Hydrolytic Reactions - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483197104, 9781483222134

Hydrolytic Reactions, Volume 16

1st Edition

Cobamide and Biotin Coenzymes

Editors: Marcel Florkin Elmer H. Stotz
eBook ISBN: 9781483222134
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st January 1965
Page Count: 280
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Table of Contents

General Preface

Preface to Section III

Chapter I. Cholinesterases, Esterases and Lipases

1. Introduction

2. Classification of Carboxyl Esterases

3. Mechanism of Action of Carboxyl Esterases

4. Cholinesterases

a. General Considerations

b. Properties of the Enzyme Proteins

c. Macroscopic Model of Substrate Hydrolysis

d. Molecular Information on Enzyme Active Site from Interactions of AChE and BuChE with Substrates and Inhibitors

e. Some Chemical Aspects of Phosphorylated Cholinesterases

f. Chemical Nature of Groups in the Active Site of Cholinesterases

g. Molecular Model of Acetylcholinesterase Hydrolysis

5. Esterases

a. Liver Ali-Esterase

b. Wheat Germ Esterase

6. Lipases

a. Lipases

b. Phospholipases

c. Lipoprotein Lipases


Chapter II. Phosphatases

1. Structure and Reactivity of Phosphorylated Metabolites

2. Hydrolysis of Phosphates

a. Hydrolysis at Acid pH Values

b. Influence of Cations and Hydrolysis at Alkaline pH Values

3. the Water Site of Phosphohydrolases

4. Phosphorylation of Phosphatase

5. Specificity Toward Phosphorylated Compounds

6. Properties of Some Phosphatases

A. Phosphomonoester Phosphohydrolases (EC 3.1.3)

a. Orthophosphoric Monoester Phosphohydrolases: Alkaline and Acid Phosphatases (EC and EC

b. Other Phosphomonoester Phosphohydrolases ("Substrate-Specific" Phosphatases, Ec to EC, and Ec

B. Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases (EC 3.1.4)

a. Enzymes Catalysing Hydrolysis of Phospholipids

b. Enzymes Catalysing Hydrolysis of Nucleic Acids (EC, and EC To EC and of Nucleoside Cyclic Phosphates (Not Classified)

c. Other Phosphodiesterases

C. Enzymes Catalysing Hydrolysis of Phosphoric Acid Anhydrides (EC 3.6.1)

a. Acylphosphate Phosphohydrolase (EC

b. Inorganic Pyrophosphatase (EC, Trimetaphosphate Hydrolase (EC and Polyphosphate Polyphosphohydrolase (EC

c. Nucleotide Pyrophosphatases (EC

d. ATP Phosphohydrolases

7. Physiological Functions of Phosphatases

a. Dephosphorylation of a Substrate for Subsequent Metabolism

b. Dephosphorylation Associated with Intracellular Or Extracellular Movement of Metabolites

c. Control of Rates of Cellular Processes

d. Provision of Orthophosphate

e. General Catabolism

8. Epilogue


Chapter III. The Structure and Mechanism of Action of Proteolytic Enzymes

1. Introduction

2. Serine Proteases

a. Introduction

b. Structure of Chymotrypsin and Trypsin

c. General Enzymatic Properties of Chymotrypsin and Trypsin

d. the Mechanism of Action of Chymotrypsin

e. Subtilisin and Other Serine Proteases

3. Thiol Proteases

a. Introduction

b. The Structure of Papain

c. General Enzymatic Properties and Mechanism of Action of Papain and Ficin

4. Metallo-Proteinases

a. Introduction

b. The Structure of Carboxypeptidase

c. General Enzymatic Properties of Carboxypeptidase

d. The Mechanism of Action of Carboxypeptidase

e. Leucine Aminopeptidase

5. Acid Proteases

a. Isolation and Structure of Pepsin

b. General Enzymatic Properties and Mechanism of Action of Pepsin


Chapter IV. The Cobamide Coenzymes

1. Introduction

2. Structure

3. Isolation and Distribution of the Cobamide Coenzymes

4. Spectral Characteristics of the Cobamide Coenzymes

5. Degradation and Inactivation of the Cobamide Coenzymes

a. Effect of Light

b. Acid Hydrolysis of the Coenzyme

c. Effect of Cyanide

6. Conversion of Vitamin B12 To B12 Coenzyme

7. the Mechanism of Cobamide-Coenzyme Dependent Reactions

a. Methylmalonyl-CoA Isomerase

b. Glutamate Isomerase

c. Glycol Dehydrase

d. Lysine Fermentation

e. Ribonucleotide Reduction



Chapter V. Carboxylases and the Role of Biotin

1. Classification of Carboxylases

2. Biotin and its Metabolic Functions

3. Biotin Enzymes

a. Propionyl-CoA Carboxylase (EC

b. Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase (EC

c. Methylcrotonyl-CoA Carboxylase (EC

d. Pyruvate Carboxylase (EC

e. Methylmalonyl-CoA Transcarboxylase (EC

f. Summary of Properties of Biotin Enzymes

4. Mode of Binding of Biotin

5. Mechanism of Action of Biotin

a. Isotopic Exchange Experiments

b. Carboxylation and Decarboxylation of Biotin Enzymes

c. Nature of CO2~ Biotin

d. CO2~ Biotin-Enzyme


Subject Index


Comprehensive Biochemisty, Volume 16: Hydrolytic Reactions; Cobamide and Biotin Coenzymes treats both the chemistry and function of the coenzymes.

This book discusses the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of enzyme catalysis, hydrolytic enzymes displaying “active center” characteristics, chelation and stereochemical considerations in enzyme catalysis, and biological oxidation mechanisms. The recommendations of the Enzyme Commission of the International Union of Biochemistry and classified list of enzymes are also covered. This publication likewise elaborates the spectral characteristics of the cobamide coenzymes and mode of binding of biotin. Other topics include the classification of carboxyl esterases, structure and reactivity of phosphorylated metabolites, and mechanism of action of chymotrypsin.

This volume is a good reference for biochemists and specialists concerned with enzymes.


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© Elsevier 1965
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About the Editors

Marcel Florkin Editor

Elmer H. Stotz Editor