Hygienic Design of Food Factories

Hygienic Design of Food Factories

1st Edition - October 26, 2011

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  • Editors: John Holah, Huub Lelieveld
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780081016350
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857094933

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Food safety is vital for consumer confidence, and the hygienic design of food processing facilities is central to the manufacture of safe products. Hygienic design of food factories provides an authoritative overview of hygiene control in the design, construction and renovation of food factories.The business case for a new or refurbished food factory, its equipment needs and the impacts on factory design and construction are considered in two introductory chapters. Part one then reviews the implications of hygiene and construction regulation in various countries on food factory design. Retailer requirements are also discussed. Part two describes site selection, factory layout and the associated issue of airflow. Parts three, four and five then address the hygienic design of essential parts of a food factory. These include walls, ceilings, floors, selected utility and process support systems, entry and exit points, storage areas and changing rooms. Lastly part six covers the management of building work and factory inspection when commissioning the plant.With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, Hygienic design of food factories is an essential reference for managers of food factories, food plant engineers and all those with an academic research interest in the field.

Key Features

  • An authoritative overview of hygiene control in the design, construction and renovation of food factories
  • Examines the implications of hygiene and construction regulation in various countries on food factory design
  • Describes site selection, factory layout and the associated issue of airflow


Managers of food factories, food plant engineers and all those with an academic research interest in the field.

Table of Contents

  • Contributor contact details

    Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition



    Chapter 1: Business case assessment and design essentials for food factory building projects


    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 The need for a new or refurbished food factory

    1.3 A new product: generation, approval, specification and business plan

    1.4 Determine process and mass flow

    1.5 Conclusion

    Chapter 2: Determining equipment and process needs and how these affect food factory design


    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Brownfield projects: processes and equipment

    2.3 Greenfield projects: processes and equipment

    2.4 Future trends

    Part I: Regulatory issues and retailer requirements

    Chapter 3: EU food hygiene law and implications for food factory design


    3.1 The relevance of EU food hygiene law for the design of food factories

    3.2 The objectives of EU food hygiene law

    3.3 The EU General Food Law (GFL)

    3.4 EU food hygiene law

    3.5 Four types of EU food hygiene law

    3.6 The combination of EU food hygiene law and other law on the design of food factories

    3.7 Conclusions

    Chapter 4: Regulations on the hygienic design of food processing factories in the United States


    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Regulatory requirements in the United States

    4.3 Guidance documents

    4.4 Other agencies and considerations

    4.5 Case study: a milk processing plant

    4.6 Conclusion

    Chapter 5: Regulation relevant to the design and construction of food factories in Japan


    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Contents of regulatory requirements

    5.3 Legal regulations concerning the Food Sanitation Act

    5.4 Legal regulations other than those concerning the Food Sanitation Act

    5.5 Industrial Safety and Health Act

    5.6 Legal regulations concerning the environment

    5.7 Case study

    5.8 Future trends

    Chapter 6: Regulation and non-regulatory guidance in Australia and New Zealand with implications for food factory design


    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Food regulatory requirements in Australia and New Zealand

    6.3 Trade regulations and requirements

    6.4 Building requirements

    6.5 Case study: food safety in meat processing

    6.6 Future trends

    6.7 Conclusion

    6.9 Appendix 1: Australasian standards for building and construction

    6.10 Appendix 2: Relevant food acts and regulations

    Chapter 7: Regulatory requirements for food factory buildings in South Africa and other Southern African countries


    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 South African regulations and standards

    7.3 Regulations and standards in other Southern African Development Community (SADC) countries

    7.4 Future trends

    7.5 Sources of further information

    Chapter 8: Retailer requirements for hygienic design of food factory buildings


    8.1 Introduction: private labels and retailers’ responsibility

    8.2 Background to the British Retail Consortium (BRC Food) and the International Food Standard (IFS Food)

    8.3 Global Food Safety Initiative

    8.4 Retailers’ requirements

    8.5 Future trends

    8.6 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 9: Food factory design to prevent deliberate product contamination


    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Historical incidences of intentional food contamination

    9.3 Food fraud versus intentional contamination

    9.4 Prevention of intentional contamination

    9.5 Future trends

    9.6 Conclusions

    Chapter 10: Minimum hygienic design requirements for food processing factories


    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Site

    10.3 Building design

    10.4 Internal divisions

    10.5 Building fabric

    10.6 Services

    10.7 Sources of further information and advice

    Part II: Site selection and factory layout

    Chapter 11: Aspects to be considered when selecting a site for a food factory


    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Product

    11.3 Utilities

    11.4 Sources of contamination

    11.5 Regulations

    11.6 Protection of the environment

    11.7 Industrial zoning

    11.8 Financial aspects

    11.9 Personnel

    11.10 Security

    11.11 Access

    11.12 Climate

    11.13 Research and Development

    11.14 Conclusions

    11.15 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 12: The impact of factory layout on hygiene in food factories


    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Layout of plant grounds and outer perimeter

