and the Receptor

    VI. Potential Applications of Antiidiotypic Antibodies in Basic Research

    VII. Medical Applications of Antiidiotypic Antibodies

    VIII. Prospects


    20. Immunization to Insulin Generates Antiidiotypes That Behave as Antibodies to the Insulin Hormone Receptor and Cause Diabetes Mellitus

    I. Hormone Receptor Antibody: the Immune System Image of a Hormone

    II. The Insulin Molecule: Structure-Function Relationships

    III. Four Questions

    IV. Experimental Approach

    V. Insulin Receptor Antibodies Generated as Specific Antiidiotypes

    VI. Selectivity of the Immunological Network

    VII. Effect of Antiidiotypic (Receptor) Antibodies on Glucose Homeostasis

    VIII. Down-Regulation and Desensitization of Insulin Receptors

    IX. Receptor Antibodies in Human Patients

    X. Summary: Four Answers


    21. Induction of Protective Immunity Using Antiidiotypic Antibodies: Immunization against Experimental African Trypanosomiasis

    I. Introduction

    II. Immunization with Anti-Id Antibodies

    III. Idiotype Expression in Anti-Id-Treated Mice

    IV. Genetic Control of Idiotype Induction

    V. Specificity of Induced Idiotypes

    VI. Summary


    22. The Idiotype Network: Theoretical and Practical Implications for Autoimmune Disease

    I. Introduction

    II. Systematic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)

    III. Cryoglobulins

    IV. Rheumatoid Factor

    V. Antitetanus Toxoid Antibodies

    VI. Leukemia and Lymphoma

    VII. Conclusions


    23. Human Antiidiotypic Antibodies

    I. Introduction

    II. Auto-Antiidiotypic Antibodies

    III. Antiidiotypic Antibodies against Stimulated T Cells

    IV. Antiidiotypic Antibodies against Maternal Antibodies

    V. Summary



Product details

  • No. of pages: 468
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1984
  • Published: January 28, 1984
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483269832

About the Editors

Heinz Köhler

Jacques Urbain

Pierre-André Cazenave

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