Human Neuroanatomy - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780120682515, 9780080554181

Human Neuroanatomy

1st Edition

Authors: James R. Augustine
Hardcover ISBN: 9780120682515
eBook ISBN: 9780080554181
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 6th November 2007
Page Count: 512
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This textbook provides a thorough and comprehensive overview of the human brain and spinal cord for medical and graduate students as well as residents in the clinical neurosciences. Standing on the shoulders of training from outstanding scientist-teacher mentors and based on more than 30 years of experience teaching about the brain and spinal cord to medical and graduate students, this single authored text presents everything the reader would need as they begin their study of the nervous system. At the same time the experienced neuroscientist will find much useful and valuable information in these pages that is based almost exclusively on studies in experimental primates and observations in humans. Every effort has been made to present the complexities of the nervous system as simply and clearly as possible. The careful reader will discover a clarity and depth of coverage that makes the reading both instructional and enjoyable. Topics are presented logically and the text in an easy-to-read style. The accompanying line drawings emphasize important concepts in a clear and uncluttered manner.

Topics presented:

• Neurons, glial cells, degeneration, regeneration, axonal transport • Review of the development of the human nervous system • Overview of the anatomy of the spinal cord, brain stem and forebrain • General sensory paths (pain, temperature, touch, pressure, proprioception) • Special sensory systems (auditory, vestibular, visual, olfactory and gustatory) • Eye movements and visual reflexes • Comprehensive presentation of the regions involved in motor activity including the clinical manifestation of injuries to these motor areas • Limbic system, hypothalamus and the autonomic nervous system • Lobes of the brain, clinically important cortical areas and the results of lesions in these areas • Blood supply to the spinal cord, brain stem, and brain including classical brain stem syndromes • The meninges and the ventricular system • Numerous helpful clinical correlations that emphasize the practical application of basic anatomical information.

Key Features

  • Presents the complexities of the nervous system as simply and clearly as possible
  • Written with a clarity and depth of coverage that makes the reading both instructional and enjoyable
  • Includes numerous illustrations emphasizing important concepts


Medical and graduate students, neuroscientists, and neurologists.

