Hydration and Intermolecular Interaction - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780127828503, 9780323155847

Hydration and Intermolecular Interaction

1st Edition

Infrared Investigations with Polyelectrolyte Membranes

Authors: Georg Zundel
eBook ISBN: 9780323155847
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1969
Page Count: 324
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Description

Hydration and Intermolecular Interaction: Infrared Investigations with Polyelectrolyte Membranes focuses on the intriguing possibilities of ion-exchange resins.

This book explains that water-containing ionized resins are unique models of electrolyte solutions that enable the study of water behavior in the solvation sphere without interference from the bulk of solvent. The topics discussed include assignment of the IR bands, free water molecule, electron structure of the anions in the salts, and removal of antisymmetric stretching vibration. The measurements on polystyrenesulfonic acid as a function of degree of hydration, preparation of membranes for IR spectroscopy, and IR investigations at low temperatures are also deliberated.

This publication is beneficial to chemists, electrochemists, and spectroscopists.

Table of Contents


Foreword

Acknowledgment

Chapter I Introduction

Text

Chapter II Assignment of the IR Bands

II.1. Polystyrene

II.2. Polystyrenesulfonyl Chloride, Polystyrenesulfonic Acid and Its Salts

II.3. Polystyreneselenonic and -seleninic Acids and Their Na+Salts

II.4. Polystyrenephosphinic and Polystyrenethiophosphonic Acids and Their Na+ Salts

Chapter III Pure Water

III.1. The Free Water Molecule

III.2. The Bound Water Molecule

Chapter IV Hydration of the Salts

IV.1. The Electron Structure of the Anions in the Salts

IV.2. Removal of Antisymmetric Stretching Vibration

Degeneracy of Ions —S-O-O-O) and —Se-O-O-O by Cation Interaction

IV.3. Location of the Cation with Respect to the Oxygen Atoms of the —SO3- and —SeO3-Ions

IV.4. Anion Band changes as a Function of Degree of Hydration

IV.5. Hydration Water Bands in the Region 4000-2000 cm-1 at Low Degrees of Hydration

IV.6. Position of the Hydration Water Band

IV.7. Attachment of Water Molecules at Low Degrees of Hydration

IV.8. Hydration Water Band Position and Hydrogen Bridge Acceptor Property of Anions

IV.9. Cation-Water Interaction, Stretching Vibration, and Hydrogen Bridge Donor Property of OH Groups in Hydrogen Bridges

IV.10. Hydration in the Presence of Transition Element Ions

IV.11. The Band of the Scissor Vibration

IV.12. The Band at 3615 cm-1 and the Free OH Groups of Water Molecules

IV.13. Temporary Equilibrium Configurations of the Hydrate Structures at Low Degrees of Hydration

IV.14. Water Structure: Alkali Metal Salts, (CH3)4N+ and (C2H5)4N+Salts and Polystyrenesulfonic Acid

IV.15. Dissociation Process, Ion Pairs, and Conductivity

IV.16. Dependence of the Ion-Water Interaction on the Degree of Hydration

IV.17. The Overtone of the Scissor Vibration 2v2

IV.18. The "Second Hydration Shell"

IV.19. Hydrolysis

IV.20. Anomaly of the T1 Form of the Exchanger

Chapter V The Acids

V.1. The Bands of the Anions

V.2. Association of Acid Groups

V.3. Observed Bands and Potential Well in Hydrogen Bridges of Associated Acid Groups

V.4. Measurements on Polystyrenesulfonic Acid as a Function of Degree of Hydration

V.5. Attachment of the Last Water Molecule to the —S=O=O-OH Group

V.6. The Nature of the Group H5O2+ and Tunnel Effect

V.7. Homogeneous Liquid Acid and Base Solutions

V.8. The H5O2+ Group in Polystyrenesulfonic Acid

V.9. Nature of the H9O4+ Group

V.10. Hydrate Structure Network in Polystyrenesulfonic Acid at a High Degree of Hydration

V.11. Continuous Absorption and Proton Dispersion Force

V.12. Polystyreneselenonic Acid

V.l3. Polystyreneseleninic and Polystyrenephosphinic Acids

V.l4. Polystyrenethiophosphonic Acid

V.l5. Survey of Hydration in the Acids

V.l6. The Dissociation Process

V.17. Considerations on Anomalous Proton Conductivity

Chapter VI Preparation of the Membranes

VI.1. Small-Scale Preparation of Polystyrene Membranes

VI.2. Incorporation of —SO3- Ions and —SeO2OH, —SeOOH,—P-H=O-OH, and —P-SH=O-OH Groups

VI.3. Preparation of Acids and Salts

VI.4. Preparation of Membranes for IR Spectroscopy

Chapter VII IR Investigation Method

VII.1. Carrying Out of Measurements

VII.2. IR Cell and Sample Holders

VII.3. IR Investigations at Low Temperatures

VII.4. Evaluation of the Spectra

Appendix (Tables A.1-A.5)

Author Index

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
324
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1969
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323155847

About the Author

Georg Zundel