Human Vaccines - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128023020, 9780128025420

Human Vaccines

1st Edition

Emerging Technologies in Design and Development

Editors: Kayvon Modjarrad Wayne Koff
eBook ISBN: 9780128025420
Paperback ISBN: 9780128023020
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 14th October 2016
Page Count: 186
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Description

Human Vaccines: Emerging Technologies in Design and Development discusses the advances in molecular biology, biophysics, and informatics—among other disciplines—that have provided scientists with the tools to create new vaccines against emerging and re-emerging pathogens.

For example, the virus-like particle technologies that led to licensing of highly efficacious HPV vaccines have only come into full realization in the last 10 years. Their success has, in turn, accelerated the pace with which nanoparticle vaccines are being developed

Given the rapidity with which the field is changing and the absence of any text documenting this change, there is a need for a resource that surveys these new vaccine technologies, assesses their potential, and describes their applications. This book provides that resource and complements traditional vaccinology books, but also serves as an excellent standalone for researchers and students with basic knowledge in immunology.

Key Features

  • Introduces new topics in vaccine immunology in the context vaccine design and production
  • Consolidates the growing body of knowledge on new vaccine technologies that have only emerged in the past 2 – 3 decades
  • Reviews the currently licensed vaccines that have utilized leading-edge technologies and how this has translated into improved efficacy and safety
  • Provides a broad overview of innovative vaccine technologies, including immunological aspects

Readership

Scientists, biomedical researchers, and physicians across microbiology, infectious diseases, oncology, molecular biology, and pharmacology in academic, government and corporate laboratories

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors
  • Foreword
  • Part I: Designing Vaccines From a New Starting Point
    • Chapter 1. Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies
      • Abstract
      • Identification of Broadly Cross-Reactive Antibodies in Human Donors
      • Isolation of Monoclonal Antibodies Using B Cell Culture Technologies
      • Isolation of mAbs by Antigen-Specific Sorting
      • Isolation of mAbs by Next-Generation Sequencing
      • Targets of Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies
      • Isolation of Vaccine-Elicited mAbs
      • mAbs Targets in Vaccine Design
      • Use of mAbs for the Prevention and Treatment of Infectious Diseases
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
  • Part II: Pathogen Free Vaccines
    • Chapter 2. Replication-Competent Viral Vectors for Vaccine Delivery
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Replicating Vector Designs
      • DNA Virus Vectors
      • RNA Virus Vectors
      • Positive-Strand RNA Viruses
      • Double-Stranded RNA Viruses (Reovirus)
      • Negative-Strand RNA Viruses
      • Enveloped RNA Virus Chimeras
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 3. Reverse Vaccinology: Exploiting Genomes for Vaccine Design
      • Abstract
      • The Milestone of the MenB Vaccine
      • Evolution of Reverse Vaccinology Over 15 Years of Application
      • Bioinformatics Tools for Reverse Vaccinology
      • The Use of OMICs as Complementary Tools
      • Recent Applications to Vaccines Against Bacteria, Viruses, and Protozoa
      • Challenges and Future Perspectives for Reverse Vaccinology
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 4. Virus-Like Particle and Nanoparticle Vaccines
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Humoral Recognition of Viruses
      • Rigidly Multivalent Immunogens: Theory and Practice
      • Naturally Icosahedral Virions
      • Synthetic Structure-Based Nanoparticle Platforms
      • Conclusion
      • References
  • Part III: Immune Monitoring
    • Chapter 5. Systems Vaccinology
      • Abstract
      • Definition
      • Questions to Address
      • Methods
      • Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
      • Disclaimer
      • References
    • Chapter 6. Immunogenetics and Vaccination
      • Abstract
      • Immunogenetic Variation
      • Immunogenetic Associations with Infections and Vaccines
      • Functional Basis of Immunogenetic Associations with Vaccine Response
      • Immunogenetics, Vaccine Design, and Personalization
      • References
  • Part IV: Advanced Vaccine Development
    • Chapter 7. Methodical Considerations
      • Abstract
      • Introduction to Vaccine Efficacy
      • Primary Objective to Assess VE for Susceptibility in Individual Randomized Preventive Vaccine Efficacy Trials
      • Cumulative VE Unified Framework for Overall VE and Immune Correlates of VE
      • Primary Objective: Assessment of Overall Cumulative Vaccine Efficacy
      • Statistical Issues in Assessing Immune Correlates of VE via Estimation of VE(t|s) or VE(t|s,x)
      • Statistical Issues in Assessing Immune Correlates of Protection via Estimation of VE(t,j) or VE(t,j|x)
      • Assessing Immune Correlates of Protection via Estimation of VE(t,j|s)
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 8. Vaccine Development in Special Populations
      • Abstract
      • Infants
      • Pregnant Women
      • The Immunocompromised
      • Older Adults
      • Regulatory Considerations
      • Conclusion
      • References
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
186
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2017
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780128025420
Paperback ISBN:
9780128023020