Table of Contents



Chapter 1: Introduction to the Nervous System

1.1. Neurons

1.1.1. Neuronal Cell Body (Soma)

1.1.2. Axon Hillock

1.1.3. Neuronal Processes – Axons and Dendrites

1.2. Classification of Neurons

1.2.1. Neuronal Classification by Function

1.2.2. Neuronal Classification by Number of Processes

1.3. The Synapse

1.3.1. Components of a Synapse

1.3.2. Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators

1.3.3. Neuronal Plasticity

1.3.4. The Neuropil

1.4. Neuroglial Cells

1.4.1. Neuroglial Cells differ from Neurons

1.4.2. Identification of Neuroglia

1.4.3. Neuroglial Function

1.4.4. Neuroglial Cells and Aging

1.5. Axonal Transport

1.5.1. Functions of Axonal Transport

1.5.2. Defective Axonal Transport

1.6. Degeneration and Regeneration

1.6.1. Axon or Retrograde Reaction

1.6.2. Anterograde Degeneration

1.6.3. Retrograde Degeneration

1.6.4. Regeneration of Peripheral Nerves

1.6.5. Regeneration and Neurotrophic Factors

1.6.6. Regeneration in the Central Nervous System

1.7. Neural Transplantation

Further Reading

Chapter 2: Development of the Nervous System

2.1. First Week of Development (Fertilization, Free Blastocyst, Attaching Blastocyst)

2.1.1. Fertilization

2.1.2. From Two Cells to the Free Blastocyst

2.2. Second Week of Development (Implantation, Primitive Streak Appears, Three Layers of Cells)

2.2.1. Implantation and the Appearance of Two Distinct Layers of Cells

2.2.2. Primitive Streak and a Third Layer of Cells Appear

2.3. Third Week of Development (Neural Plate, Groove, and Folds, Three Main Divisions of the Brain)

2.3.1. Primitive Node and Notochordal Process Appear

2.3.2. Neural Plate, Groove, Folds and Neuromeres Appear

2.3.3. Three Main Divisions of the Brain Identifiable

2.3.4. Mesencephalic Flexure Appears

2.4. Fourth Week of Development (Neural Tube Forms and Closes, Neural Crest Formation Continues)

2.4.1. Formation of the Neural Tube

2.4.2. Rostral and Caudal Neuropores Remain Temporarily Open

2.4.3. Neural Crest Cells Emerge

2.4.4. Neural Canal – the Future Ventricular System

2.4.5. Neuropores Close and the Closed Neural Tube is Filled with Fluid

2.4.6. Cervical Flexure Present

2.5. Fifth Week of Development (Five Subdivisions of the Brain Identifiable)

2.5.1. Simple Tube Transforms into Complex Organ System

2.5.2. Five Subdivisions of the Brain Appear

2.5.3. Brain Vesicles vs. Brain Regions

2.6. Vulnerability of the Developing Nervous System

2.7. Congenital Malformations of the Nervous System

2.7.1. Spinal Dysraphism

2.7.2. Anencephaly

Further Reading

Chapter 3: The Spinal Cord

3.1. Embryological Considerations

3.1.1. Layers of the Developing Spinal Cord

3.1.2. Formation of Ventral Gray Columns and Ventral Roots

3.1.3. Formation of Dorsal Gray Columns

3.1.4. Dorsal and Ventral Horns vs. Dorsal and Ventral Gray Columns

3.1.5. Development of Neural Crest Cells

3.1.6. The Framework of the Adult Cord is Present at Birth

3.2. Gross Anatomy

3.2.1. Spinal Cord Weight and Length

3.2.2. Spinal Segments, Regions, and Enlargements

3.2.3. Spinal Segments in Each Region are of Unequal Length

3.2.4. Conus Medullaris, Filum Terminale, and Cauda Equina

3.2.5. Termination of the Adult Spinal Cord

3.2.6. Differential Rate of Growth: Vertebral Column vs. the Spinal Cord

3.2.7. Relationship between Spinal Segments and Vertebrae

3.3. Nuclear Groups – Gray Matter

3.3.1. General Arrangement of Spinal Cord Gray Matter

