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Hygienic Design of Food Factories - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780128226186

Hygienic Design of Food Factories

2nd Edition

Editors: John Holah Huub Lelieveld Frank Moerman
Paperback ISBN: 9780128226186
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 1st November 2021
Page Count: 912
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Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Business case assessment and design essentials for food factory building projects
1.1 Introduction
1.2 The need for a new or refurbished food factory
1.3 A new product: generation, approval, specification and business plan
1.4 Determine process and mass flow
1.5 Conclusion
Chapter 2: Determining equipment and process needs and how these affect food factory design
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Brownfield projects: processes and equipment
2.3 Greenfield projects: processes and equipment
2.4 Future trends
Part I: Regulatory issues and retailer requirements
Chapter 3: EU food hygiene law and implications for food factory design
3.1 The relevance of EU food hygiene law for the design of food factories
3.2 The objectives of EU food hygiene law
3.3 The EU General Food Law (GFL)
3.4 EU food hygiene law
3.5 Four types of EU food hygiene law
3.6 The combination of EU food hygiene law and other law on the design of food factories
3.7 Conclusions
Chapter 4: Regulations on the hygienic design of food processing factories in the United States
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Regulatory requirements in the United States
4.3 Guidance documents
4.4 Other agencies and considerations
4.5 Case study: a milk processing plant
4.6 Conclusion
Chapter 5: Regulation relevant to the design and construction of food factories in Japan
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Contents of regulatory requirements
5.3 Legal regulations concerning the Food Sanitation Act
5.4 Legal regulations other than those concerning the Food Sanitation Act
5.5 Industrial Safety and Health Act
5.6 Legal regulations concerning the environment
5.7 Case study
5.8 Future trends
Chapter X: Regulation relevant to the design and construction of food factories in other Asian countries (perhaps separate chapters on China, India, Thialand, Russia?)
Chapter 6: Regulation and non-regulatory guidance in Australia and New Zealand with implications for food factory design
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Food regulatory requirements in Australia and New Zealand
6.3 Trade regulations and requirements
6.4 Building requirements
6.5 Case study: food safety in meat processing
6.6 Future trends
6.7 Conclusion
6.9 Appendix 1: Australasian standards for building and construction
6.10 Appendix 2: Relevant food acts and regulations
Chapter 7: Regulatory requirements for food factory buildings in South Africa and other Southern African countries
7.1 Introduction
7.2 South African regulations and standards
7.3 Regulations and standards in other Southern African Development Community (SADC) countries
7.4 Future trends
7.5 Sources of further information
Chapter 8: Retailer requirements for hygienic design of food factory buildings
8.1 Introduction: private labels and retailers’ responsibility
8.2 Background to the British Retail Consortium (BRC Food) and the International Food Standard (IFS Food)
8.3 Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI)
8.4 Retailers’ requirements
8.x New benchmarking standards
8.5 Future trends
8.6 Sources of further information and advice
Chapter 9: Food factory design to prevent deliberate product contamination
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Historical incidences of intentional food contamination
9.3 Food fraud versus intentional contamination
9.4 Prevention of intentional contamination
9.5 Future trends
9.6 Conclusions
Chapter 10: Minimum hygienic design requirements for food processing factories
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Site
10.3 Building design
10.4 Internal divisions
10.5 Building fabric
10.6 Services
10.7 Sources of further information and advice
Part II: Site selection and factory layout
Chapter 11: Aspects to be considered when selecting a site for a food factory
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Product
11.3 Utilities
11.4 Sources of contamination
11.5 Regulations
11.6 Protection of the environment
11.7 Industrial zoning; EHEDG and BRC recommendations
11.8 Financial aspects
11.9 Personnel
11.10 Security
11.11 Access
11.12 Climate
11.13 Research and Development
11.14 Conclusions
11.15 Sources of further information and advice
Chapter 12: The impact of factory layout on hygiene in food factories
