Human Performance Models for Computer-Aided Engineering - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122365300, 9781483272399

Human Performance Models for Computer-Aided Engineering

1st Edition

Editors: Jerome I. Elkind Stuart K. Card Julian Hochberg
eBook ISBN: 9781483272399
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th April 1990
Page Count: 344
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Description

Human Performance Models for Computer-Aided Engineering is a collection of papers that deals with the relationship between scientific theories of human performance and practical engineering. This collection describes the emergence of a scientific engineering paradigm that uses computational theories in computational design aids. This book also considers computational human factors such as human performance models and their application in computer-based engineering designs. This text then presents applications of these models to some helicopter flight problems. This book also explains the four requirements in programming a computer-based model of the sensory performance of a pilot as 1) prediction capability; 2) measurement capability; 3) provision of compatible computer algorithms; and 4) image driven. This collection also describes cognitive structures—aspects of the human information processing system. This text then discusses resource management and time-sharing issues that is related to competition of scarce resources, which can be predictive of the quality of information processing. This book also describes other modeling scenarios such as those predicting human errors, decision making, and shape modeling. This text can prove valuable for computer programmers, engineers, physicists, and research scientists dealing with psychophysics.

Table of Contents


Foreword

Preface

Part I

1 Introduction

Helicopter Flight Problems and Applications of Human Performance Models

Detectability and Visibility

Surface and Motion Estimation

Object Recognition

Hetero-Ocular Vision

Workload and Pilot Performance

Decision Theory

Memory Overload

Skill Acquisition

Human Error

References

2 Preview of Models

Framework

Assessment of Models

3 Use and Integration of Models

Design Process

Toolbox Framework

Selecting Tools and Models

Engineering Analyses

Discussion

Afterword

References

Part II

4 Introduction to Vision Models

5 Models in Early Vision

Overview

Introduction

What is a Model?

Model Attributes

Spatial Vision

Temporal Sensitivity

Motion Processing

Summary

References

6 Models of Static Form Perception

Image Generation

Image Analysis

Potential Applications

References

7 Structure from Motion

Overview

Introduction

Models

Conclusion

Research Needs: Structure from Motion

References

8 Motion-Based State Estimation and Shape Modeling

Introduction and Summary

Framework for Motion-Based State Estimation and Shape Modeling

Review of Research in Motion-Based State Estimation and Shape Modeling

Model Applications and Limitations

Future Research

References

9 Real-Time Human Image Understanding in Pilot Performance Models

Theories of Object Recognition

Model-Based Matching: Lowe's SCERPO and UUman's Alignment Models

Perception of Multiobject Displays

References

10 Manipulation Of Visual Information

Summary

Introduction

Transformations on Information Presented in a Static Visual Display

Memory for Positions in a Sequence of Static Displays

Extrapolation of Perceptually Driven Spatial Transformations

Judgments of Object Structure from Partial Views

Future Research

References

11 Combining Views

Integration of Successive Views

Binocular Combination

References

12 Afterword

13 Introduction to Cognition Models

14 Cognitive Architectures

Symbolist Architectures

Connectionist Models

References

15 Resource Management and Time-Sharing

Overview

Serial Allocation

Parallel Allocation

Serial Competition

Parallel Competition

Synthesis of the Optimal Model

Conclusion

References

16 Models of Working Memory

Phenomena of Working Memory

Models of Working Memory

References

17 Training Models to Estimate Training Costs for New Systems

Overview

Skill Development

Models for Predicting Human Performance

Engineering Guidance without an All-inclusive Model

Use of Rapid Prototyping and Quick Empirical Evaluations

Needed Research

References

18 Modeling Scenarios for Action

Fixed Scenarios

Scenarios with Simple Contingencies

Modeling More Complex Scenarios

References

19 Modeling and Predicting Human Error

Introduction

Error Modeling

References

20 Modeling Decision Making for System Design

Why Decision Making Seems Easy to Model—Sometimes

Implication for Modeling Operator Performance

Modeling without Optimality

Making Behavior More Model-like

Testing the Limits of Decision Making

References

21 Knowledge Elicitation and Representation

Knowledge Elicitation

Knowledge Representation

Mental Models and Design Decisions

References

22 Afterword

Part IV

23 Findings and Recommendations

Desirable Attributes and Types of Models

Adequacy of Models for the A3I Design Facility

Validation

Need for Access to Human Factors Data Base

Broader Context of Computational Human Factors

Importance of the System Design Context for Research on Models

Focusing the A3I Program

Providing a Framework and a Box of Tools


Details

No. of pages:
344
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1990
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483272399

About the Editor

Jerome I. Elkind

Stuart K. Card

Julian Hochberg

Julian Hochberg is the Centennial Professor Emeritus at Columbia University. Dr. Hochberg is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and a recipient of the Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award of the American Psychological Association.

Affiliations and Expertise

Columbia University, New York, U.S.A.

Ratings and Reviews