Human Milk and Infant Formula - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125434201, 9780323157834

Human Milk and Infant Formula

1st Edition

Authors: Vernal Packard
eBook ISBN: 9780323157834
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1982
Page Count: 282
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Description

Human Milk and Infant Formula focuses on human milk and infant formula as the major sources of infant food. This book discusses the basic composition of human milk and explains the significant causes of variations in vitamins, minerals, and macronutrients. Comprised of nine chapters, this monograph starts with an overview of the benefits of breast-feeding with emphasis on the disease-fighting potential of mother's milk. This text then proceeds with a discussion of breast infections, contaminants of breast milk, allergic responses, and issues of drug use. Other chapters explore the formulation and processing of infant formula. This book discusses as well the emergence of milk banks that observe precautions in obtaining, storing, and pasteurizing human milk. The final chapter deals with the inability to digest lactose properly, which is commonly known as lactose intolerance. This monograph is a valuable resource for pediatricians, nutritionists, immunologists, as well as food technologists and chemists.

Table of Contents


Preface

Introduction

Current Infant Feeding Practices

Approach

1 Macronutrients and Energy

Carbohydrates

Fat

Protein

Energy Needs and Supply

General Dietary Considerations

2 Vitamins

Water-Soluble Vitamins

Fat-Soluble Vitamins

Processing Losses in Vitamin Content

Vitamin Content of the Milk of Other Mammals

Summary

3 Minerals

Calcium and Phosphorus

Magnesium

Iron

Zinc

Sodium, Potassium, and Chloride

Trace Minerals

Mineral Content of Goat's Milk

Summary

4 Immune Factors

Common Infectious Agents

Immune Responses

The Defenders

Nonspecific Defenders

Other Immune Factors

Nutritional Status and Immune Response

The Problem of Allergies

Additives and Immunity

Building Immune Factors into Infant Formula

5 Mammary Infections, Drugs, and Environmental Pollutants

Mammary Infections

Drugs and the Nursing Mother

Environmental Pollutants

6 Infant Formula Composition, Formulation, and Processing

The Nutrient Components of Infant Formula

Infant Formula: Its Formulation

Formulations for Premature Infants

Some Processing Considerations

Indirect Heating Methods

Direct Heating Methods

Processing Dry Infant Formula

Processing Immune Factors into Infant Formula

Adding Iron to Infant Formula

Processing Out Allergens

Standards of Quality Control

Infant Formula Act of 1980

Labeling Infant Foods

7 Human Milk: Extraction, Processing, and Storage

Standards of Bacterial Quality

Tips for Donors

Sanitary Expression of Milk

Storage of Milk

Pasteurization of Mother's Milk

In-Bottle Pasteurization

Heat Treatment, Nutrients, and Immune Potency

Cold (Chemical) Sterilization of Milk

Reducing Lactose Content

8 Infant Food: Use and Misuse

Breast Milk

Infant Formula

Preparation and Use of Non Formula Milk Products for Infant Feeding

Infant Botulism

9 Lactose: At Weaning and Beyond

The Very First Milk Drinkers

Lactose Digestion and Upset Stomachs

The Role of Lactose in the Diet

Practical Implications

Technology: A Part of the Answer

Lactose and Cataracts

Epilogue

Appendixes

1 Composition of Human Milk

2 Recommended International Standards for Kind and Amount of Nutrients in Formulas and Foods for Infants under Twelve Months of Age

3 Vitamin Compounds Approved for Addition to Formulas and Baby Foods

4 Mineral Salts Approved for Addition to Formulas and Foods for Infants and Children

5 Mineral Salts Pending Approval for Addition to Formulas and Foods for Infants and Children

6 International Allowances for Food Additives in Infant Formula

7 Dietary Needs of Women, Pregnant Women, and Nursing Mothers

8 Recommended Nutrient Intakes for Normal Full-Term Infants according to Various Sources

References

General References

Index




Details

No. of pages:
282
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1982
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323157834

About the Author

Vernal Packard

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