Hydraulic Fracturing Explained

1st Edition

Evaluation, Implementation, and Challenges

Authors: Erle Donaldson Waqi Alam Nasrin Begum
Paperback ISBN: 9780128101520
eBook ISBN: 9780127999968
Imprint: Gulf Publishing Company
Published Date: 25th February 2014
Page Count: 224
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Rocks mechanics legend Erle Donaldson, along with colleagues Waqi Alam and Nasrin Begum from the oil and gas consultant company Tetrahedron, have authored this handbook on updated fundamentals and more recent technology used during a common hydraulic fracturing procedure. Meant for technical and non-technical professionals interested in the subject of hydraulic fracturing, the book provides a clear and simple explanation of the technology and related issues to promote the safe development of petroleum reserves leading to energy independence throughout the world.

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • Foreword
  • Preface

    • Acknowledgments
  • List of Figures
  • List of Tables
  • Nomenclature

    • Acronyms/Abbreviations
    • Symbols
    • Greek Letters
  • CHAPTER 1. Hydraulic Fracturing Explained

    • 1.1 Introduction
    • 1.2 Petroleum Hydrocarbons
    • 1.3 Petroleum Reserves in Shale
    • 1.4 Petroleum Demand
    • 1.5 Achieving Production of Hydrocarbons to Meet Demand
    • 1.6 Hydraulic Fracturing
    • 1.7 Environmental Issues Related to Hydraulic Fracturing
  • CHAPTER 2. Evaluation of Gas-Shale Formations

    • 2.1 Sedimentary Formations
    • 2.2 Shale Formations
    • 2.3 Multistage Fractures
    • 2.4 Fracture Design (Frac-Implementation)
    • 2.5 Well Design from Surface to Reservoir
    • 2.6 Gas-Shale Reservoir Characterization
    • 2.7 Gamma-Ray Well-Log
    • 2.8 Density/Neutron Log
    • 2.9 Use of Seismic Data
  • CHAPTER 3. Rock Mechanics of Fracturing

    • 3.1 Introduction
    • 3.2 Young's Modulus of Elasticity (E)
    • 3.3 Poisson's Ratio (v)
    • 3.4 Bulk Modulus (KB)
    • 3.5 Shear Modulus (G)
    • 3.6 Effective Stress
    • 3.7 Mohr Stress Diagram
    • 3.8 Initiation of Fractures
    • 3.9 Propping the Fracture Open
  • CHAPTER 4. Fracture Fluids

    • 4.1 Introduction
    • 4.2 Oil-Based Fracturing Fluids
    • 4.3 Water-Based Frac-Fluids
    • 4.4 Alcohol-based Frac-fluids
    • 4.5 Acid Frac-Fluid
    • 4.6 Foams
    • 4.7 “Slick-Water”
    • 4.8 Surfactants
    • 4.9 Clay Stabilizers
    • 4.10 Temperature Stabilizers
    • 4.11 Fluid-Loss Additives
    • 4.12 Viscosity Breakers
    • 4.13 Biocides
    • 4.14 Buffers
    • 4.15 Frac-Fluid Preparation
    • 4.16 Conclusion
  • CHAPTER 5.


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About the Author

Erle Donaldson

Erle C. Donaldson is an independent consultant and managing editor of the Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering. He was elected to the International Hall of Fame for Science in 1993. He has received a distinguished service award from the Republic of Honduras and other honors from the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Petroleum Engineering Honor Society, and the University of Oklahoma. Dr. Donaldson has written, co-authored, and served as editor on numerous articles and books.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor Emeritus, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, USA

Waqi Alam

Nasrin Begum

Dr. Nasrin Begum is an environmental health scientist who has evaluated environmenal risks (human health and ecological) associated with various chemicals including chemicals related to the petroleum industry. She has over 25 years of experience in toxicological and risk evaluations and has published several papers in refereed journals. She was involved in the analysis of microbial activities for improving petroleum recovery and also for decontaminating petroleum and explosive wastes. She has a Ph.D. in Environmental Health from Colorado State University and a M.S. in Plant Pathology for Oklahoma State University. She is currently working at Tetrahedron, Inc.

Affiliations and Expertise

Environmental Health Scientist, Tetrahedron, USA