Hygienic Design of Food Factories

Hygienic Design of Food Factories

2nd Edition - November 1, 2022

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  • Editors: John Holah, Huub Lelieveld, Frank Moerman
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128226186

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Hygienic Design of Food Factories, Second Edition includes updates on existing chapters, along with new sections on cold storage, the control of air in food refrigeration facilities, and prevention of contamination when building during production and regulations in Asian countries (other than Japan). Sections cover the implications of hygiene and construction regulation in various countries on food factory design, describe site selection, factory layout and the associated issue of airflow, and address the hygienic design of essential parts of a food factory, including walls, ceilings, floors, selected utility and process support systems, entry and exit points, storage areas, and more. With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, this book continues to be an essential reference for managers of food factories, food plant engineers, and all those with an academic research interest in the field.

Key Features

  • Presents an authoritative overview of hygiene control in the design, construction and renovation of food factories
  • Examines the implications of hygiene and construction regulation in various countries on food factory design
  • Describes site selection, factory layout and associated issues of service provision


Managers of food factories, food plant engineers, food safety inspectors. All those with an academic research interest in the field of Food Engineering and Food Safety

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1: Business case assessment and design essentials for food factory building projects
    1.1 Introduction
    1.2 The need for a new or refurbished food factory
    1.3 A new product: generation, approval, specification and business plan
    1.4 Determine process and mass flow
    1.5 Conclusion
    Chapter 2: Determining equipment and process needs and how these affect food factory design
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Brownfield projects: processes and equipment
    2.3 Greenfield projects: processes and equipment
    2.4 Future trends
    Part I: Regulatory issues and retailer requirements
    Chapter 3: EU food hygiene law and implications for food factory design
    3.1 The relevance of EU food hygiene law for the design of food factories
    3.2 The objectives of EU food hygiene law
    3.3 The EU General Food Law (GFL)
    3.4 EU food hygiene law
    3.5 Four types of EU food hygiene law
    3.6 The combination of EU food hygiene law and other law on the design of food factories
    3.7 Conclusions
    Chapter 4: Regulations on the hygienic design of food processing factories in the United States
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Regulatory requirements in the United States
    4.3 Guidance documents
    4.4 Other agencies and considerations
    4.5 Case study: a milk processing plant
    4.6 Conclusion
    Chapter 5: Regulation relevant to the design and construction of food factories in Japan
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Contents of regulatory requirements
    5.3 Legal regulations concerning the Food Sanitation Act
    5.4 Legal regulations other than those concerning the Food Sanitation Act
    5.5 Industrial Safety and Health Act
    5.6 Legal regulations concerning the environment
    5.7 Case study
    5.8 Future trends
    Chapter X: Regulation relevant to the design and construction of food factories in other Asian countries (perhaps separate chapters on China, India, Thialand, Russia?)
    Chapter 6: Regulation and non-regulatory guidance in Australia and New Zealand with implications for food factory design
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Food regulatory requirements in Australia and New Zealand
    6.3 Trade regulations and requirements
    6.4 Building requirements
    6.5 Case study: food safety in meat processing
    6.6 Future trends
    6.7 Conclusion
    6.9 Appendix 1: Australasian standards for building and construction
    6.10 Appendix 2: Relevant food acts and regulations
    Chapter 7: Regulatory requirements for food factory buildings in South Africa and other Southern African countries
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 South African regulations and standards
    7.3 Regulations and standards in other Southern African Development Community (SADC) countries
    7.4 Future trends
    7.5 Sources of further information
    Chapter 8: Retailer requirements for hygienic design of food factory buildings
    8.1 Introduction: private labels and retailers’ responsibility
    8.2 Background to the British Retail Consortium (BRC Food) and the International Food Standard (IFS Food)
    8.3 Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI)
    8.4 Retailers’ requirements 
    8.x New benchmarking standards
    8.5 Future trends
    8.6 Sources of further information and advice
    Chapter 9: Food factory design to prevent deliberate product contamination
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 Historical incidences of intentional food contamination
    9.3 Food fraud versus intentional contamination
    9.4 Prevention of intentional contamination
    9.5 Future trends
    9.6 Conclusions
