Humidity and Electronics

Humidity and Electronics

Corrosion Reliability Issues and Preventive Measures

1st Edition - November 29, 2021

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  • Authors: Rajan Ambat, Kamila Piotrowska
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323908535
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323908542

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Humidity and Electronics: Corrosion Reliability Issues and Preventive Measures provides comprehensive information on humidity related corrosion reliability issues surrounding electronics and how to tackle potential issues from a pro-active-design-prevention perspective.  The book contains a mix of academic and industrial relevance, making it suitable for a detailed understanding on humidity issues on electronics, both for materials and corrosion experts and electronics and electrical experts. It will be useful for researchers, academics, and industrial personals involved in materials, corrosion, and electronics reliability aspects.

Key Features

  • Provides basic and applied knowledge surrounding corrosion in electronics
  • Combines electronics/electrical and electrochemical aspects related to failure modes and mechanisms
  • Presents knowledge on influencing factors and how they can be used as preventive measures at the material, component, device and system level


Both at academic and industrial level. For Research and academic: Those involved in materials and corrosion with interest in corrosion problems of electronics, and corrosion teaching specifically related to "Corrosion in Electronics" part. Industrial: Personals involved in reliability aspects, and electronics designers to gain knowledge on how to take pro-active measures

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Preface
  • Chapter 1. Humidity and electronics: corrosion perspectives
  • Abstract
  • 1.1 Scope of this book
  • 1.2 History of electronics
  • 1.3 Use of materials in modern electronics
  • 1.4 Electronics and corrosion reliability today
  • References
  • Chapter 2. Basic theory of corrosion and important failure mechanisms connected to corrosion in electronics
  • Abstract
  • 2.1 Definition of corrosion
  • 2.2 Corrosion in electronics versus conventional corrosion scenario
  • 2.3 Electrochemical corrosion of metals under wet conditions
  • 2.4 Corrosion failure modes for electronics and related mechanisms
  • References
  • Chapter 3. Factors determining water film buildup on surfaces and relevance to corrosion in electronics
  • Abstract
  • 3.1 Characteristics of moisture
  • 3.2 Interaction of humidity with electronics
  • References
  • Chapter 4. Importance of PCBA cleanliness in humidity interaction with electronics
  • Abstract
  • 4.1 Nature of the residue and humidity interaction
  • 4.2 Contamination originating from the PCBA manufacturing process
  • 4.3 Contamination related to operator handling
  • 4.4 Contamination originating from the user environment (service life)
  • References
  • Chapter 5. Materials and processes for electronic devices and components: how they contribute to corrosion reliability?
  • Abstract
  • 5.1 Manufacturing process of bare printed circuit board
  • 5.2 Component assembling, mounting, and soldering processes
  • 5.3 Electronic components
  • References
  • Chapter 6. Examples of corrosion failures in electronics: summary of case studies
  • Abstract
  • 6.1 Failures due to process-related cleanliness issues as a main factor
  • 6.2 Failures caused by corrosive gases and humidity
  • 6.3 Failures due to material combinations and environment
  • 6.4 Failures of high-power electronic systems due to environmental conditions
  • References
  • Chapter 7. Preventive measures for corrosion in electronics: intrinsic and extrinsic strategies
  • Abstract
  • 7.1 Intrinsic methods for corrosion mitigation in electronics
  • 7.2 Extrinsic methods for enhancing the humidity robustness
  • References
  • Chapter 8. Corrosion reliability testing, standards, and failure analysis
  • Abstract
  • 8.1 Testing of PCBA cleanliness and contamination level
  • 8.2 Tests investigating the cleanliness and corrosion effects
  • 8.3 Methodology of accelerated testing of electronic equipment
  • 8.4 Spectroscopic and microscopic methods
  • References
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 398
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2021
  • Published: November 29, 2021
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323908535
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323908542

About the Authors

Rajan Ambat

Dr. Rajan Ambat is currently Professor of Corrosion and Surface Engineering at Section of Materials and Surface Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark. He is also the Manager for the CELCORR/CreCon Industrial Consortium on climatic reliability of electronics at DTU and Research Manager for the Corrosion node of Danish Hydrocarbon Research and Technology Centre. He has more than 15 years of expertise in the area of humidity and electronics, and developing mitigation strategies together with industries. This include electrochemical failure mechanisms at material, component, PCBA, and systems level, PCBA cleanliness issues and humidity interaction, modelling humidity interaction with electronics and pro-actively defining solutions. Prevention and predictive strategies include intrinsic and extrinsic methods for enhancing humidity robustness of electronics systems, not only the prevention methods based on corrosion and electrochemical understanding and coatings, but also using humidity flow modelling and climate data as a source of predictability for aggressiveness, and corrosion prediction sensors for electronic corrosion. Presently he is the Chairman for the Working Party on Corrosion reliability of electronic devices under European Federation of Corrosion and Board member, IMAPS Nordic, Europe. He has published extensively in a wide variety of topic connected to humidity and electronics.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Section of Materials and Surface Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering; Manager, CELCORR/CreCon Consortium, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark

Kamila Piotrowska

Dr. Kamila Piotrowska obtained her PhD in the field of Climatic reliability of electronics from the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, which was followed by the post-doctoral research at the same place. She has over 7 years of experience in the area of humidity-related reliability issues of electronics. Her PhD and post-doctoral research work in the CELCORR research group were specifically focused on understanding the interaction between the PCBA and humidity, and she worked on several projects related to the humidity effects on automotive and power electronics systems. She is currently working as a reliability engineer in the Danish MedTech industry where, through novel technology and product development activities, she strives for enhancing the environmental robustness of the hearing instruments and their accessories. Her work related to the humidity effects on electronic devices led to many scientific publications, patents, and creation of industrial guidelines.

Affiliations and Expertise

Reliability Engineer, GN Hearing A/S, Ballerup, Denmark

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  • Masamitsu W. Sat Mar 19 2022

    Valuable work

    I used to work in the field of corrosion, particularly corrosion of metals used in electronic parts and devices. As far as I know, any books that treat the relationship between humidity and electronics have never been published. This book is useful not only for corrosion engineers who works in electronics, but also for university students.