3.3.2. Gray Matter at Enlargement Levels

3.3.3. Spinal Laminae

3.3.4. Dorsal Horn

3.3.5. Lateral Horn

3.3.6. Ventral Horn

3.4. Functional Classes of Neurons

3.4.1. Four Classes of Neurons in the Spinal Cord

3.4.2. General Somatic vs. General Visceral Afferent Neurons

3.4.3. General Somatic vs. General Visceral Efferent Neurons

3.4.4. Some Ventral Root Axons are Sensory

3.5. Funiculi/Fasciculi/Tracts – White Matter

3.6. Spinal Reflexes

3.7. Spinal Meninges and Related Spaces

3.7.1. Spinal Dura Mater

3.7.2. Spinal Arachnoid

3.7.3. Spinal Pia Mater

3.8. Spinal Cord Injury

3.8.1. Transverse Hemisection of the Spinal Cord (Brown-Séquard Syndrome)

3.8.2. Syringomyelia

3.9. Blood Supply to the Spinal Cord

Further Reading

Chapter 4: The Brain Stem

4.1. External Features

4.1.1. Medulla Oblongata

4.1.2. Pons

4.1.3. Midbrain

4.2. Cerebellum and Fourth Ventricle

4.2.1. Cerebellum

4.2.2. Fourth Ventricle

4.3. Organization of Brain Stem Neuronal Columns

4.3.1. Functional Components of the Cranial Nerves

4.3.2. Efferent Columns

4.3.3. Afferent Columns

4.4. Internal Features

4.4.1. Endogenous Substances

4.4.2. Medulla Oblongata

4.4.3. Pons

4.4.4. Midbrain

Further Reading

Chapter 5: The Forebrain

5.1. Telencephalon

5.1.1. Telencephalon Medium

5.1.2. Cerebral Hemispheres

5.1.3. Basal Nuclei

5.1.4. Rhinencephalon

5.2. Diencephalon

5.2.1. Epithalamus

5.2.2. Thalamus

5.2.3. Subthalamus

5.2.4. Hypothalamus

5.3. Cerebral White Matter

Further Reading 80

Chapter 6: Introduction to Ascending Sensory Paths

6.1. Receptors

6.2. Classification of Receptors by Modality

6.2.1. Mechanoreceptors

6.2.2. Thermoreceptors

6.2.3. Nociceptors

6.2.4. Chemoreceptors

6.2.5. Photoreceptors

6.2.6. Osmoreceptors

6.3. Sherrington’s Classification of Receptors

6.3.1. Exteroceptors

6.3.2. Interoceptors

6.3.3. Proprioceptors

6.4. Structural Classification of Receptors

6.4.1. Free Nerve Endings

6.4.2. Endings in Hair Follicles

6.4.3. Terminal Endings of Nerves

6.4.4. Neurotendinous Spindles

6.4.5. Neuromuscular Spindles

6.5. Reflex Circuits

6.5.1. The Monosynaptic Reflex

6.5.2. Complex Reflexes

6.6. General Sensory Paths

6.6.1. Classification of Sensory Paths by Function

6.7. Organization of General Sensory Paths

6.7.1. Receptors

6.7.2. Primary Neurons

6.7.3. Secondary Neurons

6.7.4. Thalamic Neurons

6.7.5. Cortical Neurons

6.7.6. Modulation of Sensory Paths

Further Reading

Chapter 7: Paths for Pain and Temperature

7.1. Path for Superficial Pain and Temperature from the Body

7.1.1. Modalities

7.1.2. Receptor

7.1.3. Primary Neurons

7.1.4. Secondary Neurons

7.1.5. Position of the Lateral Spinothalamic Tract in the Brain Stem

7.1.6. Thalamic Neurons

7.1.7. Cortical Neurons

7.1.8. Modulation of Painful and Thermal Impulses

7.2. Path for Visceral Pain from the Body

7.2.1. Modalities and Receptors

7.2.2. Primary Neurons

7.2.3. Secondary Neurons

7.2.4. Thalamic Neurons

7.2.5. Cortical Neurons

7.2.6. Suffering Accompanying Pain

7.2.7. Visceral Pain as Referred Pain

7.2.8. Transection of Fiber Bundles to Relieve Intractable Pain

7.3. The Trigeminal Nuclear Complex

7.3.1. Organization of the Trigeminal Nuclear Complex

7.3.2. Organization of Entering Trigeminal Sensory Fibers

7.4. Path for Superficial Pain and Thermal Extremes from the Head

7.4.1. Modalities and Receptors

7.4.2. Primary Neurons

7.4.3. Secondary Neurons

