Hydrogen in Steel

Hydrogen in Steel

Effect of Hydrogen on Iron and Steel During Production, Fabrication, and Use

1st Edition - January 1, 1962

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  • Author: Michael Smialowski
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483213712

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Hydrogen in Steel: Effect of Hydrogen on Iron and Steel During Production, Fabrication, and Use focuses on the effect of hydrogen on iron and steel during production, fabrication, and use. Topics covered range from the solubility of hydrogen in iron and ferrous alloys to the diffusion and permeation of hydrogen through iron and steel. Electrochemical problems related to the ability of iron to absorb hydrogen from aqueous solutions are also considered. Comprised of 19 chapters, this book begins with a detailed treatment of the nature and properties of metal-hydrogen systems, paying particular attention to the behavior of hydrogen in the bulk of the metal phase and the mechanism of reactions between metals and hydrogen or hydrogen-producing compounds. The reader is then introduced to the solubility of hydrogen in iron and ferrous alloys as well as the nature of the final product of the hydrogen-iron interaction. Subsequent chapters deal with dimensional changes and stresses produced in steel by cathodically evolved hydrogen; the effects of hydrogen on the physical, mechanical, and chemical properties of iron and steel; influence of welding on hydrogen; and sulfide corrosion cracking of steel. The effects of pickling on steel are also examined, along with the blistering and embrittlement caused by hydrogen on the base metal during electroplating. This book will be of value to students and practitioners in the field of physical chemistry.

Table of Contents

  • Foreword


    Chapter 1. Metals and Hydrogen

    1.1. Introduction

    1.2. Thermal Dissociation of Molecular Hydrogen

    1.3. The Recombination Reaction

    1.4. Interaction of Hydrogen with the Metal Surface

    1.5. Adsorption, Bulk Occlusion and Catalytic Activity

    1.6. Negative Catalytic Activity of Some Elements and Compounds

    1.7. "Metallic" Hydrogen

    1.8. Periodic System and Occlusion of Hydrogen

    1.9. Hydrides of C-Class Metals

    1.10. The Nature of the Interstitial Solution of Hydrogen in Metals

    1.11. Magnetic Properties of Palladium Charged with Hydrogen; The Theory of Mott and Jones

    1.12. Supersaturation Hydrogen

    1.13. The Structure of the Palladium Hydride

    1.14. Nickel Hydride

    1.15. Summary and Conclusions


    Chapter 2. The Solubility of Hydrogen in Iron and Ferrous Alloys

    2.1. Introductory Remarks

    2.2. Units in which Hydrogen Content is Measured

    2.3. The Solubility of Hydrogen in Iron at 1 atm Pressure and at Different Temperatures

    2.4. The Dependence of the Solubility on Pressure

    2.5. Energy Changes Accompanying the Process of Hydrogen Absorption by Iron

    2.6. The Solubility of Hydrogen Isotopes in Iron

    2.7. The Dependence of the Solubility of Hydrogen in Steel on the Composition of the Steel

    2.8. The Influence of the Crystallographic Structure

    2.9. Charging of Iron and Nickel with Hydrogen Evolved from Acids

    2.10. The Influence of Cold Work and Strain

    2.11. The Influence of Surface Condition

    2.12. Relationship Between the Hydrogen Content of Iron, Temperature and Pressure of Hydrogen Accumulated in Voids

    2.13. Conclusions


    Chapter 3. The Diffusion and Permeation of Hydrogen Through Iron and Steel

    3.1. Early Works on the Passage of Hydrogen Through Metals

    3.2. The Possible Mechanism of Hydrogen Flow Through Metals

    3.3. Fick's Law and its Applicability to the Flow of Hydrogen Through Metals

    3.4. The Effect of Thickness of the Metal Wall Upon the Hydrogen Flow

    3.5. The Effect of Pressure

    3.6. The Effect of Temperature

    3.7. Experimental Results on the Permeation Rate of Hydrogen Through Iron and Steel at Elevated Temperatures

    3.8. Experimental Results Obtained by Using the Unsteady State of Flow

    3.9. Experimental Results on the Permeation Rate of Nascent Hydrogen

    3.10. Experimental Results Concerning the Permeation of Hydrogen Through Iron During a Sparking Discharge

    3.11. Effect of Concentration of the Diffusing Substance Upon the Diffusion Coefficient

    3.12. The Effect of Grain Size and of Crystallographic Factors

    3.13. Effect of Cold-Work and Strain

    3.14. Effects of the Composition and Structure of Steel

    3.15. Effects of the State of Surface

    3.16. The Dependence of the Permeation Rate of Nascent and Electrolytically Evolved Hydrogen on the Electrolyte's Composition