    Chapter 10: Minimum hygienic design requirements for food processing factories
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 Site
    10.3 Building design
    10.4 Internal divisions
    10.5 Building fabric
    10.6 Services
    10.7 Sources of further information and advice
    Part II: Site selection and factory layout
    Chapter 11: Aspects to be considered when selecting a site for a food factory
    11.1 Introduction
    11.2 Product
    11.3 Utilities
    11.4 Sources of contamination
    11.5 Regulations
    11.6 Protection of the environment
    11.7 Industrial zoning; EHEDG and BRC recommendations
    11.8 Financial aspects
    11.9 Personnel
    11.10 Security
    11.11 Access
    11.12 Climate
    11.13 Research and Development
    11.14 Conclusions
    11.15 Sources of further information and advice
    Chapter 12: The impact of factory layout on hygiene in food factories
    12.1 Introduction
    12.2 Layout of plant grounds and outer perimeter
    12.3 Layout of the outer plant building
    12.4 General interior building layout requirements
    12.5 Manufacturing layout
    12.6 Future trends
    Chapter 13: Hazard control by segregation in food factories
    13.1 Introduction
    13.2 Barrier 1: site
    13.3 Barrier 2: factory building
    13.4 Barrier 3: high care/risk areas
    13.5 Barrier 4: product enclosure
    13.6 Future trends
    Chapter 14: Managing airflow and air filtration to improve hygiene in food factories
    14.1 Introduction
    14.2 Airflow
    14.3 Air handling equipment
    14.4 Air filtration (new standards)
    14.5 Air handling system monitoring and maintenance
    14.6 Future trends
    14.7 Sources of further information and advice
    Chapter XX Cold and frozen storage, refrigeration facilities and airflows
    XX.1 Etc.
    Part III: Hygienic design of walls, ceilings and floors
    Chapter 15: Hygienic wall finishes for food processing factories
    15.1 Introduction
    15.2 High performance paint coatings
    15.3 Thermoplastic wall cladding systems
    15.4 Stainless steel cladding
    15.5 Reinforced resin laminates
    15.6 Insulated panel walls and ceilings
    15.7 Wall tiling
    15. Novel building materials X
    15.8 Future trends
    Chapter 16: Hygienic design of ceilings for food factories
    16.1 Introduction
    16.2 Hygiene levels in food processing factories
    16.3 Other factors affecting the type of ceiling system used in a food factory
    16.4 Types of hygienic suspended ceiling systems
    16.5 Walk-on type ceiling consisting of sandwich panels
    16.6 Selection of the type and make of sandwich panels
    16.7 Non-walk-on acoustical lay-in hygienic tiling systems
    16.8 Hygienic coatings for production facilities without suspended ceilings
    16.9 Hygienic coatings
    16.10 Lighting
    16.11 Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC)
    Chapter 17: Hygienic floor finishes for food processing areas
    17.1 Introduction
    17.2 Establishing requirements for floor finishes in food processing factories
    17.3 Selection of floor finish materials
    17.4 Substrate requirements
    17.5 Detailing within the design
    17.6 Hygiene control during the renovation of existing floor finishes
    17.7 Cleaning and maintenance
    17.8 Future trends
    17.9 Sources of further information and advice
    Chapter 18: Hygienic design of floor drains in food processing areas
    18.1 Introduction
    18.2 Channel and gully system functional overview
    18.3 Floor drains as a point of contamination
    18.4 Material choice for floor drainage
    18.5 Modelling flow in drainage channels
    18.6 Incorporating hygienic design principles in drain design
    18.7 Layout and zoning areas
    18.8 Load capacity
    18.9 Slip resistance
    18.10 Fire prevention
    Part IV: Hygienic design of selected fixtures, utility systems and process support systems
    Chapter 19: Hygienic supply of electricity in food factories
    19.1 Introduction
    19.2 Standards and regulations with which electrical equipment has to comply
    19.3 Use of electrical equipment in the food industry
    19.4 Materials of construction
    19.5 Hygienic supply of electricity
    19.6 Electrical cabinets and field boxes
    19.7 Hygienic design and installation of electrical equipment
    19.8 Data/telecommunication and control systems
    Chapter 20: Hygienic design of lighting in food factories
    20.1 Introduction
    20.2 Electric lighting standards
    20.3 Use of daylight
    20.4 Light intensity and uniformity of illumination
    20.5 Functional lighting
    20.6 Application of the appropriate lighting in warehouses
    20.7 Lamps
    20.8 Selection of armatures
    20.9 Cleaning and maintenance of lamps and armatures
    20.10 Innovative energy-saving lighting technologies and strategies
    20.11 Hygienic recommendations with respect to electric lighting
    20.12 Special duty lighting
    Chapter 21: Hygienic design of piping for food processing support systems in food factories
    21.1 Introduction
    21.2 Location of support systems and building services within the food factory
    21.3 General hygienic requirements for food processing support piping within the factory
    21.4 Specific hygienic design requirements for food processing support piping in rooms of different hygienic class
    Chapter 22: Hygienic design of exhaust and dust control systems in food factories
    22.1 Introduction
    22.2 Mechanical ventilation