7.4.4. Thalamic Neurons

7.5. Path for Thermal Discrimination from the Head

7.5.1. Modality and Receptors

7.5.2. Primary Neurons

7.5.3. Secondary Neurons

7.5.4. Thalamic Neurons

7.5.5. Cortical Neurons

7.6. General Somatic Afferent Components of VII, IX and X

7.7. Trigeminal and Other Neuralgias

7.7.1. Causes of Trigeminal Neuralgia 1

7.7.2. Methods of Treatment for Trigeminal Neuralgia

7.8. Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia

Further Reading

Chapter 8: Paths for Touch, Pressure, Proprioception, and Vibration

8.1. Path for General Tactile Sensation from the Body

8.1.1. Modalities and Receptors

8.1.2. Primary Neurons

8.1.3. Secondary Neurons

8.1.4. Thalamic Neurons

8.2. Path for Tactile Discrimination, Pressure, Proprioception, and Vibration from the Body 1

8.2.1. Modalities and Receptors

8.2.2. Primary Neurons

8.2.3. Secondary Neurons

8.2.4. Thalamic Neurons

8.2.5. Cortical Neurons

8.2.6. Spinal Cord Stimulation for the Relief of Pain

8.3. Path for Tactile Discrimination from the Head

8.3.1. Modalities and Receptors

8.3.2. Primary Neurons

8.3.3. Secondary Neurons

8.3.4. Thalamic Neurons

8.3.5. Cortical Neurons

8.4. Path for General Tactile Sensation from the Head

8.4.1. Modalities and Receptors

8.4.2. Primary Neurons

8.4.3. Secondary Neurons and Their Central Processes

8.4.4. Thalamic Neurons

8.5. Path for Proprioception, Pressure, and Vibration from the Head

8.5.1. Modalities and Receptors

8.5.2. Primary Neurons

8.5.3. Secondary Neurons

8.5.4. Thalamic Neurons

8.5.5. Cortical Neurons

8.6. Trigeminal Motor Component

8.7. Certain Trigeminal Reflexes

8.7.1. Mandibular, Masseter, or ‘Jaw-Closing’ Reflex

8.7.2. Corneal Reflex

Further Reading

Chapter 9: The Reticular Formation

9.1. Structural Aspects

9.1.1. Reticular Nuclei in the Medulla

9.1.2. Reticular Nuclei in the Pons

9.1.3. Reticular Nuclei in the Midbrain

9.2. Ascending Reticular System

9.3. Descending Reticular System

9.4. Functional Aspects of the Reticular Formation

9.4.1. Consciousness

9.4.2. Homeostatic Regulation

9.4.3. Visceral Reflexes

9.4.4. Motor Function

Further Reading 1

Chapter 10: The Auditory System

10.1. Gross Anatomy

10.1.1. External Ear

10.1.2. Middle Ear

10.1.3. Internal Ear

10.2. The Ascending Auditory Path

10.2.1. Modality and Receptors

10.2.2. Primary Neurons

10.2.3. Secondary Neurons

10.2.4. Tertiary Neurons

10.2.5. Inferior Collicular Neurons

10.2.6. Thalamic Neurons

10.2.7. Cortical Neurons


10.3. Descending Auditory Connections

10.3.1. Electrical Stimulation of Cochlear Efferents

10.3.2. Autonomic Fibers to the Cochlea

10.4. Injury to the Auditory Path

10.4.1. Congenital Loss of Hearing

10.4.2. Decoupling of Stereocilia

10.4.3. Tinnitus

10.4.4. Noise-Induced Loss of Hearing

10.4.5. Aging and the Loss of Hearing

10.4.6. Unilateral Loss of Hearing

10.4.7. Injury to the Inferior Colliculi

10.4.8. Unilateral Injury to the Medial Geniculate Body or Auditory Cortex

10.4.9. Bilateral Injury to the Primary Auditory Cortex

10.4.10. Auditory Seizures – Audenes

10.5. Cochlear Implants

10.6. Auditory Brain Stem Implants

Further Reading

Chapter 11: The Vestibular System

11.1 Gross Anatomy

11.1.1. Internal Ear

11.2. The Ascending Vestibular Path

11.2.1. Modalities and Receptors

11.2.2. Primary Neurons

11.2.3. Secondary Neurons

11.2.4. Thalamic Neurons

11.2.5. Cortical Neurons

11.3. Other Vestibular Connections