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Layout of plant grounds and outer perimeter
12.3 Layout of the outer plant building
12.4 General interior building layout requirements
12.5 Manufacturing layout
12.6 Future trends
Chapter 13: Hazard control by segregation in food factories
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Barrier 1: site
13.3 Barrier 2: factory building
13.4 Barrier 3: high care/risk areas
13.5 Barrier 4: product enclosure
13.6 Future trends
Chapter 14: Managing airflow and air filtration to improve hygiene in food factories
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Airflow
14.3 Air handling equipment
14.4 Air filtration (new standards)
14.5 Air handling system monitoring and maintenance
14.6 Future trends
14.7 Sources of further information and advice
Chapter XX Cold and frozen storage, refrigeration facilities and airflows
XX.1 Etc.
Part III: Hygienic design of walls, ceilings and floors
Chapter 15: Hygienic wall finishes for food processing factories
15.1 Introduction
15.2 High performance paint coatings
15.3 Thermoplastic wall cladding systems
15.4 Stainless steel cladding
15.5 Reinforced resin laminates
15.6 Insulated panel walls and ceilings
15.7 Wall tiling
15. Novel building materials X
15.8 Future trends
Chapter 16: Hygienic design of ceilings for food factories
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Hygiene levels in food processing factories
16.3 Other factors affecting the type of ceiling system used in a food factory
16.4 Types of hygienic suspended ceiling systems
16.5 Walk-on type ceiling consisting of sandwich panels
16.6 Selection of the type and make of sandwich panels
16.7 Non-walk-on acoustical lay-in hygienic tiling systems
16.8 Hygienic coatings for production facilities without suspended ceilings
16.9 Hygienic coatings
16.10 Lighting
16.11 Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC)
Chapter 17: Hygienic floor finishes for food processing areas
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Establishing requirements for floor finishes in food processing factories
17.3 Selection of floor finish materials
17.4 Substrate requirements
17.5 Detailing within the design
17.6 Hygiene control during the renovation of existing floor finishes
17.7 Cleaning and maintenance
17.8 Future trends
17.9 Sources of further information and advice
Chapter 18: Hygienic design of floor drains in food processing areas
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Channel and gully system functional overview
18.3 Floor drains as a point of contamination
18.4 Material choice for floor drainage
18.5 Modelling flow in drainage channels
18.6 Incorporating hygienic design principles in drain design
18.7 Layout and zoning areas
18.8 Load capacity
18.9 Slip resistance
18.10 Fire prevention
Part IV: Hygienic design of selected fixtures, utility systems and process support systems
Chapter 19: Hygienic supply of electricity in food factories
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Standards and regulations with which electrical equipment has to comply
19.3 Use of electrical equipment in the food industry
19.4 Materials of construction
19.5 Hygienic supply of electricity
19.6 Electrical cabinets and field boxes
19.7 Hygienic design and installation of electrical equipment
19.8 Data/telecommunication and control systems
Chapter 20: Hygienic design of lighting in food factories
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Electric lighting standards
20.3 Use of daylight
20.4 Light intensity and uniformity of illumination
20.5 Functional lighting
20.6 Application of the appropriate lighting in warehouses
20.7 Lamps
20.8 Selection of armatures
20.9 Cleaning and maintenance of lamps and armatures
20.10 Innovative energy-saving lighting technologies and strategies
20.11 Hygienic recommendations with respect to electric lighting
20.12 Special duty lighting
Chapter 21: Hygienic design of piping for food processing support systems in food factories
21.1 Introduction
21.2 Location of support systems and building services within the food factory
21.3 General hygienic requirements for food processing support piping within the factory
21.4 Specific hygienic design requirements for food processing support piping in rooms of different hygienic class
Chapter 22: Hygienic design of exhaust and dust control systems in food factories
22.1 Introduction
22.2 Mechanical ventilation
22.3 Hygienic design of exhaust systems for the removal of steam, heat, odours and grease–contaminated vapour outside the food factory
22.4 Hygienic design of specific exhaust systems used to handle effluents produced during the processing of food by means of heat
22.5 Installation of exhaust systems within the food factory
22.6 Cleaning of exhaust systems
22.7 Inspection and maintenance of exhaust systems