    22.3 Hygienic design of exhaust systems for the removal of steam, heat, odours and grease–contaminated vapour outside the food factory
    22.4 Hygienic design of specific exhaust systems used to handle effluents produced during the processing of food by means of heat
    22.5 Installation of exhaust systems within the food factory
    22.6 Cleaning of exhaust systems
    22.7 Inspection and maintenance of exhaust systems
    22.8 Hygienic design of exhaust facilities applied to extract heat, aerosols, bio-burden, odours and toxic vapours out of process rooms and technical areas
    22.9 Hygienic design of dust control systems
    22.10 Influence of the exhaust system on the air flow and air quality
    Chapter 23: Managing steam quality in food and beverage processing
    23.1 Introduction
    23.2 Steam grade definitions
    23.3 Plant steam
    23.4 Filtered steam
    23.5 Clean steam
    23.6 Pure steam
    23.7 Installation, operation and maintenance
    23.8 Boiler installation
    23.9 Steam pipe insulation
    23.11 Appendix 1: Typical applications where steam is used in direct contact with the product/process
    23.12 Appendix 2: Typical chemicals, which are generally added to the feedwater as part of a water treatment programme
    23.13 Appendix 3: Chemicals that are approved by the Food and Drink Administration (FDA) in the USA for use with food and beverage products with acceptable concentration for each chemical
    Chapter 24: Hygienic design of walkways, stairways and other installations in food factories
    24.1 Introduction
    24.2 Determining the equipment needs
    24.3 Future trends
    24.4 Sources of further information and advice
    24.5 Acknowledgement
    Part V: Hygienic design of specific factory areas
    Chapter 25: Hygienic design of entries, exits, other openings in the building envelope and dry warehousing areas in food factories
    25.1 Hygienic design of foundations, support structures, external walls and roofs
    25.2 Hygienic design of entry, exit and storage points
    25.3 Entry doors – visitors and employees
    25.4 Truck docks (loading, unloading)
    25.5 Storage – dry warehousing
    25.6 Cold storage (including freezer storage)
    25.7 Sanitary design of openings in the building envelope
    25.8 Future trends
    Chapter 26: Effluents from the food industry
    26.1 Introduction
    26.2 Effluent characterisation
    26.3 Sequence of processes and operations
    26.4 Microbiological hazards for the food factory
    26.5 Sources of further information
    Chapter 27: Design of food storage facilities
    27.1 Introduction and definitions
    27.2 General design requirements
    27.3 Storage facilities for dry products and dry cleaning requirements
    27.4 Wet cleaning of storage facilities and storage of liquid products
    27.5 Future trends
    Chapter 28: Design, installation and operation of cleaning and disinfectant chemical storage, distribution and application systems in food factories
    28.1 Introduction
    28.2 Storage of industrial detergents, disinfectants and associated products
    28.3 Hygiene chemical distribution and point of use location within production areas
    28.4 Dose, control and application of hygiene chemicals
    28.5 Dry cleaning and goods area
    28.6 Cleaning rooms and utensil washing
    28.7 Maintenance and cleaning of the cleaning systems
    28.8 Requirements for transition to operation
    28.9 Future trends
    Chapter 29: Design of food factory changing rooms
    29.1 Introduction
    29.2 Legislation
    29.3 Facilities design
    29.4 Low risk/high risk barriers
    29.5 Cross-contamination risks
    29.6 Future trends
    Chapter XX Increased use of robotics and automation and its effect on factory design
    XX.1 Etc.
    Part VI: Managing building work and additional factory design considerations
    Chapter 30: Managing a factory building project: from development of a construction brief to commissioning and handover
    30.1 Introduction
    30.2 Business case justification
    30.3 Project definition
    30.4 Construction brief
    30.5 Contractual arrangements
    30.6 Model contracts
    30.7 Selecting a contractor
    30.8 Overview
    30.9 Managing construction
    30.10 Equipment procurement, testing and installation
    30.11 Commissioning and handover
    30.12 Future trends
    30.13 Sources for further information and advice
    Chapter 31: Inspecting hygienic design, hygiene practices and process safety when commissioning a food factory
    31.1 Inspecting for commissioning of manufacturing sites for hygienic design and practice
    31.2 A site that has been newly designed and built for food manufacture
    31.3 An existing manufacturing site that is being acquired by another company
    31.4 An existing site that has no history of food production is to be adapted for food purposes
    31.5 Preparing the team
    31.6 Conclusion
    Chapter XX: Prevention of contamination of food products when production is continued during building activities
    XX.1 Etc.
    Chapter 32: An insurance industry perspective on property protection and liability issues in food factory design
    32.1 Introduction
    32.2 Hazard analysis
    32.3 Requirements for property insurance (fire, natural hazards, business interruption)
    32.4 Requirements for liability insurance (occupational safety, third party, product and environmental liability)
    32.5 Prevention and protection
    32.6 Future trends
    32.7 Checklist for easy reference
    32.8 Sources of further information and advice

