Hydrogenation of Fats and Oils

Hydrogenation of Fats and Oils

Theory and Practice

2nd Edition - December 9, 2015

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  • Editors: Gary List, Jerry King
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128043493
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781893997936

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As in the first edition, discussion is not confined to vegetable oils, and the hydrogenation technique is considered in detail. The "why" as well as the "how" of hydrogenation are addressed. Written for both production staff who need advice on specific problems and development personnel who seek directions, if not solutions, the book offers direct practical advice along with explanations of why changes occur as they do. The glossary of technical terms contains a more detailed explanation of some features mentioned throughout the text.

Key Features

  • Emphasizes techniques for trans fatty acid reduction or complete removal in food products
  • Features extensive information on hydrogenation methods, isomer formation, and catalysts used
  • Includes an extensive glossary of hydrogenation and related technical terms


Food scientists, chemical engineers, analytical chemists, food processors

Table of Contents

    • Preface to the Second Edition
    • Preface to the First Edition
    • Acknowledgments
    • Introduction
    • Chapter 1: The Hydrogenation Reaction
      • Economic Value of Hydrogenation
      • Triglycerides
      • Fatty Acids
      • Fatty-Acid Chain Length and Unsaturation
      • Nonfat Components
      • The Hydrogenation Reaction
      • Isomerization
      • Hydrogen Dispersion
      • Hydrogen Pressure
      • Temperature
      • Catalyst Action
      • Catalyst Induction, Fatigue, and Poisoning
      • Order of Reaction
      • Selectivity
      • Combination of Factors Affecting Hydrogenation
      • Other Hydrogenation Routes
    • Chapter 2: Hydrogenation Process Techniques
      • Requirements
      • Batch Hydrogenation—Dead-End and Circulating
      • Continuous Hydrogenation—Fixed-Bed and Suspended-Catalyst
      • Ultra-Light, Touch, Brush, or Flash Hydrogenation
      • Low-Temperature Hydrogenation
      • Iso- or trans-Suppressive Hydrogenation
      • Normal Hydrogenation
      • Cyclization and Polymerization
      • Two-Stage Hydrogenation
      • Iso- or trans-Promoting Hydrogenation
      • Higher-Melting and Fully-Saturated Hardened Oils
      • Consistent Quality in Hydrogenated-Oil Deliveries
    • Chapter 3: Hydrogenation Using Critical Fluids
      • Introduction
      • Why Supercritical and Subcritical Fluids?
      • Fundamentals of Critical Fluids Pertinent to Hydrogenations
      • Hydrogenation Reactions in Critical Fluids—An Overview
      • Equipment, Processing Concepts, and Scale-Up
      • Supercritical Fluid Hydrogenation of Fats/Oils Using CO2 or Propane
      • Oleochemical Synthesis in Supercritical Fluids
      • Coupled Processes Using Supercritical Hydrogenation
      • Critical Fluids and Catalysts
      • Hydrogenations in Compressed Water
      • Key Patents Involving Hydrogenation in the Supercritical State
      • Concluding Remarks and a Salute to Supercritical Fluid Research at NCAUR
    • Chapter 4: Hydrogenation Facility
      • General Considerations
      • Hydrogen Distribution: Circulation Systems
      • Hydrogen Distribution: Dead-End Systems
      • Hydrogen Distribution: Mixed Dead-End Circulating Systems
      • Hydrogen Distribution: Limitation of Uses
      • Autoclave (Converter, Hardening Vessel) Design: Early Systems
      • Current Autoclave Agitator Design: Radial and Axial Flows
      • Current Autoclave Design: Loop Hydrogenation Reactor
      • Autoclave Design Features of General Importance
      • Material of Construction
      • Oil Segregation
      • Oil Protection
      • Energy Conservation
      • Filtration
      • Catalyst Handling and Economy
      • Filling, Controlling, and Emptying an Autoclave
    • Chapter 5: Hydrogenation
      • Quality
      • Steam Iron Hydrogen
      • Electrolytic Hydrogen
      • Unipolar Electrolyzers
      • Bipolar Electrolyzers
      • Water Supply
      • Security
      • Hydrocarbon Reforming
      • Purchase of Hydrogen
      • Hydrogen Requirements
    • Chapter 6: Isomer Formation During Hydrogenation
      • Introduction
      • Discussion
    • Chapter 7: Catalysts
      • Necessary Characteristics for Heterogeneous Catalysts
