Hydraulic Fracturing Explained - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781933762401, 9780127999968

Hydraulic Fracturing Explained

1st Edition

Evaluation, Implementation, and Challenges

Authors: Erle Donaldson Waqi Alam Nasrin Begum
eBook ISBN: 9780127999968
Hardcover ISBN: 9781933762401
Imprint: Gulf Publishing Company
Published Date: 1st April 2013
Page Count: 224
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Description

Rocks mechanics legend Erle Donaldson, along with colleagues Waqi Alam and Nasrin Begum from the oil and gas consultant company Tetrahedron, have authored this handbook on updated fundamentals and more recent technology used during a common hydraulic fracturing procedure. Meant for technical and non-technical professionals interested in the subject of hydraulic fracturing, the book provides a clear and simple explanation of the technology and related issues to promote the safe development of petroleum reserves leading to energy independence throughout the world.

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • Foreword
  • Preface
    • Acknowledgments
  • List of Figures
  • List of Tables
  • Nomenclature
    • Acronyms/Abbreviations
    • Symbols
    • Greek Letters
  • CHAPTER 1. Hydraulic Fracturing Explained
    • 1.1 Introduction
    • 1.2 Petroleum Hydrocarbons
    • 1.3 Petroleum Reserves in Shale
    • 1.4 Petroleum Demand
    • 1.5 Achieving Production of Hydrocarbons to Meet Demand
    • 1.6 Hydraulic Fracturing
    • 1.7 Environmental Issues Related to Hydraulic Fracturing
  • CHAPTER 2. Evaluation of Gas-Shale Formations
    • 2.1 Sedimentary Formations
    • 2.2 Shale Formations
    • 2.3 Multistage Fractures
    • 2.4 Fracture Design (Frac-Implementation)
    • 2.5 Well Design from Surface to Reservoir
    • 2.6 Gas-Shale Reservoir Characterization
    • 2.7 Gamma-Ray Well-Log
    • 2.8 Density/Neutron Log
    • 2.9 Use of Seismic Data
  • CHAPTER 3. Rock Mechanics of Fracturing
    • 3.1 Introduction
    • 3.2 Young's Modulus of Elasticity (E)
    • 3.3 Poisson's Ratio (v)
    • 3.4 Bulk Modulus (KB)
    • 3.5 Shear Modulus (G)
    • 3.6 Effective Stress
    • 3.7 Mohr Stress Diagram
    • 3.8 Initiation of Fractures
    • 3.9 Propping the Fracture Open
  • CHAPTER 4. Fracture Fluids
    • 4.1 Introduction
    • 4.2 Oil-Based Fracturing Fluids
    • 4.3 Water-Based Frac-Fluids
    • 4.4 Alcohol-based Frac-fluids
    • 4.5 Acid Frac-Fluid
    • 4.6 Foams
    • 4.7 “Slick-Water”
    • 4.8 Surfactants
    • 4.9 Clay Stabilizers
    • 4.10 Temperature Stabilizers
    • 4.11 Fluid-Loss Additives
    • 4.12 Viscosity Breakers
    • 4.13 Biocides
    • 4.14 Buffers
    • 4.15 Frac-Fluid Preparation
    • 4.16 Conclusion
  • CHAPTER 5. Field Implementation of Hydraulic Fracturing
    • 5.1 Introduction
    • 5.2 Protecting Groundwater
    • 5.3 Waste Water Management in Hydraulic Fracture
    • 5.4 Fresh Water Management in Hydraulic Fracturing
    • 5.5 Reducing Surface Disturbance
    • 5.6 Controlling Noise, Lighting, and Traffic at Fracturing Job Sites
    • 5.7 Technical Considerations for the Success of Hydraulic Fracture Treatments
    • 5.8 Case Studies of Hydraulic Fracturing
  • CHAPTER 6. Environmental Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing
    • 6.1 Surface and Subsurface Environmental Effects
    • 6.2 Water Withdrawals
    • 6.3 Surface Spills
    • 6.4 Wastewater Management
    • 6.5 Air Emissions
    • 6.6 Water Impoundments
    • 6.7 Human Health Impacts
    • 6.8 Where to Get Toxicity Information
    • 6.9 Chemicals Present In Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid
    • 6.10 Chemicals Present in Flow-Back Fluids
    • 6.11 Regulations for Protecting the Environment
    • 6.12 Regulations Currently Applicable
  • APPENDIX A. Viscosity
    • A.1 Power-Law Fluids
  • APPENDIX B. Surfactants, Emulsions, Gels, Foams
    • B.1 Surfactants
    • B.2 Emulsions
    • B.3 Foams
  • APPENDIX C. Calculations
    • C.1 Subsurface Overburden and Horizontal Stress
    • C.2 Fracture Initiation Pressure
    • C.3 Fracture Propagation Pressure
    • C.4 Matrix Permeability
    • C.5 Fracture Size
    • C.6 Rock Matrix Mechanical Properties
    • C.7 Summary
  • Glossary
  • References
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
224
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Gulf Publishing Company 2013
Published:
Imprint:
Gulf Publishing Company
eBook ISBN:
9780127999968
Hardcover ISBN:
9781933762401

About the Author

Erle Donaldson

Erle C. Donaldson is an independent consultant and managing editor of the Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering. He was elected to the International Hall of Fame for Science in 1993. He has received a distinguished service award from the Republic of Honduras and other honors from the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Petroleum Engineering Honor Society, and the University of Oklahoma. Dr. Donaldson has written, co-authored, and served as editor on numerous articles and books.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor Emeritus, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, USA

Waqi Alam

Nasrin Begum

Dr. Nasrin Begum is an environmental health scientist who has evaluated environmenal risks (human health and ecological) associated with various chemicals including chemicals related to the petroleum industry. She has over 25 years of experience in toxicological and risk evaluations and has published several papers in refereed journals. She was involved in the analysis of microbial activities for improving petroleum recovery and also for decontaminating petroleum and explosive wastes. She has a Ph.D. in Environmental Health from Colorado State University and a M.S. in Plant Pathology for Oklahoma State University. She is currently working at Tetrahedron, Inc.

Affiliations and Expertise

Environmental Health Scientist, Tetrahedron, USA