Product details

  • No. of pages: 912
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2022
  • Published: November 1, 2022
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128226186

About the Editors

John Holah

Prof. Dr. John Holah is an applied microbiologist focused on the prevention of microbial, chemical, and foreign body contamination of food during manufacture and retail distribution. He is currently Technical Director of Holchem Laboratories (UK), a major supplier of cleaning chemicals, disinfectants and hygiene services. He is a Visiting Professor in Food Safety at Cardiff Metropolitan University and was previously Head of Food Hygiene at Campden BRI. He has been a member of the EHEDG (the European Hygienic Engineering and Design Group) since 1989 and has also chaired ISO Working Groups producing standards on hygienic design and lubricants and chaired the GFSI Working Group on the hygienic design of food facilities and equipment. He is a co-editor in the other two Elseveir books. He has published and presented hundreds of scientific papers, technical articles and presentations in food safety and hygienic design.

Affiliations and Expertise

Technical Director, Holchem Laboratories; Visiting Professor, Food Safety Cardiff Metropolitan University, UK

Huub Lelieveld

Prof. Dr. h.c. H.L.M. (Huub) Lelieveld is President of the Global Harmonization Initiative and Fellow of the International Academy of Food Science and Technology, and was formerly at Unilever in Vlaardingen, The Netherlands. He editor or co-editor of numerous books, including several on hygiene and food safety management; novel food processing technologies and harmonization of food safety regulations. He produced chapters for many books and encyclopaedia, hundreds of scientific articles and articles for magazines and presented hundreds of papers, globally. He has been awarded doctor honoris causa at the National University of Food Technologies in Kiev, Ukraine.

Affiliations and Expertise

President of the Global Harmonization Initiative (www.globalharmonization.net)

Frank Moerman

Frank Moerman graduated with an MSc. in Bioengineering from the University of Ghent (1991), and a BSc. in Education from Artevelde University College Ghent (2006). He worked as a fine chemical production engineer for Aji-no-moto, Co. and as a food technologist/quality manager for Kerry Ingredients. Currently he is a doctoral researcher in food/phyto-chemistry at the Catholic University of Leuven/KU Leuven. In 2002, he became a member of the European Hygienic Engineering and Design Group (EHEDG), acting as chairman of the Belgium regional section until 2005 and received an achievement award for his services in 2013. He participated in the European 5th framework project “HYFOMA” (2002-2004) on the Steering Committee. He is an active member of several EHEDG working groups, is author of a number of articles and book chapters on hygienic engineering & design and is an active trainer in hygienic design and cleaning technologies.

Affiliations and Expertise

Catholic University of Leuven/KU Leuven, Belgium

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