    12.3 Layout of the outer plant building

    12.4 General interior building layout requirements

    12.5 Manufacturing layout

    12.6 Future trends

    Chapter 13: Hazard control by segregation in food factories


    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Barrier 1: site

    13.3 Barrier 2: factory building

    13.4 Barrier 3: high care/risk areas

    13.5 Barrier 4: product enclosure

    13.6 Future trends

    Chapter 14: Managing airflow and air filtration to improve hygiene in food factories


    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Airflow

    14.3 Air handling equipment

    14.4 Air filtration

    14.5 Air handling system monitoring and maintenance

    14.6 Future trends

    14.7 Sources of further information and advice

    Part III: Hygienic design of walls, ceilings and floors

    Chapter 15: Hygienic wall finishes for food processing factories


    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 High performance paint coatings

    15.3 Thermoplastic wall cladding systems

    15.4 Stainless steel cladding

    15.5 Reinforced resin laminates

    15.6 Insulated panel walls and ceilings

    15.7 Wall tiling

    15.8 Future trends

    Chapter 16: Hygienic design of ceilings for food factories


    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Hygiene levels in food processing factories

    16.3 Other factors affecting the type of ceiling system used in a food factory

    16.4 Types of hygienic suspended ceiling systems

    16.5 Walk-on type ceiling consisting of sandwich panels

    16.6 Selection of the type and make of sandwich panels

    16.7 Non-walk-on acoustical lay-in hygienic tiling systems

    16.8 Hygienic coatings for production facilities without suspended ceilings

    16.9 Hygienic coatings

    16.10 Lighting

    16.11 Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC)

    Chapter 17: Hygienic floor finishes for food processing areas


    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Establishing requirements for floor finishes in food processing factories

    17.3 Selection of floor finish materials

    17.4 Substrate requirements

    17.5 Detailing within the design

    17.6 Hygiene control during the renovation of existing floor finishes

    17.7 Cleaning and maintenance

    17.8 Future trends

    17.9 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 18: Hygienic design of floor drains in food processing areas


    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Channel and gully system functional overview

    18.3 Floor drains as a point of contamination

    18.4 Material choice for floor drainage

    18.5 Modelling flow in drainage channels

    18.6 Incorporating hygienic design principles in drain design

    18.7 Layout and zoning areas

    18.8 Load capacity

    18.9 Slip resistance

    18.10 Fire prevention

    Part IV: Hygienic design of selected fixtures, utility systems and process support systems

    Chapter 19: Hygienic supply of electricity in food factories


    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 Standards and regulations with which electrical equipment has to comply

    19.3 Use of electrical equipment in the food industry

    19.4 Materials of construction

    19.5 Hygienic supply of electricity

    19.6 Electrical cabinets and field boxes

    19.7 Hygienic design and installation of electrical equipment

    19.8 Data/telecommunication and control systems

    Chapter 20: Hygienic design of lighting in food factories


    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 Electric lighting standards

    20.3 Use of daylight

    20.4 Light intensity and uniformity of illumination

    20.5 Functional lighting

    20.6 Application of the appropriate lighting in warehouses

    20.7 Lamps

    20.8 Selection of armatures

    20.9 Cleaning and maintenance of lamps and armatures

    20.10 Innovative energy-saving lighting technologies and strategies

    20.11 Hygienic recommendations with respect to electric lighting

    20.12 Special duty lighting

    Chapter 21: Hygienic design of piping for food processing support systems in food factories


    21.1 Introduction

    21.2 Location of support systems and building services within the food factory

    21.3 General hygienic requirements for food processing support piping within the factory

    21.4 Specific hygienic design requirements for food processing support piping in rooms of different hygienic class

    Chapter 22: Hygienic design of exhaust and dust control systems in food factories


    22.1 Introduction

    22.2 Mechanical ventilation

    22.3 Hygienic design of exhaust systems for the removal of steam, heat, odours and grease–contaminated vapour outside the food factory

    22.4 Hygienic design of specific exhaust systems used to handle effluents produced during the processing of food by means of heat

    22.5 Installation of exhaust systems within the food factory

    22.6 Cleaning of exhaust systems

    22.7 Inspection and maintenance of exhaust systems

    22.8 Hygienic design of exhaust facilities applied to extract heat, aerosols, bio-burden, odours and toxic vapours out of process rooms and technical areas

    22.9 Hygienic design of dust control systems

    22.10 Influence of the exhaust system on the air flow and air quality

    Chapter 23: Managing steam quality in food and beverage processing


    23.1 Introduction

    23.2 Steam grade definitions

    23.3 Plant steam

    23.4 Filtered steam

    23.5 Clean steam

    23.6 Pure steam

    23.7 Installation, operation and maintenance

    23.8 Boiler installation

    23.9 Steam pipe insulation

    23.11 Appendix 1: Typical applications where steam is used in direct contact with the product/process

    23.12 Appendix 2: Typical chemicals, which are generally added to the feedwater as part of a water treatment programme

    23.13 Appendix 3: Chemicals that are approved by the Food and Drink Administration (FDA) in the USA for use with food and beverage products with acceptable concentration for each chemical

    Chapter 24: Hygienic design of walkways, stairways and other installations in food factories