    3.17. Permeation of Hydrogen from Flames

    3.18. Penetration Through Steel of Atomic Hydrogen Produced by the Heating of a Tungsten Wire in a Rarefied Hydrogen Atmosphere

    3.19. The Activity of Hydrogen Desorbed from Metals

    3.20. The Effect of an Electric Field

    3.21. Comparison of the Diffusivity of Hydrogen Isotopes

    3.22. Conclusions


    Chapter 4. Electrochemical Problems Related to the Ability of Iron to Absorb Hydrogen from Aqueous Solutions

    4.1. Introduction

    4.2. The Electrode Potential of Iron

    4.3. Effect of Hydrogen on the Potential of Iron

    4.4. Cathodic Evolution of Hydrogen on Metals which Occlude this Element

    4.5. Cathodic Occlusion and Theories of Hydrogen Overpotential

    4.6. Some Recent Studies Concerning the Effect of Hydrogen on the Electrochemical Behaviour of Iron

    4.7. Conclusions


    Chapter 5. Dimensional Changes and Stresses Produced in Steel by Cathodically Evolved Hydrogen

    5.1. Changes in the Lattice Spacings Due to Hydrogénation

    5.2. Stresses Created by Hydrogenation

    5.3. Elastic-Plastic Deformation of Iron and Steel Cathodes

    5.4. Conclusions


    Chapter 6. The Effect of Hydrogen on the Physical Properties of Iron and Steel

    6.1. Magnetic Properties of Electrodeposited Iron

    6.2. Influence of Cathodically Evolved Hydrogen Upon the Magnetic Properties of Mild Steel

    6.3. The Influence of Hydrogen on the Properties of Silicon Steel

    6.4. The Influence of Hydrogen on the Properties of Permanent Magnets

    6.5. Effect of Hydrogen on the Magnetic Properties of Austenitic Chromium-Nickel Steel

    6.6. Effect of Hydrogen on the Electrical Resistance of Metals

    6.7. Conclusions


    Chapter 7. Effects of Hydrogen on the Mechanical Properties of Steel

    7.1. Introduction

    7.2. The Elastic Modulus

    7.3. The Internal Friction Method

    7.4. Internal Friction of Iron and Steel Specimens Charged with Hydrogen

    7.5. The Influence of Hydrogen on the Proportionality Limit and the Yield Point of Steel

    7.6. Changes in Hardness Due to Hydrogenation

    7.7. The Influence of Hydrogen on the Elongation and the Reduction in Area at Fracture

    7.8. Influence of the Composition, Cold Work and Structure of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels on their Susceptibility to Hydrogen Embrittlement

