Human Herpesviruses HHV-6A, HHV-6B and HHV-7

Human Herpesviruses HHV-6A, HHV-6B and HHV-7

Diagnosis and Clinical Management

3rd Edition - February 11, 2014

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  • Editors: Louis Flamand, Irmeli Lautenschlager, Gerhard Krueger, D V Ablashi
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444627032
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444627162

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Description

Completely revised and updated, Human Herpesviruses HHV-6A, HHV-6B & HHV-7, Third Edition, delivers a contemporary and thorough review of HHV-6, beginning with foundational explorations of classification, molecular biology, and chromosomal integration of the virus, through to clinical details, including pathologic features of infection, and clinical effects on various organ systems. The work now includes coverage of HHV-7, a virus that remains underestimated in transplant reactivation, seizures, and encephalitis. The book examines the role of HHV-6 in myriad diseases, including cognitive disorders following bone marrow transplant, mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, autoimmune disease, encephalitis, Hodgkin's disease lymphoma (HHV-6B), and glioma (HHV-6A). Descriptions of current and novel molecular and serological diagnostic assays, along with detailed protocols, are included to aid researchers and clinicians in discriminating potential false positives originating from chromosomally integrated HHV-6, and in differentiating between active and latent infection. Human Herpesviruses HHV-6A, HHV-6B & HHV-7, Third Edition is a valuable reference for both clinical and basic scientists, including epidemiologists, virologists, practicing clinicians, infectious disease specialists, pathologists, and all scientists entering the field of herpes virus research. The work is a practical and thorough resource for a foundational understanding of HHV-6 and HHV-7, while providing a cutting-edge translational and clinical reference to those looking to understand and diagnose associated viral diseases.

Key Features

  • Delivers the latest molecular diagnostic tests, the present-day gold standard for monitoring HHV-6
  • Provides expert analysis of T-cell immune response against HHV-6
  • Presents tools for differential diagnosis in HHV-6 viral infections
  • Includes new information on the previously-largely-unknown biological consequences of ciHHV-6
  • Offers coverage of new discoveries relating to HHV-7

Readership

Clinical and basic scientists including epidemiologists, virologists, practicing clinicians and infectiologists, pathologists and essentially all scientists entering the field of herpes virus research.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors

    Foreword

    Foreword

    Dedication

    Chapter 1. HHV-6A and HHV-6B Officially Classified as Distinct Viruses

    Introduction and Classification History

    Distinct Epidemiology and Disease Associations

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 2. Practical Diagnostic Procedures for HHV-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-7

    An Overview of Diagnostic Strategies

    Methods of Direct Diagnosis

    Serologic Methods

    Indications and Findings

    Conclusions: Practical Management of Diagnosis

    References

    Chapter 3. Pathologic Features of HHV-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-7 Infection (Light and Electron Microscopy)

    Introduction

    Anatomic (Systemic) Pathology of Tissues and Organs

    Autoimmune Disorders

    Virus Interactions

    References

    Chapter 4. HHV-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-7 in Febrile Seizures and Status Epilepticus

    Introduction

    History of HHV-6, Roseola Infantum, and Febrile Seizures

    HHV-6B and Febrile Seizures

    HHV-6B and Recurrence of Febrile Seizures

    HHV-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-7 in Children with Febrile Status Epilepticus

    HHV-6 and HHV-7 and Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    HHV-6 Encephalitis in Immunocompetent Patients

    HHV-6 and Limbic Encephalitis in Immunosuppressed Patients

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 5. HHV-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-7 in Encephalitis

    Introduction

    General Aspects and Neurotropism of Human Herpesvirus 6A Infection

    General Aspects of Human Herpesvirus 6B Infection

    Human Herpesvirus 7

    Clinical Presentation of HHV-6- or HHV-7-Associated Encephalitis

    Pathology and Pathogenesis

    Risk Factors

    Diagnosis

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 6. Cognitive Dysfunction from HHV-6A and HHV-B

    Introduction

    The Difficulty of Attributing a Causal Role to HHV-6 in Encephalitis

    HHV-6 Encephalitis at the Time of Primary Infection

    HHV-6 Encephalitis in Immunocompetent Adults

    HHV-6 Encephalitis in Inherited, Chromosomally Integrated Virus

    HHV-6 Encephalitis in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Recipients

    Laboratory Diagnosis in Encephalitis

    Treatment of Encephalitis

    Outcomes in Encephalitis

    Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 7. HHV-6 and Multiple Sclerosis

