This book considers the different concepts of hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) of surfactants and solid particles and the main physicochemical properties of surfactant and solid interfaces which are used to definite the hydrophile-lipophile balance. The book comprehensively analyses all interfacial and bulk properties of surfactants used for the determination of HLB (such as interfacial tension, distribution coefficient, adsorption, surface pressure, surfactants solubility, structure characteristics, distribution between heteropolar phases, micellar formation, chromatographic characteristics, phase separation in emulsions, phase inversion temperature, formation of three phase systems).
The central point of the book is the energetic interpretation of the balance, i.e. the hydrophile-lipophile ratio. At the same time the HLB-number systems of Griffin and Davies and other independant methods of the hydrophile-lipophile balance definitions are discussed: PIT, polarity indexes, surfactant affinity difference etc. The possibility of application of the different characteristics of the hydrophile-lipophile balance as a criterion of phase inversion in emulsions and microemulsion systems water-oil-surfactant are considered.
For the first time the different methods of the hydrophile-lilophile balance definition for solid particles in compact and dispersed form are suggested by the author. The use of hydrophile-lipophile characteristics of solid particles as a criterion of phase inversion in emulsion stabilisation and for other applications is discussed.


For chemists, biologists, engineers and undergraduates interested in colloid dispersions, colloid stability, surfactants and polymers, surfaces and interfaces, technological applications, and environmental colloid science.

Table of Contents

Preface. Introduction. Physicochemical properties of surfactants used in the definition of hydrophile-lipophile balance. Classification of surfactants with respect to structure and chemical nature. Surface-related properties of surfactants. Bulk properties of surfactants. The contributions to Gibbs' energy corresponding to the transfer of surfactant molecules from bulk phases to interfaces as compared to the transfer to other bulk phases. The interpretation of Traube's rule. Brief review of surfactant chromatography. References. Stabilising ability of surfactants in emulsification and foam formation. Physicochemical properties of emulsion films. Kinetics of flocculation and coalescence. Phase inversion in emulsions. Effect of temperature on emulsion stability - phase inversion temperature PIT. Relation between foam stability and hydrophile-lipophile balance. References. Hydrophile-lipophile balance of surfactants. Griffin's system of HLB numbers. Kinetic and thermodynamic rationalisation of HLB numbers - Davies' HLBD number. Critical micellisation concentration and HLB numbers. Phase inversion temperature in emulsion - measure of hydrophile-lipophile balance. Hydrophile-lipophile balance and chromatographic characteristics of surfactants. Comparative analysis of Griffin's and Davies' HLB numbers, consideration of the influence of the medium and the surfactant structure on the HLB number systems. Thermodynamic approaches to the determination of hydrophile-lipophile balance. Hydrophile-oleophile ratio determined from the micellisation energy. Hydrophile-lipophile balance and phase inversion of emulsions. Hydrophilic-oleophilic ratio and the formation of micellar systems (surfactant phases). References. Hydrophile-lipophile balance of solid particles. Behaviour of drops at sol


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© 2000
Elsevier Science
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About the author

Pyotr Kruglyakov

Affiliations and Expertise

State Academy of Architecture and Building, Institute of Civil Engineering, Penza, Russia