22.8 Hygienic design of exhaust facilities applied to extract heat, aerosols, bio-burden, odours and toxic vapours out of process rooms and technical areas
22.9 Hygienic design of dust control systems
22.10 Influence of the exhaust system on the air flow and air quality
Chapter 23: Managing steam quality in food and beverage processing
23.1 Introduction
23.2 Steam grade definitions
23.3 Plant steam
23.4 Filtered steam
23.5 Clean steam
23.6 Pure steam
23.7 Installation, operation and maintenance
23.8 Boiler installation
23.9 Steam pipe insulation
23.11 Appendix 1: Typical applications where steam is used in direct contact with the product/process
23.12 Appendix 2: Typical chemicals, which are generally added to the feedwater as part of a water treatment programme
23.13 Appendix 3: Chemicals that are approved by the Food and Drink Administration (FDA) in the USA for use with food and beverage products with acceptable concentration for each chemical
Chapter 24: Hygienic design of walkways, stairways and other installations in food factories
24.1 Introduction
24.2 Determining the equipment needs
24.3 Future trends
24.4 Sources of further information and advice
24.5 Acknowledgement
Part V: Hygienic design of specific factory areas
Chapter 25: Hygienic design of entries, exits, other openings in the building envelope and dry warehousing areas in food factories
25.1 Hygienic design of foundations, support structures, external walls and roofs
25.2 Hygienic design of entry, exit and storage points
25.3 Entry doors – visitors and employees
25.4 Truck docks (loading, unloading)
25.5 Storage – dry warehousing
25.6 Cold storage (including freezer storage)
25.7 Sanitary design of openings in the building envelope
25.8 Future trends
Chapter 26: Effluents from the food industry
26.1 Introduction
26.2 Effluent characterisation
26.3 Sequence of processes and operations
26.4 Microbiological hazards for the food factory
26.5 Sources of further information
Chapter 27: Design of food storage facilities
27.1 Introduction and definitions
27.2 General design requirements
27.3 Storage facilities for dry products and dry cleaning requirements
27.4 Wet cleaning of storage facilities and storage of liquid products
27.5 Future trends
Chapter 28: Design, installation and operation of cleaning and disinfectant chemical storage, distribution and application systems in food factories
28.1 Introduction
28.2 Storage of industrial detergents, disinfectants and associated products
28.3 Hygiene chemical distribution and point of use location within production areas
28.4 Dose, control and application of hygiene chemicals
28.5 Dry cleaning and goods area
28.6 Cleaning rooms and utensil washing
28.7 Maintenance and cleaning of the cleaning systems
28.8 Requirements for transition to operation
28.9 Future trends
Chapter 29: Design of food factory changing rooms
29.1 Introduction
29.2 Legislation
29.3 Facilities design
29.4 Low risk/high risk barriers
29.5 Cross-contamination risks
29.6 Future trends
Chapter XX Increased use of robotics and automation and its effect on factory design
XX.1 Etc.
Part VI: Managing building work and additional factory design considerations
Chapter 30: Managing a factory building project: from development of a construction brief to commissioning and handover
30.1 Introduction
30.2 Business case justification
30.3 Project definition
30.4 Construction brief
30.5 Contractual arrangements
30.6 Model contracts
30.7 Selecting a contractor
30.8 Overview
30.9 Managing construction
30.10 Equipment procurement, testing and installation
30.11 Commissioning and handover
30.12 Future trends
30.13 Sources for further information and advice
Chapter 31: Inspecting hygienic design, hygiene practices and process safety when commissioning a food factory
31.1 Inspecting for commissioning of manufacturing sites for hygienic design and practice
31.2 A site that has been newly designed and built for food manufacture
31.3 An existing manufacturing site that is being acquired by another company
31.4 An existing site that has no history of food production is to be adapted for food purposes
31.5 Preparing the team
31.6 Conclusion
Chapter XX: Prevention of contamination of food products when production is continued during building activities
XX.1 Etc.
Chapter 32: An insurance industry perspective on property protection and liability issues in food factory design
32.1 Introduction
32.2 Hazard analysis
32.3 Requirements for property insurance (fire, natural hazards, business interruption)
32.4 Requirements for liability insurance (occupational safety, third party, product and environmental liability)
32.5 Prevention and protection
32.6 Future trends
32.7 Checklist for easy reference
32.8 Sources of further information and advice