    Introduction

    Multiple Sclerosis

    Viruses and Multiple Sclerosis

    HHV-6 and MS

    Potential Mechanisms for HHV-6 Induced Autoimmunity in Ms

    Additional Mechanisms by Which HHV-6 May Affect MS

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 8. Human Herpes Virus 6B in Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Introduction

    Immunohistochemical and PCR Studies on Epilepsy Biopsy Samples

    Discussion

    References

    Chapter 9. HHV-6B and HHV-7 in Exanthema Subitum and Related Skin Diseases

    Introduction

    Exanthem Subitum and HHV-6B

    Exanthem Subitum and HHV-7

    HHV-6B Reactivation in Severe Forms of Drug Allergy

    Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease and HHV-6B

    Pathogenesis of Skin Manifestations Due to HHV-6B Infection

    References

    Chapter 10. HHV-6A and HHV-6B in Autoimmune Disease

    Introduction

    HHV-6 and Multiple Sclerosis

    HHV-6 and Autoimmune Connective Tissue Diseases

    HHV-6 in Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

    References

    Chapter 11. HHV-6A and HHV-6B in Drug-Induced Hypersensitivity Syndrome/Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms

    Introduction

    DIHS/DRESS Defined

    Epidemiology

    DIHS/DRESS Pathophysiology

    Clinical Features and Laboratory Findings

    Histopathology

    Viral Reactivation

    Visceral Involvements and Sequelae of DIHS/DRESS

    Differential Diagnosis

    Management and Treatment

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 12. HHV-6A and HHV-6B in Solid Organ Transplantation

    Introduction

    HHV-6 Infections in Solid Organ Transplantation

    Chromosomally Integrated HHV-6 (ciHHV-6) in Organ Transplant Patients

    Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 13. HHV-6A and HHV-6B in Recipients of Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    Introduction

    Epidemiology

    Pathogenesis

    Encephalitis

    Diagnosis

    Treatment

    Prevention

    Outcomes

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 14. The Immune Response to HHV-6

    Introduction

    HHV-6 and Innate Immune Responses

    Adaptive Immune Response to HHV-6

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 15. Chromosomally Integrated HHV-6

    Historical Perspectives on ciHHV-6

    ciHHV-6 and Diagnosis of HHV-6 Active Infection

    Potential Clinical Outcomes Associated with ciHHV-6

    Mechanism of Chromosomal Integration

    Role for HHV-6 U94 in Chromosomal Integration

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 16. HHV-6 and HHV-7 in Cardiovascular Diseases and Cardiomyopathies

    Introduction

    Diseases of the Vascular System

    HHV-6 and HHV-7 as Cardiac Pathogens

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 17. HHV-6 in Lymphohematopoietic Diseases

    Introduction

    HHV-6 Cellular Tropism

    Technical Advances and Evolving Results

    Atypical Lymphoproliferations Induced by HHV-6 Infection

    Hodgkin’s Lymphoma as the Main Lymphoproliferative Disorder Associated with HHV-6 in Immunocompetent Subjects

    Detection of HHV-6 in Other Lymphoproliferative Diseases

    Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    HHV-6-Associated Lymphoproliferative Disorders in Immunocompromised Individuals

    Proposed Mechanisms for HHV-6 in Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 18. HHV-6A and HHV-6B in Cancer

    Introduction

    HHV-6A and HHV-6B in Lymphoma

    HHV-6A and HHV-6B in Leukemia

    HHV-6A and HHV-6B in Cervical Carcinoma

    HHV-6A and HHV-6B in Brain Tumors

    Mechanisms of HHV-6A and HHV-6B in Cancer

    Discussion

    References

    Chapter 19. Treating HHV-6 Infections: The Laboratory Efficacy and Clinical Use of Anti-HHV-6 Agents

    Introduction

    In Vitro Efficacy of Commonly Used Anti-HHV-6 Agents

    Clinical Treatment and Management of HHV-6 Infections

    New Options for Management of HHV-6 Infections

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 362
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 2014
  • Published: February 11, 2014
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444627032
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444627162

About the Editors

Louis Flamand

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval

Irmeli Lautenschlager

Affiliations and Expertise

Docent in Clinical Virology, Consultant Virologist, Department of Virology, University of Helsinki and HUSLAB

Gerhard Krueger

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The University of Texas, Houston Medical School, U.S.A.

D V Ablashi

Affiliations and Expertise

Scientific Director, HHV-6 Foundation & Adjunct Professor Microbiology, HHV-6 Foundatiton, Santa Barbara, CA, U.S.A.

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