About the Editor

Kayvon Modjarrad

Prof. Modjarrad is Adjunct Assistant Professor of Medicine at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Attending on infectious diseases consult service at the main hospital 1 month per year. Responsible for teaching residents and fellows. He was awarded with the following grants: 1. Vanderbilt Infection Pathogenesis and Epidemiology Research Training Program, $233,075, 2011-2012,

2. Vanderbilt International Office Exchange Grant, $15,000, 2008-2009.

3. EGPAF Research Grant (PG-51368), $280,000, 2003-2005.

4. U.S. Department of Defense, $15,000, 2003-2004.

5. National Institutes of Health, Fogarty International Research Collaborative Award (5R03TW005929-02), $100,000, 2002-2004.

He is the Co-Editor for the medical polymers series, beginning with the Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices, first volume published in December 2013 (Williams Andrews).

Affiliations and Expertise

Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health

Wayne Koff

Wayne Koff

Wayne C. Koff, PhD, is the founding President & CEO of the Human Vaccines Project (April 2016-present), a public-private partnership with the goal of decoding the human immune system to accelerate development of vaccines and immunotherapies for major infectious diseases and cancers. Prior to joining the Project, Dr Koff served as Chief Scientific Officer & Senior Vice President, Research & Development at the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) in New York City (1999-2016), leading IAVI’s research and development program. At IAVI, Dr. Koff’s accomplishments included: Developing multiple HIV vaccines through clinical trials; Establishing state of the art laboratories in the US, Europe, India and Africa; Conducting the first HIV vaccine trials in India, Kenya, and Rwanda; Establishing the Neutralizing Antibody Consortium which identified new, broad and potent neutralizing antibodies against HIV that led to the discovery of novel targets for vaccine design; and established a clinical research network in Africa that has conducted seminal studies on HIV pathogenesis, incidence, and acute infection. Dr. Koff served as Vice President, Vaccine Research and Development (1992-1998), at United Biomedical, Inc. (UBI), where he was responsible for its vaccine R&D program. During his tenure at UBI, the company conducted the first AIDS vaccine clinical trials in the developing countries of the People's Republic of China, Thailand, and Brazil. He served as Chief of the Vaccine Research and Development Branch (1988-1992), Division of AIDS, at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), where he led the team that established the preclinical and clinical AIDS vaccine development programs for the National Institutes of Health (NIH). He received his B.A. from Washington University and his Ph.D. from Baylor College of Medicine. Dr. Koff has published more than 100 scientific papers and edited eight books on vaccine development. An internationally recognized viral immunologist in the field of AIDS vaccine research and development, he has been twice honored by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services with the Special Act of Service Award for developing innovative strategies for accelerating global efforts in AIDS vaccine development.

Affiliations and Expertise

President & CEO, Human Vaccines Project, New York City

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