This book deals with density, temperature, velocity and concentration fluctuations in fluids and fluid mixtures. The book first reviews thermal fluctuations in equilibrium fluids on the basis of fluctuating hydrodynamics. It then shows how the method of fluctuating hydrodynamics can be extended to deal with hydrodynamic fluctuations when the system is in a stationary nonequilibrium state. In contrast to equilibrium fluids where the fluctuations are generally short ranged unless the system is close to a critical point, fluctuations in nonequilibrium fluids are always long-ranged encompassing the entire system. The book provides the first comprehensive treatment of fluctuations in fluids and fluid mixtures brought out of equilibrium by the imposition of a temperature and concentration gradient but that are still in a macroscopically quiescent state. By incorporating appropriate boundary conditions in the case of fluid layers, it is shown how fluctuating hydrodynamics affects the fluctuations close to the onset of convection. Experimental techniques of light scattering and shadowgraphy for measuring nonequilibrium fluctuations are elucidated and the experimental results thus far reported in the literature are reviewed.

Key Features

· Systematic exposition of fluctuating hydrodynamics and its applications · First book on nonequilibrium fluctuations in fluids · Fluctuating Boussinesq equations and nonequilibrium fluids · Fluid layers and onset of convection · Rayleigh scattering and Brillouin scattering in fluids · Shadowgraph technique for measuring fluctuations · Fluctuations near hydrodynamic instabilities


Physics, chemical physics, chemical engineering and Mechanical Engineering researchers

Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • Chapter 1: Introduction
    • Publisher Summary
  • Chapter 2: Nonequilibrium thermodynamics
    • Publisher Summary
    • 2.1 Local thermodynamic properties
    • 2.2 Balance laws
    • 2.3 Entropy balance, dissipative fluxes and thermodynamic forces
    • 2.4 Hydrodynamic equations
    • 2.5 Boundary conditions
  • Chapter 3: Fluctuations in fluids in thermodynamic equilibrium
    • Publisher Summary
    • 3.1 Fluctuating hydrodynamics
    • 3.2 Fluctuation-dissipation theorem for fluids and fluid mixtures
    • 3.3 Hydrodynamic fluctuations in a one-component fluid
    • 3.4 Equilibrium correlation functions and entropy probability functional
    • 3.5 Extension of fluctuating hydrodynamics to nonequilibrium steady states
  • Chapter 4: Thermal nonequilibrium fluctuations in one-component fluids
    • Publisher Summary
    • 4.1 Boussinesq approximation
    • 4.2 Bulk structure factor in the presence of a stationary temperature gradient
    • 4.3 Nonequilibrium effects on the Brillouin doublet
    • 4.4 Nonequilibrium fluctuations in heat conduction
  • Chapter 5: Thermal nonequilibrium fluctuations in fluid mixtures
    • Publisher Summary
    • 5.1 Linearized fluctuating Boussinesq equations for a binary liquid
    • 5.2 Structure factor in a large-Lewis-number approximation
    • 5.3 Comprehensive structure factor of a nonequilibrium binary mixture
    • 5.4 Nonequilibrium fluctuations in isothermal free-diffusion processes
  • Chapter 6: Finite-size effects in hydrodynamic fluctuations
    • Publisher Summary
    • 6.1 The hydrodynamic operator
    • 6.2 Hydrodynamic modes and decay rates for two free boundaries
    • 6.3 Hydrodynamic modes and decay rates for two rigid boundaries
    • 6.4 The slowest decay rate
  • Chapter 7: Thermal nonequilibr


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© 2006
Elsevier Science
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