Hygiene in Food Processing

2nd Edition

Principles and Practice

Editors: H. L. M. Lelieveld John Holah David Napper
Hardcover ISBN: 9780857094292
eBook ISBN: 9780857098634
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 13th December 2013
Page Count: 640
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Table of Contents

  • Contributor contact details
  • Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition
  • Introduction
  • Part I: Microbial food safety risks and hygiene regulation

    • 1: Food hygiene regulation in the European Union (EU)

      • Abstract
      • 1.1 Introduction
      • 1.2 History of hygiene regulation in the European Union (EU)
      • 1.3 Key elements of hygiene regulation in the EU
      • 1.4 Content of the hygiene regulations
      • 1.5 Hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP)
      • 1.6 European hygiene legislation with regard to equipment
      • 1.7 Hygiene regulations in relation to private food safety standards
      • 1.8 Conclusion
      • 1.9 Sources of further information and advice
    • 2: Hazards, sources and vectors of contamination

      • Abstract
      • 2.1 Introduction
      • 2.2 Physical contaminants
      • 2.3 Chemical contaminants
      • 2.4 Microbiological contamination
      • 2.5 Hazard sources
      • 2.6 Hazard vectors and controls
      • 2.7 Recommended procedure for developing a processing environment plan (PEP)
      • 2.8 Conclusion
  • Part II: Hygienic design of food factory infrastructure

    • 3: Hygienic factory design for food processing

      • Abstract
      • 3.1 Introduction
      • 3.2 Design, construction and maintenance of the site
      • 3.3 Building structure
      • 3.4 High-care/risk areas
      • 3.5 Storage areas
      • 3.6 Personnel areas
      • 3.7 Cleaning facilities: food, equipment and chemicals
      • 3.8 Roofs
      • 3.9 Floors
      • 3.10 Drainage
      • 3.11 Walls
      • 3.12 Doors
      • 3.13 Windows
      • 3.14 Ceilings
      • 3.15 Ventilation and temperature control
      • 3.16 Lighting
      • 3.17 Services
      • 3.18 Water
      • 3.19 Food and solid waste
      • 3.20 Conclusion
    • 4: Hygienic design of food processing equipmen


The hygienic processing of food concerns both potential hazards in food products and the regulation, design, and management of food processing facilities. This second edition of Hygiene in Food Processing gives a revised overview of the practices for safe processing and incorporates additional chapters concerning pest control, microbiological environmental sampling, and the economics of food plants.

Part one addresses microbial risks in foods and the corresponding regulation in the European Union. Part two discusses the hygienic design of food factory infrastructure, encompassing the design and materials for the factory itself, as well as food processing equipment. This edition includes a new chapter on the control of compressed gases used to pneumatically operate equipment. Part three focuses on cleaning and disinfection practices in food processing. The chapter on cleaning in place also considers more cost-effective systems, and complements the additional chapter on maintenance of equipment. These chapters also explore issues such as the hygiene of workers, potential infection by foreign bodies, and pest control. Further, the chapter on microbiological sampling explains how to calculate the risk of contamination depending on the product's environment.

This essential second edition is useful to professionals responsible for hygiene in the food industry. It provides a comprehensive, yet concise and practical reference source for food plant managers, suppliers of food processing equipment, building contractors, and food inspectors looking for an authoritative introduction to hygiene regulation, hygienic design, and sanitation.

Key Features

  • Provides a revised overview of the practices for safe processing
  • Incorporates additional chapters concerning pest control, microbiological environmental sampling, and the economics of food plants
  • This essential second edition is useful for professionals responsible for hygiene in the food industry


Food equipment manufacturers and food manufacturers; University professors and researchers in the field in hygienic design; Trainers in hygiene and food safety; Public policy makers (FDA) developing food safety legislation and performing quality audits in food factories, restaurants, butchers, etc.; Quality managers working in food producing companies; Food processing research and technical centers


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About the Editors

H. L. M. Lelieveld Editor

Huub Lelieveld is Co-founder and President of the Global Harmonization Initiative, Member of the Executive Committee and a Past-President of EFFoST (the European Federation of Food Science and Technology), Founder and Past-President of EHEDG (the European Hygienic Engineering and Design Group). He is a fellow of IAFoST (the International Academy of Food Science and Technology), a fellow of IFT (the Institute of Food Technologists), served on the Governing Council of IUFoST (the International Union of Food Science and Technology) and has been Chair of the Nonthermal Processing Division and the International Division of IFT. At Unilever, he was responsible for hygienic processing and plant design and novel processing technologies. He is lead editor of “Hygiene in food processing”, the “Handbook of hygiene control in the food industry” and “Food preservation by pulsed electric fields: From research to application”. He is co-editor of several other books, including “Ensuring Global Food Safety: Exploring Global Harmonization”, “Hygienic design of food factories”, ”Food safety management: a practical guide for the food industry” and “High Pressure Processing of Food – Principles, Technology and Applications”. He wrote chapters for many books and encyclopaedia, wrote hundreds of scientific articles and articles for magazines and presented hundreds of papers, globally. He is a member of many editorial boards of books, journals and magazines. He initiated “People, planet, prosperity and the food chain” in short P3FC, an organisation of which the sole objective is to remind the food industry as frequently as possible that besides caring for shareholders, they also share responsibilities for planet and society. He has been awarded doctor honoris causa at the National University of Food Technologies (NUFT) in Kiev, Ukraine.

Affiliations and Expertise

Global Harmonization Initiative (GHI), Vienna, Austria; European Hygienic Engineering and Design Group (EHEDG), Rotterdam, The Netherlands The Global Harmonization Initiative (GHI) is registered in Vienna, Austria; the European Hygienic Engineering and Design Group (EHEDG) in Rotterdam, the Netherlands; the European Federation of Food Science and Technology (EFFoST) in Wageningen, The Netherlands, International Union of Food Science and Technology (IUFoST) in Ontario, Canada.

John Holah Editor

Prof. Dr. John Holah is an applied microbiologist who has focused on the prevention of microbial, chemical, and foreign body contamination of food during manufacture and retail distribution, on a worldwide basis. He is currently Technical Director of Holchem Laboratories (UK), Visiting Professor in Food Safety at Cardiff Metropolitan University and was previously Head of Food Hygiene at Campden BRI.

Affiliations and Expertise

Holchem Laboratories, Ltd., Lancashire, UK

David Napper Editor

David Napper is the Managing Director of Enviro- Development, Denmark.

Affiliations and Expertise

Enviro-Development ApS, Denmark