11.3.1. Primary Vestibulocerebellar Fibers

11.3.2. Vestibular Nuclear Projections to the Cerebellum

11.3.3. Vestibular Nuclear Projections to the Spinal Cord

11.3.4. Vestibular Nuclear Projections to Nuclei of the Extraocular Muscles

11.3.5. Vestibular Nuclear Projections to the Reticular Formation

11.3.6. Vestibular Projections to the Contralateral Vestibular Nuclei

11.4. The Efferent Component of the Vestibular System

11.5. Afferent Projections to the Vestibular Nuclei

11.6. Vertigo

11.6.1. Physiological Vertigo

11.6.2. Pathological Vertigo

Further Reading

Chapter 12: The Visual System

12.1. Retina

12.1.1. Pigment Layer

12.1.2. Neural Layer

12.1.3. Other Retinal Elements

12.1.4. Special Retinal Regions

12.1.5. Retinal Areas

12.1.6. Visual Fields

12.2. Visual Path

12.2.1. Receptors

12.2.2. Primary Retinal Neurons

12.2.3. Secondary Retinal Neurons

12.2.4. Optic Nerve [II]

12.2.5. Optic Chiasma – the Union of Both Intracranial Optic Nerves 208

12.2.6. Optic Tract

12.2.7. Thalamic Neurons

12.2.8. Optic Radiations

12.2.9. Cortical Neurons

12.3. Injuries to the Visual System

12.3.1. Retinal Injuries

12.3.2. Injury to the Optic Nerve

12.3.3. Chiasmal Injuries

12.3.4. Injuries to the Optic Tract

12.3.5. Injury to the Lateral Geniculate Body

12.3.6. Injuries to the Optic Radiations

12.3.7. Injuries to the Visual Cortex

Further Reading

Chapter 13: Ocular Movements and Visual Reflexes

13.1. Ocular Movements

13.1.1. Primary Position of the Eyes

13.2. Conjugate Ocular Movements

13.2.1. Miniature Ocular Movements

13.2.2. Saccades

13.2.3. Smooth Pursuit Movements

13.2.4. Vestibular Movements

13.3. Extraocular Muscles

13.4. Innervation of the Extraocular Muscles

13.4.1. Abducent Nucleus and Nerve

13.4.2. Trochlear Nucleus and Nerve

13.4.3. Oculomotor Nucleus and Nerve

13.5. Anatomical Basis of Conjugate Ocular Movements

13.6. Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus

13.7. Vestibular Connections Related to Ocular Movements

13.7.1. Vestibular Connections Related to Horizontal Ocular Movements

13.7.2. Vestibular Nystagmus

13.7.3. Doll’s Ocular Movements

13.7.4. Vestibular Connections Related to Vertical Ocular Movements

13.8. Injury to the Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus

13.9. Injury to the Vestibular Nuclei

13.10. The Reticular Formation and Ocular Movements

13.11. Congenital Nystagmus

13.12. Ocular Bobbing

13.13. Examination of the Vestibular System

13.14. Visual Reflexes

13.14.1. The Light Reflex

13.14.2. The Near Reflex

13.14.3. Pupillary Dilatation

13.14.4. The Lateral Tectotegmentospinal Tract

13.14.5. Pupillary Pain Reflex and the Spinotectal Tract

13.14.6. The Afferent Pupillary Defect (Marcus Gunn Pupillary Sign)

Further Reading

Chapter 14: The Thalamus

14.1. Introduction

14.2. Nuclear Groups of the Thalamus

14.2.1. Anterior Nuclei and the Lateral Dorsal Nucleus

14.2.2. Intralaminar Nuclei

14.2.3. Medial Nuclei

14.2.4. Median Nuclei

14.2.5. Metathalamic Body and Nuclei

14.2.6. Posterior Nuclear Complex

14.2.7. Pulvinar Nuclei and Lateral Posterior Nucleus

14.2.8. Reticular Nucleus

14.2.9. Ventral Nuclei

14.3. Injuries to the Thalamus

14.4. Mapping the Human Thalamus

14.5. Stimulation of the Human Thalamus

14.6. The Thalamus as a Neurosurgical Target

Further Reading

Chapter 15: The Motor System: Part 1 – Lower Motoneurons and the Pyramidal System