      • Raney Nickel and Other Nickel Catalysts
      • Copper Catalysts
      • Noble Metal and Other Catalysts
      • Production
      • Storage
      • Recovery
      • Examples of Commercial Nickel Catalysts
    • Chapter 8: Hydrogenation Methods
      • Variability in Natural Fats and Oils
      • Process Control
      • Cleaning of Oils Prior to Hydrogenation
      • Lard
      • Beef Tallow
      • Coconut Oil
      • Cottonseed Oil
      • Grapeseed Oil
      • Hydrogenation
      • Hydrogenation
      • Linseed Oil
      • Hydrogenation
      • Maize (Corn Oil)
      • Olive Oil
      • Palm Oil
      • Palm-Kernel Oil
      • Rapeseed (Colza) Oil
      • Rice Bran Oil
      • Safflower Oil (Cartamo, Kusum)
      • Sesame Oil (Gingili, Sim-Sim, Til)
      • Soybean Oil
      • Sunflower Oil (Tournesol, Girasol)
      • Teaseed, Tomato Seed, and Other Oleic-Linoleic Class Oils
      • Marine Oils-General Considerations
      • Group A-Herring Oil, Capelin Oil, Liver Oils of Cod, Halibut, and Haddock; Whale, Seal, and Sea Elephant Oils
      • Group B-Anchovy, Pilchard, Sardine, and Menhaden Oils
      • Castor Oil
      • Fatty Acids
      • Technical Oils (Soap-Making)
    • Chapter 9: Electrocatalytic Hydrogenation of Edible Oils
      • Introduction
      • Electrocatalytic Hydrogenation Reactions
      • Electrocatalytic Hydrogenation of Soybean Oil with a Raney Nickel Cathode
      • Electrocatalytic Hydrogenation of Edible Oil in a Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE) Reactor
      • The Electrocatalytic Hydrogenation of Soybean Oil with H2 Gas
      • Sensory and Compositional Characteristics and Blending of Electrocatalytically Hydrogenated Soybean Oil
    • Chapter 10: Low Trans Hydrogenation
      • Introduction
      • Effects of Agitation
      • Effects of Temperature
      • Effects of Pressure
      • Low Iodine Value Oils
      • Catalysts for Reduced Trans
      • Modified Nickel Catalysts for Low Trans Hydrogenation
      • Low Trans Oils via a Catalyst Switching Strategy
    • Chapter 11: Safety
      • Safety, Security, and the Prevention of Error
      • Safety and Personnel
      • Safety and Equipment
      • Safety and Hydrogen
      • Common Precautions
      • Autoclaves
      • Hydrogen Storage
      • Hydrogen Receipt by Road/Rail
      • General Precautions Covering Static Charges and Electrical Equipment
    • Chapter 12: Quality and Control
      • Classification of Tests
      • Saponifiable Matter
      • Unsaturation
      • Melting
      • Oxidation and Stability
      • Miscellaneous Tests
    • Glossary of Hydrogenation and Related Technical Terms
    • References
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 384
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press and AOCS Press 2015
  • Published: December 9, 2015
  • Imprint: Academic Press and AOCS Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128043493
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781893997936

About the Editors

Gary List

Gary R. List, consultant, USA is an outstanding researcher in lipids whose career spans over 50 years. His research covered many important areas in lipid science including analytical methods, processing of oilseeds, lecithin, hydrogenation, physical refining and intereseterification. Gary is author of over 370 publications, proceedings, abstracts, and book chapters/books. He has presented over 160 papers at national and international meetings, edited 8 books and made revisions to “Baileys Industrial Oil and Fat Products” (4th, 5th, and 6th revision).

Affiliations and Expertise

G.R. List ■ U.S. Department of Agriculture, Peoria, Illinois, USA (Retired)

Jerry King

Jerry King’s research and teaching focus is in the area of chemical separations, particularly in the use of sub- and supercritical fluids for chemical processing. These efforts have resulted in 275 publications and 3 patents to date as well as many national/international conference presentations: including research in employing critical fluids as a medium for hydrogenation, enzymatic, hydrolysis, derivatization, and coupled reaction schemes. Dr. King has received a number of awards for his research and professional activities in the above areas and is a fellow or officer in several scientific professional societies. He is member of ACS, AIChE, AOCS, AOAC, IFT, and international societies focused on the advancement of critical fluid technology.

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