Hygienic Design of Food Factories, Second Edition includes updates on existing chapters, along with new sections on cold storage, the control of air in food refrigeration facilities, and prevention of contamination when building during production and regulations in Asian countries (other than Japan). Sections cover the implications of hygiene and construction regulation in various countries on food factory design, describe site selection, factory layout and the associated issue of airflow, and address the hygienic design of essential parts of a food factory, including walls, ceilings, floors, selected utility and process support systems, entry and exit points, storage areas, and more.

With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, this book continues to be an essential reference for managers of food factories, food plant engineers, and all those with an academic research interest in the field.

Key Features

  • Presents an authoritative overview of hygiene control in the design, construction and renovation of food factories
  • Examines the implications of hygiene and construction regulation in various countries on food factory design
  • Describes site selection, factory layout and associated issues of service provision


Managers of food factories, food plant engineers, food safety inspectors. All those with an academic research interest in the field of Food Engineering and Food Safety


No. of pages:
© Woodhead Publishing 2021
1st November 2021
Woodhead Publishing
Paperback ISBN:

Ratings and Reviews

About the Editors

John Holah

Prof. Dr. John Holah is an applied microbiologist focused on the prevention of microbial, chemical, and foreign body contamination of food during manufacture and retail distribution. He is currently Technical Director of Holchem Laboratories (UK), a major supplier of cleaning chemicals, disinfectants and hygiene services. He is a Visiting Professor in Food Safety at Cardiff Metropolitan University and was previously Head of Food Hygiene at Campden BRI. He has been a member of the EHEDG (the European Hygienic Engineering and Design Group) since 1989 and has also chaired ISO Working Groups producing standards on hygienic design and lubricants and chaired the GFSI Working Group on the hygienic design of food facilities and equipment. He is a co-editor in the other two Elseveir books. He has published and presented hundreds of scientific papers, technical articles and presentations in food safety and hygienic design.

Affiliations and Expertise

Technical Director, Holchem Laboratories (UK) Visiting Professor, Food Safety at Cardiff Metropolitan University

Huub Lelieveld

Dr. Huub Lelieveld formerly Unilever, Vlaardingen, The Netherlands. Prof. Dr. h.c. H.L.M. (Huub) Lelieveld is President of the Global Harmonization Initiative and Fellow of the International Academy of Food Science and Technology. He editor or co-editor of numerous books, including several on hygiene and food safety management; novel food processing technologies and harmonization of food safety regulations. He produced chapters for many books and encyclopaedia, hundreds of scientific articles and articles for magazines and presented hundreds of papers, globally. He has been awarded doctor honoris causa at the National University of Food Technologies in Kiev, Ukraine.

Affiliations and Expertise

President of the Global Harmonization Initiative and Fellow of the International Academy of Food Science and Technology, The Netherlands

Frank Moerman

Frank Moerman graduated with an MSc. in Bioengineering from the University of Ghent (1991), and a BSc. in Education from Artevelde University College Ghent (2006). He worked as a fine chemical production engineer for Aji-no-moto, Co. and as a food technologist/quality manager for Kerry Ingredients. Currently he is a doctoral researcher in food/phyto-chemistry at the Catholic University of Leuven/KU Leuven. In 2002, he became a member of the European Hygienic Engineering and Design Group (EHEDG), acting as chairman of the Belgium regional section until 2005 and received an achievement award for his services in 2013. He participated in the European 5th framework project “HYFOMA” (2002-2004) on the Steering Committee. He is an active member of several EHEDG working groups, is author of a number of articles and book chapters on hygienic engineering & design and is an active trainer in hygienic design and cleaning technologies.

Affiliations and Expertise

Catholic University of Leuven/KU Leuven, Belgium