    24.1 Introduction

    24.2 Determining the equipment needs

    24.3 Future trends

    24.4 Sources of further information and advice

    24.5 Acknowledgement

    Part V: Hygienic design of specific factory areas

    Chapter 25: Hygienic design of entries, exits, other openings in the building envelope and dry warehousing areas in food factories


    25.1 Hygienic design of foundations, support structures, external walls and roofs

    25.2 Hygienic design of entry, exit and storage points

    25.3 Entry doors – visitors and employees

    25.4 Truck docks (loading, unloading)

    25.5 Storage – dry warehousing

    25.6 Cold storage (including freezer storage)

    25.7 Sanitary design of openings in the building envelope

    25.8 Future trends

    Chapter 26: Effluents from the food industry


    26.1 Introduction

    26.2 Effluent characterisation

    26.3 Sequence of processes and operations

    26.4 Microbiological hazards for the food factory

    26.5 Sources of further information

    Chapter 27: Design of food storage facilities


    27.1 Introduction and definitions

    27.2 General design requirements

    27.3 Storage facilities for dry products and dry cleaning requirements

    27.4 Wet cleaning of storage facilities and storage of liquid products

    27.5 Future trends

    Chapter 28: Design, installation and operation of cleaning and disinfectant chemical storage, distribution and application systems in food factories


    28.1 Introduction

    28.2 Storage of industrial detergents, disinfectants and associated products

    28.3 Hygiene chemical distribution and point of use location within production areas

    28.4 Dose, control and application of hygiene chemicals

    28.5 Dry cleaning and goods area

    28.6 Cleaning rooms and utensil washing

    28.7 Maintenance and cleaning of the cleaning systems

    28.8 Requirements for transition to operation

    28.9 Future trends

    Chapter 29: Design of food factory changing rooms


    29.1 Introduction

    29.2 Legislation

    29.3 Facilities design

    29.4 Low risk/high risk barriers

    29.5 Cross-contamination risks

    29.6 Future trends

    Part VI: Managing building work and additional factory design considerations

    Chapter 30: Managing a factory building project: from development of a construction brief to commissioning and handover


    30.1 Introduction

    30.2 Business case justification

    30.3 Project definition

    30.4 Construction brief

    30.5 Contractual arrangements

    30.6 Model contracts

    30.7 Selecting a contractor

    30.8 Overview

    30.9 Managing construction

    30.10 Equipment procurement, testing and installation

    30.11 Commissioning and handover

    30.12 Future trends

    30.13 Sources for further information and advice

    Chapter 31: Inspecting hygienic design, hygiene practices and process safety when commissioning a food factory


    31.1 Inspecting for commissioning of manufacturing sites for hygienic design and practice

    31.2 A site that has been newly designed and built for food manufacture

    31.3 An existing manufacturing site that is being acquired by another company

    31.4 An existing site that has no history of food production is to be adapted for food purposes

    31.5 Preparing the team

    31.6 Conclusion

    Chapter 32: An insurance industry perspective on property protection and liability issues in food factory design


    32.1 Introduction

    32.2 Hazard analysis

    32.3 Requirements for property insurance (fire, natural hazards, business interruption)

    32.4 Requirements for liability insurance (occupational safety, third party, product and environmental liability)

    32.5 Prevention and protection

    32.6 Future trends

    32.7 Checklist for easy reference

    32.8 Sources of further information and advice


Product details

  • No. of pages: 824
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2011
  • Published: October 26, 2011
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780081016350
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857094933

About the Editors

John Holah

Prof. Dr. John Holah is an applied microbiologist focused on the prevention of microbial, chemical, and foreign body contamination of food during manufacture and retail distribution. He is currently Technical Director of Holchem Laboratories (UK), a major supplier of cleaning chemicals, disinfectants and hygiene services. He is a Visiting Professor in Food Safety at Cardiff Metropolitan University and was previously Head of Food Hygiene at Campden BRI. He has been a member of the EHEDG (the European Hygienic Engineering and Design Group) since 1989 and has also chaired ISO Working Groups producing standards on hygienic design and lubricants and chaired the GFSI Working Group on the hygienic design of food facilities and equipment. He is a co-editor in the other two Elseveir books. He has published and presented hundreds of scientific papers, technical articles and presentations in food safety and hygienic design.

Affiliations and Expertise

Technical Director, Holchem Laboratories; Visiting Professor, Food Safety Cardiff Metropolitan University, UK

Huub Lelieveld

Prof. Dr. h.c. H.L.M. (Huub) Lelieveld is President of the Global Harmonization Initiative and Fellow of the International Academy of Food Science and Technology, and was formerly at Unilever in Vlaardingen, The Netherlands. He editor or co-editor of numerous books, including several on hygiene and food safety management; novel food processing technologies and harmonization of food safety regulations. He produced chapters for many books and encyclopaedia, hundreds of scientific articles and articles for magazines and presented hundreds of papers, globally. He has been awarded doctor honoris causa at the National University of Food Technologies in Kiev, Ukraine.

Affiliations and Expertise

President of the Global Harmonization Initiative (www.globalharmonization.net)

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