Preface. Introduction. Physicochemical properties of surfactants used in the definition of hydrophile-lipophile balance. Classification of surfactants with respect to structure and chemical nature. Surface-related properties of surfactants. Bulk properties of surfactants. The contributions to Gibbs' energy corresponding to the transfer of surfactant molecules from bulk phases to interfaces as compared to the transfer to other bulk phases. The interpretation of Traube's rule. Brief review of surfactant chromatography. References.
Stabilising ability of surfactants in emulsification and foam formation. Physicochemical properties of emulsion films. Kinetics of flocculation and coalescence. Phase inversion in emulsions. Effect of temperature on emulsion stability - phase inversion temperature PIT. Relation between foam stability and hydrophile-lipophile balance. References.
Hydrophile-lipophile balance of surfactants. Griffin's system of HLB numbers. Kinetic and thermodynamic rationalisation of HLB numbers - Davies' HLBD number. Critical micellisation concentration and HLB numbers. Phase inversion temperature in emulsion - measure of hydrophile-lipophile
balance. Hydrophile-lipophile balance and chromatographic characteristics of surfactants. Comparative analysis of Griffin's and Davies' HLB numbers, consideration of the influence of the medium and the surfactant structure
on the HLB number systems. Thermodynamic approaches to the determination of hydrophile-lipophile balance. Hydrophile-oleophile ratio determined from the micellisation energy. Hydrophile-lipophile balance and phase inversion of emulsions. Hydrophilic-oleophilic ratio and the formation of micellar systems (surfactant phases). References. Hydrophile-lipophile balance of solid particles. Behaviour of drops at sol