Description

Simulate realistic human motion in a virtual world with an optimization-based approach to motion prediction. With this approach, motion is governed by human performance measures, such as speed and energy, which act as objective functions to be optimized. Constraints on joint torques and angles are imposed quite easily. Predicting motion in this way allows one to use avatars to study how and why humans move the way they do, given specific scenarios. It also enables avatars to react to infinitely many scenarios with substantial autonomy. With this approach it is possible to predict dynamic motion without having to integrate equations of motion -- rather than solving equations of motion, this approach solves for a continuous time-dependent curve characterizing joint variables (also called joint profiles) for every degree of freedom.

Key Features

  • Introduces rigorous mathematical methods for digital human modelling and simulation
  • Focuses on understanding and representing spatial relationships (3D) of biomechanics
  • Develops an innovative optimization-based approach to predicting human movement
  • Extensively illustrated with 3D images of simulated human motion (full color in the ebook version)

Readership

students in advanced biomechanics courses, kinesiology, exercise science, human motion, etc. A reference for professionals studying human movements, such as biomechanists, motor behaviorists, ergonomists, safety equipment designers, and rehabilitation specialists.

Table of Contents

Dedication

Preface

Acknowledgments

Current Faculty and Staff

Current Students

Past Students and Collaborators

Past Summer Interns

Visiting Faculty and Scientists

Chapter 1. Introduction

1.1 What is predictive dynamics?

1.2 How does predictive dynamics work?

1.3 Why data-driven human motion prediction does not work

1.4 Concluding remarks

References

Chapter 2. Human Modeling: Kinematics

2.1 Introduction

2.2 General rigid body displacement

2.3 Concept of extended vectors and homogeneous coordinates

2.4 Basic transformations

2.5 Composite transformations

2.6 Directed transformation graphs

2.7 Determining the position of a multi-segmental link: forward kinematics

2.8 The Denavit–Hartenberg representation

2.9 The kinematic skeleton

2.10 Establishing coordinate systems

2.11 The Santos® model

2.12 Variations in anthropometry

2.13 A 55-DOF whole body model

2.14 Global DOFs and virtual joints

2.15 Concluding remarks

References

Chapter 3. Posture Prediction and Optimization

3.1 What is optimization?

3.2 What is posture prediction?

3.3 Inducing behavior

3.4 Posture prediction versus inverse kinematics

3.5 Optimization-based posture prediction

3.6 A 3-DOF arm example

3.7 Development of human performance measures

3.8 Motion between two points

3.9 Joint profiles as B-spline curves

3.10 Motion prediction formulation

3.11 A 15-DOF motion prediction

3.12 Optimization algorithm

3.13 Motion prediction of a 15-DOF model

3.14 Multi-objective problem statement

3.15 Design variables and constraints

3.16 Concluding remarks

References

Chapter 4. Recursive Dynamics

4.1 Introduction

Details

No. of pages:
288
Language:
English
Copyright:
© 2013
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
Print ISBN:
9780124051904
Electronic ISBN:
9780124046016

About the authors

Karim Abdel-Malek

Karim Abdel-Malek is a professor in the Department of Biomedical Engineering and the Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering at the University of Iowa. He obtained his PhD in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Pennsylvania. Dr. Abdel-Malek is the Founder and Director of the Virtual Soldier Research (VSR) program; Director of the Center for Computer Aided Design; former Associate Editor of the International Journal of Robotics and Automation; former Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Human Factors Modeling & Simulation; and a Fellow of the American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering (AIMBE).

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanical & Industrial Engineering, University of Iowa

Jasbir Arora

Jasbir Singh Arora is an F. Wendell Miller Professor of Engineering, a Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering, and a Professor of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering at the University of Iowa. He obtained his PhD in Mechanics and Hydraulics from the University of Iowa. Dr. Arora is the Associate Director of the Center for Computer Aided Design. He is a Senior Advisor for the International Journal of Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization and he is on the Editorial Board of the International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering. He is a Fellow of the American Society of Civil Engineers and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and a Senior Member of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Dr. Arora is an internationally recognized researcher in the field of optimization and his book Introduction to Optimum Design, 3rd Edition (Academic Press, 2012, 978-0-12-381375-6) is used worldwide. Jasbir Singh Arora is an F. Wendell Miller Professor of Engineering, a Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering, and a Professor of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering at the University of Iowa. He obtained his PhD in Mechanics and Hydraulics from the University of Iowa. Dr. Arora is the Associate Director of the Center for Computer Aided Design. He is a Senior Advisor for the International Journal of Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization and he is on the Editorial Board of the International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering. He is a Fellow of the American Society of Civil Engineers and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and a Senior Member of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Dr. Arora is an internationally recognized researcher in the field of optimization and his book Introduction to Optimum Design, 3rd Edition (Academic Press, 2012, 978-0-12-381375-6) is used worldwide.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering & Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Iowa, iowa City, IA, USA