Human Milk and Infant Formula

Human Milk and Infant Formula

1st Edition - January 28, 1982

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  • Author: Vernal Packard
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323157834

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Human Milk and Infant Formula focuses on human milk and infant formula as the major sources of infant food. This book discusses the basic composition of human milk and explains the significant causes of variations in vitamins, minerals, and macronutrients. Comprised of nine chapters, this monograph starts with an overview of the benefits of breast-feeding with emphasis on the disease-fighting potential of mother's milk. This text then proceeds with a discussion of breast infections, contaminants of breast milk, allergic responses, and issues of drug use. Other chapters explore the formulation and processing of infant formula. This book discusses as well the emergence of milk banks that observe precautions in obtaining, storing, and pasteurizing human milk. The final chapter deals with the inability to digest lactose properly, which is commonly known as lactose intolerance. This monograph is a valuable resource for pediatricians, nutritionists, immunologists, as well as food technologists and chemists.

Table of Contents

  • Preface


    Current Infant Feeding Practices


    1 Macronutrients and Energy




    Energy Needs and Supply

    General Dietary Considerations

    2 Vitamins

    Water-Soluble Vitamins

    Fat-Soluble Vitamins

    Processing Losses in Vitamin Content

    Vitamin Content of the Milk of Other Mammals


    3 Minerals

    Calcium and Phosphorus




    Sodium, Potassium, and Chloride

    Trace Minerals

    Mineral Content of Goat's Milk


    4 Immune Factors

    Common Infectious Agents

    Immune Responses

    The Defenders

    Nonspecific Defenders

    Other Immune Factors

    Nutritional Status and Immune Response

    The Problem of Allergies

    Additives and Immunity

    Building Immune Factors into Infant Formula

    5 Mammary Infections, Drugs, and Environmental Pollutants

    Mammary Infections

    Drugs and the Nursing Mother

    Environmental Pollutants

    6 Infant Formula Composition, Formulation, and Processing

    The Nutrient Components of Infant Formula

    Infant Formula: Its Formulation

    Formulations for Premature Infants

    Some Processing Considerations

    Indirect Heating Methods

    Direct Heating Methods

    Processing Dry Infant Formula

    Processing Immune Factors into Infant Formula

    Adding Iron to Infant Formula

    Processing Out Allergens

    Standards of Quality Control

    Infant Formula Act of 1980

    Labeling Infant Foods

    7 Human Milk: Extraction, Processing, and Storage

    Standards of Bacterial Quality

    Tips for Donors

    Sanitary Expression of Milk

    Storage of Milk

    Pasteurization of Mother's Milk

    In-Bottle Pasteurization

    Heat Treatment, Nutrients, and Immune Potency

    Cold (Chemical) Sterilization of Milk

    Reducing Lactose Content

    8 Infant Food: Use and Misuse

    Breast Milk

    Infant Formula

    Preparation and Use of Non Formula Milk Products for Infant Feeding

    Infant Botulism

    9 Lactose: At Weaning and Beyond

    The Very First Milk Drinkers

    Lactose Digestion and Upset Stomachs

    The Role of Lactose in the Diet

    Practical Implications

    Technology: A Part of the Answer

    Lactose and Cataracts



    1 Composition of Human Milk

    2 Recommended International Standards for Kind and Amount of Nutrients in Formulas and Foods for Infants under Twelve Months of Age

    3 Vitamin Compounds Approved for Addition to Formulas and Baby Foods

    4 Mineral Salts Approved for Addition to Formulas and Foods for Infants and Children

    5 Mineral Salts Pending Approval for Addition to Formulas and Foods for Infants and Children

    6 International Allowances for Food Additives in Infant Formula

    7 Dietary Needs of Women, Pregnant Women, and Nursing Mothers

    8 Recommended Nutrient Intakes for Normal Full-Term Infants according to Various Sources


    General References


Product details

  • No. of pages: 282
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1982
  • Published: January 28, 1982
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323157834

About the Author

Vernal Packard

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