    7.9. Effects of Varying Temperature and Strain Rate on the Elongation and Reduction in Area of Hydrogenized Steels

    7.10. Influence of Hydrogen on the Tensile Strength and the Fracture Stress of Steel

    7.11. Effect of Hydrogen on Stress vs. Strain Curve

    7.12. Results of Experiments Performed on Notched Tensile Test Specimens

    7.13. The Part Played by Grain Boundaries and Cleavage Planes in the Phenomenon of Hydrogen Embrittlement

    7.14. Influence of Hydrogen on the Impact Test

    7.15. Use of the Bend Test for Evaluating the Degree of Hydrogen Embrittlement

    7.16. Some Results of Zapffe et al. Concerning Hydrogen Embrittlement of Stainless Steel

    7.17. Evaluation of Hydrogen Embrittlement by Using the Torsion Test

    7.18. The Influence of Hydrogen on the Mechanical Properties of Austenitic Steels

    7.19. Delayed Failure in Hydrogenated Steels

    7.20. Work of Troiano et al. Concerning the Hydrogen-Induced Brittle Fracture of Steel

    7.21. The Influence of Hydrogen on the Endurance Limit of Steel

    7.22. Theories of Hydrogen Embrittlement

    7.23. Conclusions


    Chapter 8. Chemical Effects of Hydrogen

    8.1. Decarburization

    8.2. Desulphurization

    8.3. Dephosphorization

    8.4. Denitriding

    8.5. Deoxidation

    8.6. Summary and Conclusions


    Chapter 9. Hydrogen Evolution from Steel

    9.1. Evolution of Hydrogen from Liquid Iron and Steel at Temperatures near Freezing Point

    9.2. The Evolution of Hydrogen at Transformation Points

    9.3. Evolution of Hydrogen from Steel in the Lower Temperature Range

    9.4. Conclusions


    Chapter 10. Hydrogen as Alloying Element in Steel

    10.1. The Influence of Hydrogen on the Transformation Points of Iron

    10.2. The Influence of Hydrogen on the Structure of Steel

    10.3. The Influence of Hydrogen on the Structure of Cast Iron

    10.4. Conclusions


    Chapter 11. Hydrogen in Steelmaking

    11.1. Introduction

    11.2. American Investigations

    11.3. British Investigations

    11.4. French Investigations

    11.5. German Investigations

    11.6. Japanese Investigations

    11.7. Soviet Russian Investigations

    11.8. Czechoslovakian Investigations

    11.9. Summary and Conclusions


    Chapter 12. Flakes (Hair-Line Cracks) Produced by Hydrogen in Steel

    12.1. Definition, Characteristics and Occurrence of Flakes

    12.2. The Incubation Period for Flake Formation

    12.3. Earlier Opinions on the Origin of Flakes in Steel

    12.4. Some German, Italian and Japanese Studies on the Dependence of Flake Formation Upon the Hydrogen Content in Steel

    12.5. Results and Conclusions of Andrew et al.

    12.6. The Work of Dubovoi

    12.7. The Opinion of Meskin

    12.8. Preventive Measures Against Flaking of Steel

    12.9. Conclusions


    Chapter 13. Hydrogen in Cast Iron

    13.1. Introduction

    13.2. Changes in the Hydrogen Content of Cast Iron, Depending Upon its Composition and Method of Production

    13.3. Pinholing in Cast Iron

    13.4. Effect of Hydrogen on the Mechanical Properties of Cast Iron

    13.5. Conclusions


    Chapter 14. Hydrogen in Welding

    14.1. Effect of the Method of Welding on the Hydrogen Content

    14.2. The Formation of Porosity

    14.3. The Formation of Cracks

    14.4. Fisheyes in Weld Deposits

    14.5. Effect of Hydrogen on the Mechanical Properties of Welds

    14.6. Conclusions


    Chapter 15. Hydrogen in Pickling

    15.1. Introduction

    15.2. Effect of Hydrogen Ion Concentration

    15.3. Effect of Anions

    15.4. Effect of Temperature

    15.5. Effect of Poisons (Promoters of Hydrogenation)

    15.6. Effect of Polar Organic Compounds (Inhibitors)

    15.7. Influence of the Condition of the Steel. Practical Problems

    15.8. Conclusions


    Chapter 16. Hydrogen in Electroplating

    16.1. Hydrogen Content of Electrodeposited Iron

    16.2. Embrittlement Caused by Electroplating

    16.3. Conclusions


    Chapter 17. The Sulphide Corrosion Cracking of Steel

    17.1. Characteristics of the Phenomenon

    17.2. The Mechanism of the Reaction of Moist Hydrogen Sulphide with Iron

    17.3. Blistering of Steel in Hydrogen Sulphide Solutions

    17.4. Effect of Composition and Structure of Steel on its Susceptibility to Embrittlement by Hydrogen Sulphide

    17.5. Practical Measures Against Sulphide Corrosion Cracking of Steel in Service

    17.6. Conclusions


    Chapter 18. Action of Hydrogen on Steel Under High Pressure

    18.1. Introduction

    18.2. Deterioration of Steel by Hydrogen in Conditions of Ammonia Synthesis

    18.3. The Probable Part Played by Hydrogen in the Embrittlement of Boilers

    18.4. Summary and Conclusions


    Chapter 19. Determination of Hydrogen in Iron and Steel

    19.1. Introduction

    19.2. Sampling of Liquid Steel by Rapid Cooling

    19.3. Sampling of Liquid Steel and Collecting the Evolved Gas

    19.4. Storage of Samples

    19.5. Measurement of the Gas Evolution at Normal Pressure

    19.6. The Solid State Vacuum Extraction Method

    19.7. The Vacuum Fusion Method

    19.8. The Tin Fusion Method

    19.9. The Total Combustion Method

    19.10. The Carrier-Gas Method

    19.11. Spectral Methods

    19.12. Hydrogen Determination in Cast Iron

    19.13. Conclusions


    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 468
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1962
  • Published: January 1, 1962
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483213712

About the Author

Michael Smialowski

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