15.1. Regions Involved in Motor Activity

15.2. Lower Motoneurons

15.2.1. Terms Related to Motor Activity

15.2.2. Lower Motoneurons in the Spinal Cord

15.2.3. Activation of Motoneurons

15.2.4. Lower Motoneurons in the Brain Stem

15.2.5. Injury to Lower Motoneurons

15.2.6. Examples of Lower Motoneuron Disorders

15.3. Pyramidal System

15.3.1. Corticospinal Component

15.3.2. Corticobulbar Component

15.3.3. Clinical Neuroanatomical Correlation

Further Reading

Chapter 16: The Motor System: Part 2 – The Extrapyramidal System and Cerebellum

16.1. Extrapyramidal System

16.1.1. Extrapyramidal Motor Cortex

16.1.2. Basal Nuclei

16.1.3. Afferents to the Basal Nuclei

16.1.4. Cortical-striatal-pallidal-thalamocortical Circuits

16.1.5. Multisynaptic Descending Paths

16.1.6. Common Discharge Paths

16.1.7. Somatotopic Organization of the Basal Nuclei

16.2. Cerebellum

16.2.1. External Features of the Cerebellum

16.2.2. Cerebellar Cortex

16.2.3. Deep Cerebellar Nuclei

16.2.4. Cerebellar White Matter

16.3. Input to the Cerebellum through the Peduncles

16.3.1. Inferior Cerebellar Peduncle

16.3.2. Middle Cerebellar Peduncle

16.3.3. Superior Cerebellar Peduncle

6.4. Input to the Cerebellum

16.4.1. Incoming Fibers to the Cerebellum

16.5. Cerebellar Output

16.5.1. Output from the Fastigial Nuclei

16.5.2. Output from the Globose and Emboliform Nuclei

16.5.3. Output from the Dentate Nuclei

16.6. Cerebellar Circuitry

16.7. Common Discharge Paths

16.8. Cerebellar Functions

16.8.1. Motor Functions of the Cerebellum

16.8.2. Nonmotor Functions of the Cerebellum

16.8.3. Studies Involving the Human Cerebellum

16.8.4. Localization in the Cerebellum

16.9. Manifestations of Injuries to the Motor System

16.9.1. Injury to the Premotor Cortex

16.9.2. Injuries to the Basal Nuclei

16.9.3. Injury to the Subthalamic Nucleus

16.9.4. Injury to the Cerebellum

16.9.5. Localization of Cerebellar Damage

16.10. Decorticate Versus Decerebrate Rigidity

16.10.1. Decerebrate Rigidity

16.10.2. Decorticate Rigidity

16.11. Epilogue

Further Reading

Chapter 17: The Olfactory and Gustatory Systems

17.1. The Olfactory System

17.1.1. Receptors

17.1.2. Primary Neurons

17.1.3. Olfactory Fila and the Olfactory Nerve

17.1.4. Olfactory Bulb – Secondary Olfactory Neurons

17.1.5. Olfactory Stalk

17.1.6. Medial Stria

17.1.7. Lateral Stria

17.1.8. Thalamic Neurons

17.1.9. Cortical Neurons

17.1.10. Efferent Olfactory Connections

17.1.11. Injuries to the Olfactory System

17.2. The Gustatory System

17.2.1. Receptors

17.2.2. Primary Neurons

17.2.3. Secondary Neurons

17.2.4. The Ascending Gustatory Path

17.2.5. Thalamic Neurons

17.2.6. Cortical Neurons

17.2.7. Injuries to the Gustatory System

Further Reading

Chapter 18: The Limbic System

18.1. Historical Aspects

18.2. Anatomy of the Limbic System

18.2.1. Olfactory System

18.2.2. Septal Area

18.2.3. Mamillary Bodies of the Hypothalamus

18.2.4. Anterior Nuclei of the Thalamus

18.2.5. The Hippocampal Formation

18.2.6. The Amygdaloid Body

18.2.7. Cingulate Gyrus and Cingulum

18.2.8. Cortical Areas

18.3. Cyclic Paths of the Limbic System

18.4. Synaptic Organization of Human Limbic System

18.5. Descending Limbic Paths

18.6. Functional Aspects of the Human Limbic System

18.6.1. Emotion

18.6.2. Memory

18.7. Limbic System Disorders

18.8. Injuries to Limbic Constituents

18.8.1. Septal Area

18.8.2. Hippocampal Formation

18.8.3. Amygdaloid Body

18.8.4. Seizures Involving the Limbic System

18.9. Psychosurgery of the Limbic System

18.9.1. Drug Resistant Epilepsy

18.9.2. Violent, Aggressive, or Restless Behaviors

18.9.3. Schizophrenia

18.9.4. Intractable Pain

18.9.5. Psychiatric Disorders and Abnormal Behavior

Further Reading

Chapter 19: The Hypothalamus

19.1. Hypothalamic Regions

19.2. Hypothalamic Zones

19.3. Hypothalamic Nuclei

19.3.1. Anterior Hypothalamic Region

19.3.2. Dorsal Hypothalamic Region

19.3.3. Intermediate Hypothalamic Region

19.3.4. Lateral Hypothalamic Area

19.3.5. Posterior Hypothalamic Region

19.3.6. Posterior Nucleus of the Hypothalamus

19.4. Fiber Connections

19.4.1. Medial Forebrain Bundle

19.4.2. Stria Terminalis

19.4.3. Fornix

19.4.4. Diencephalic Periventricular System (DPS)

19.4.5. Dorsal Longitudinal Fasciculus

19.4.6. Anterior and Posterior Hypothalamotegmental Tracts 3

19.4.7. Pallidohypothalamic Tract

19.4.8. Mamillothalamic Tract

19.4.9. Hypothalamo-hypophyseal Tract

19.4.10. Vascular Connections

19.5. Functions of the Hypothalamus

19.5.1. Water Balance – Water Intake and Loss

