An Advanced Introduction to Hydrological Processes and Modelling

1st Edition - January 1, 1979

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  • Author: Arved J. Raudkivi
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483135977

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Hydrology: An Advanced Introduction to Hydrological Processes and Modelling introduces the reader to hydrological processes and methods of estimation of the various quantities involved. Topics covered range from elements of meteorology to precipitation, evaporation and transpiration, interception, and flood routing. Extreme events, design flood, and small catchment runoff are also discussed. This book is comprised of 12 chapters and begins with an overview of hydrology and the hydrologic cycle, along with the world's water resources and their utilization and management. Subsequent chapters deal with atmospheric thermodynamics and atmospheric circulation; analysis and measurement of precipitation, evaporation, transpiration, and interception; infiltration of groundwater; and reservoir and stream routing. Storage for flood control and regulation for abatement of water shortage are also considered, along with stratification and siltation of reservoirs, catchment yield, and sediment yield and transport. The final chapter highlights the importance of information analysis and decision making in hydrological work. This monograph is written for senior and postgraduate students and should also be of value to practitioners of physics, mathematics, and civil engineering.

Table of Contents

  • 1. Introduction

    1.1 Water Resources of the World

    1.2 Transport Processes of Energy and Matter

    1.3 Energy from the Sun

    1.4 the Hydrologic Cycle

    1.5 Utilization and Management of Water Resources

    2. Elements of Meteorology

    2.1 Atmospheric Thermodynamics

    2.1.1 Changes of Phase and Latent Heat

    2.1.2 Entropy and the Poisson Equation

    2.1.3 the Latent Heat-Pressure-Temperature-Specific Volume Relationships

    2.1.4 Processes during the Ascent and Descent of a Parcel of Air

    2.1.5 Energy Equation and Lapse Rate in Saturated Air

    2.1.6 Mixing of Air Masses

    2.2 Thermodynamic Diagrams

    2.3 Atmospheric Stability

    2.4 Water Vapor Content of Air

    2.5 Atmospheric Circulation

    2.5.1 The Winds

    2.5.2 Fronts

    2.6 Standard Atmospheres

    3. Precipitation

    3.1 Measurement of Precipitation

    3.2 Analysis of Precipitation Data

    3.2.1 Intensity-Duration-Frequency Relationships

    3.2.2 Depth-Area Relationships

    3.2.3 Depth-Area-Duration Relationships

    3.2.4 Maximization of Storms

    3.2.5 General Information on Precipitation

    4. Evaporation and Transpiration

    4.1 Evaluation of Evaporation

    4.1.1 Measurement of Evaporation

    4.1.2 Empirical Evaporation Formula

    4.1.3 Water Budget and Mass Transfer Methods

    4.1.4 Energy Budget Method

    4.2 Evaporation from Snow

    4.3 Evapotranspiration

    5. Interception

    5.1 Measurement of Interception

    5.2 Interception of Snow

    6. Infiltration and Groundwater

    6.1 Calculation of Infiltration Rate

    6.2 Infiltration into Frozen Soils

    6.3 Analysis of Moisture Movement in Partially Saturated Soil

    6.4 Moisture Movement under Non-Isothermal Conditions

    6.5 Measurement of Infiltration Rate

    6.6 Groundwater

    7. Runoff

    7.1 Physical Characteristics of the Catchment

    7.2 Climatic Factors

    7.3 Hydrograph Analysis and the Unit Hydrograph

    7.4 Modeling of the Hydrograph

    7.5 Synthetic Unit Hydrographs

    7.6 Runoff from Snowmelt

    8. Flood Routing

    8.1 Reservoir Routing

    8.2 Stream Routing

    8.2.1 Basic Equations

    8.2.2 Diffusion Methods

    8.2.3 Second Order Approximations

    8.2.4 Celerity of the Flood Wave

    8.2.5 The Muskingum-Cunge Method

    8.2.6 Conclusions from the Flood Studies Report

    9. Extreme Events, Design Flood and Small Catchment Runoff

    9.1 Extreme Event

    9.2 The Design Flood

    9.2.1 Frequency Analysis

    9.2.2. Transposition of Storms

    9.2.3. Transposition of Depth-Area-Duration Relationships

    9.2.4. Probable Maximum Precipitation Method

    9.2.5. Regional Methods

    9.2.6. Empirical Methods

    9.3 Small Catchment Runoff

    9.3.1 Agricultural Catchments

    9.3.2 Urban Catchments

    9.3.3 Detention of Stormwater

    10. Flow Regulation, Catchment Yield, Sediment Yield

    10.1 Storage for Flood Control

    10.2 Regulation for Abatement of Water Shortage

    10.3 Methods of Storage Calculation

    10.4 Stratification of Reservoirs

    10.5 Siltation of Reservoirs

    10.6 Catchment Yield

    10.7 Sediment Yield and Transport

    11. Hydrological Modeling and Water Resources Systems

    11 1 the Nature of Hydrological Data

    11.2 Hydrological Models and Simulation

    11.2.1 Classification of Mathematical Models

    11.3 Generation of Sequences of a Single Hydrological Variable

    11.3.1 Internally Independent Random Sequences

    11.3.2 Sequences with Internal Persistence

    11.3.3 The Thomas-Fiering Model

    11.3.4 Generation of Data Sequences for Daily and Shorter Time Intervals

    11.4 Generation of Sequences of Several Hydrological Variables

    11.5 Hydrological Models

    11.5.1 the API-Model

    11.5.2 the USDAHL-70 Model

    11.5.3 the Monash Model

    11.5.4 the Stanford Watershed Model IV

    11.5.5 Urban Runoff

    11.6 Water Resources Systems

    12. Analysis of Information

    12.1 Frequency Distributions and Probability Paper

    12.2 Parameter Estimation

    12.3 Notes on Selected Distributions

    12.4 Extreme Value Distributions

    12.5 Partial Duration Series

    12.6 Additional Remarks

    12.7 Frequency Factor

    12.8 Reliability of Results from Frequency Analysis

    12.9 Use of Historical Data

    12.10 Correlation and Regression Analysis

    12.11 Risk

    12.12 Time Series


    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 492
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 2013
  • Published: January 1, 1979
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483135977

About the Author

Arved J. Raudkivi

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