19.5.2. Eating – Food Intake

19.5.3. Temperature Regulation

19.5.4. Autonomic Regulation

19.5.5. Emotional Expression

19.5.6. Wakefulness and Sleep (Biological Rhythms)

19.5.7. Control of the Endocrine System

19.5.8. Reproduction

Further Reading

Chapter 20: The Autonomic Nervous System

20.1 Historical Aspects

20.2. Structural Aspects

20.2.1. Location of Autonomic Neurons of Origin

20.2.2. Manner of Distribution of Autonomic Fibers

20.2.3. Termination of Autonomic Fibers

20.3. Comparison of the Somatic Efferents and Visceral Efferents

20.4. General Visceral Afferents

20.5. Regulation of the Autonomic Nervous System

20.6. Disorders of the Autonomic Nervous System

Further Reading

Chapter 21: General Features of the Cerebral Hemispheres

21.1. Facts and Figures

21.2. Cortical Neurons

21.3. Cortical Layers

21.4. Cortical Columns (Microarchitecture)

21.5. Functional Aspects of the Cerebral Cortex

21.6. Cerebral Dominance, Lateralization, and Asymmetry

21.7. Frontal Lobe

21.7.1. Primary Motor Cortex

21.7.2. Premotor Cortex

21.7.3. Supplementary Motor Area (SMA)

21.7.4. Cingulate Motor Areas

21.7.5. Frontal Eye Fields

21.7.6. Motor Speech Region

21.7.7. Prefrontal Cortex

21.8. Parietal Lobe

21.8.1. Primary Somatosensory Cortex (SI)

21.8.2. Secondary Somatosensory Cortex

21.8.3. Superior Parietal Lobule

21.8.4. Inferior Parietal Lobule: Language Areas

21.8.5. Primary Vestibular Cortex (2v)

21.8.6. Mirror Representation of Others’ Actions

21.8.7. Preoccipital Areas Involved in Following Ocular Movements

21.9. Occipital Lobe

21.9.1. Primary Visual Cortex (V1)

21.9.2. Secondary Visual Cortex

21.10. Temporal Lobe

21.10.1. Primary Auditory Cortex (AI)

21.10.2. Wernicke’s Region

21.10.3. Temporal Vestibular Cortex

21.10.4. Midtemporal Areas Related to Memory

21.10.5. Anomia

21.10.6. Prosopagnosia

21.10.7. Psychomotor Seizures

21.11. Insular Lobe

21.12. Aphasia

21.12.1. Historic Aspects of Aphasia

21.12.2. Broca’s Aphasia

21.12.3. Wernicke’s Aphasia

21.12.4. Conductive Aphasia

21.12.5. Global Aphasia

21.13. Alexia

21.14. Apraxia

21.15. Gerstmann’s Syndrome

21.16. Agnosia

21.17. Dyslexia

Further Reading

Chapter 22: Blood Supply to the Central Nervous System

22.1. Cerebral Circulation

22.2. Aortic Arch, Brachiocephalic Trunk, and Subclavian Vessels

22.3. Vertebral-Basilar Arterial System

22.3.1. Branches of the Vertebral Arteries

22.4. Blood Supply to the Spinal Cord

22.4.1. Extramedullary Vessels

22.4.2. Intramedullary Vessels

22.4.3. Spinal Veins

22.5. Blood Supply to the Brain Stem and Cerebellum

22.5.1. Extrinsic or Superficial Branches

22.5.2. Branches of the Basilar Arteries

22.5.3. Intrinsic or Penetrating Branches

22.5.4. Classical Brain Stem Syndromes

22.6. Common Carotid Artery

22.6.1. External Carotid Artery

22.6.2. Internal Carotid Artery: Cervical, Petrous, and Cavernous Parts

22.7. Blood Supply to the Cerebral Hemispheres

22.7.1. Internal Carotid Artery: Cerebral Part

22.7.2. Branches of the Internal Carotid Artery

22.7.3. Posterior Cerebral Artery and its Cerebral Supply

22.8. Cerebral Arterial Circle

22.8.1. Types of Arteries Supplying the Brain

22.9. Embryological Considerations

22.10. Vascular Injuries

22.10.1. Brain Stem Vascular Injuries

22.10.2. Visualization of Brain Vessels

Further Reading393

Chapter 23: The Meninges, Ventricular System and Cerebrospinal Fluid

23.1. The Cranial Meninges and Related Spaces

23.1.1. Cranial Dura Mater

23.1.2. Cranial Arachnoid

23.1.3. Cranial Pia Mater

23.1.4. Dural Projections

23.1.5. Intracranial Herniations

23.2. Ventricular System

23.2.1. Introduction

23.2.2. Lateral Ventricles

23.2.3. Third Ventricle

23.2.4. Aqueduct of Midbrain

23.2.5. Fourth Ventricle

23.3. Cerebrospinal Fluid

Further Reading




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© Academic Press 2008
Academic Press
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About the Author

James R. Augustine

Affiliations and Expertise

University of South Carolina, School of Medicine, Columbia, SC, USA


"The book is well done, well written and beautifully illustrated. I have looked at every page, and admired the many illustrations. The precision of the neuroanatomical details should be a wake-up call to all the "generalities" fostered by those who tout "Neuroscience." I hope the book does well!" --Isabel Lockard, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, Cell Biology and Anatomy, the Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, USA