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Human Growth and the Development of Personality - 3rd Edition - ISBN: 9780080233833, 9781483188720

Human Growth and the Development of Personality

3rd Edition

Social Work Series

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Authors: Jack Kahn Susan Elinor Wright
Editor: Jean P. Nursten
eBook ISBN: 9781483188720
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1980
Page Count: 252
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Human Growth and the Development of Personality, Third Edition presents a well-informed account of human growth in which the maturation of the body plays a significant role. This book provides an invaluable foundation for the understanding of all the vagaries of normal human development. Organized into 20 chapters, this edition begins with an overview of the scientific basis for provision of human needs. This text then presents a scientific study of personality. Other chapters consider the developmental stages of an individual. The final chapter deals with the ever-present burden on public services of old people, including many who are living in financial deprivation, deplorable residential accommodation, and in conflict with members of family or close neighbors. This book is a valuable resource for readers who are confronted by perplexed or anxious patients, clients, or parents, to help them recognized their problems more clearly and so to offer them informed guidance.

Table of Contents

Foreword to the First Edition

Introduction to the Third Edition

Introduction to the Second Edition

Introduction to the First Edition


1. Human Needs

Assumptions on Growth

Home and School

Targets of Professional Activity

The Individual and the Culture

Recognizing Differences

Methods of Study

Organized and Unorganized Help

Professional Help at Different Levels: Points of Growth

Levels of Description: Diagnosis

Incompleteness of Provision for Essential Needs

Help Based on Perception of Essential Needs

2. Definitions of Personality

Categories of Definition

Testing Theories: A Pragmatic View

Personality as an Assemblage of Qualities

Extensions of Personality

Personality as a Dynamic Interaction

Description of the Physical, Intellectual and Emotional Aspects

Intellectual Growth

The Image and the Source

Character and Temperament

3. Theories of Personality

Descriptive Theories

Behaviorism and Learning Theory

Cognitive Growth Theory

Piaget's Developmental Psychology

Psychodynamic Schools

The Dynamic Model

The Topographical Model

The Structural Model

The Historical Model

Transference Relationships

Choice of Model

Other Psychoanalytical Theories (1) Anna Freud and Melanie Klein

Anna Freud

Melanie Klein

Other Psychoanalytical Theories (2) Reich, Rank, Stekel, Adler, Jung, Erikson



Theory and Practice

The Notion of Development

4. Developmental Stages

Individuality of the Baby at Birth

Dependence and Independence

Nature and Nurture

Developmental Norms

The Need to be a Parent

Desire to Differentiate: Organic and Emotional Causes of Disorders

Charting the Stages

Transition between Stages as a Crisis or Stepping Stone

5. The Suckling

Breast Feeding as a Reunion with Mother

Establishing the Flow of Milk: Sign Release Phenomena

Mechanical and Emotional Factors

Artificial Feeding: Rational and Irrational Reasons

Vigor of Baby's Sucking

Primitive Levels of Satisfaction and Frustration

Feeding Routines

Patterns of Infant Care

6. Toilet Training

Toilet Training as a Social Demand

Maternal Attitudes to Products of Elimination

Maturation of Nervous Pathways

Battles of Will

Tension, Relief and Gratification

Bowel Activity as a Communication

Control as Stage of Development


7. Infantile Sexuality

Sex Differences: Physical Basis

Sexual Organs and Sexual Roles

Rates of Growth

Cultural and Biological Factors

Sensual Pleasures: Intensity of Sensual Experiences at Different Stages

Genital Sensitivity

Communication of Guilt

Masturbatory Activities

8. The Oedipal Situation

Myths as Patterns of Regularly Occurring Human Situations

Present-day Implications

The Oedipus Legend in Full

Abraham, Isaac, Ishmael and Sarah

Maturation as an Historical and as a Personal Process

Emphasis by Omission

Acting the Drama in Fantasy

Repression of Sexual Component

Parents as Participants: Abnormality

Latency Period


9. Rejection: Reappraisal

Revealing the Basic Attitudes in Professional Workers

Hidden Acceptance in a Rejecting Mother

Universality of Rejection

Competing Needs

Pathological Situations

Factors Relating to the Marital Situation or Status

Factors Concerning the Child

Factors Concerning the Pregnancy and Delivery

Factors Relating to Deep Emotional Disturbances of Either Parent

Rejection Processes

Rejection Feelings: Reality and Fantasy

Balance of Rejection and Acceptance; Mothering Breakdown and Distress

Reciprocal Rejection: Children's Fantasies About Parents

10. Acceptance: The Basis of Infant Care


Raising the Standards of Material Care

Infant Mortality, Handicap and Medical Services

The Layman as Pioneer

Non-Material Needs

Relativity of Levels of Provision

Valuing Deprivation

Looking Back in Anger

Vicarious Reparation

Finding a Balance: Building up Family Standards

The Spoilt Child

Aiming at Perfection

Making up for Deficiencies

11. Deprivation, Privation and Provision: Separation and Union

Deprivation and Privation


Maternal Presence

Effects of Separation on Mothers

Depression in Infancy

Degree of Interaction with Mother Figure

New Postulations I: Complementarity of Separation and Union

The Family as a Functional Unit

New Postulations II: Definition of Deprivation in Terms of Provision which is Lacking

Illustrative Cases

Essential Provisions: The Deprived Child and Deprived Parent

The Deprived Clinician

Relativity of Deprivation

12. Play and the Preschool Child

The Physical Matrix of Living Activity

The Nature of Play

The Functions of Play

Learning Through Play

Appropriate Levels of Play

Toys as a Possession

Moral Development

Fantasy, Imagination and Creativity

13. Social Problems of Education


Progress Towards Secondary Education

Selective Education

Comprehensive Education

Influence of School on Achievement and Behavior

Varying Patterns of Education

Post World War II Government Reports

Special Education

Severe Mental Handicap: Heterogeneous Group

Education of the Handicapped: The Need for Multi-Disciplinary Services

Special Education v. Integration

Social Interaction of School and Home

Equality of Ability or of Opportunity

Education and the Mentally Handicapped Child

Equality or Uniqueness

14. Primary Education

Infant School (the Child from 5 to 7 Years)

Culturally Determined Activities

Transference to the Teacher

Rules and Restrictions

Social Learning in Groups

Words, Symbols and Mental Concepts

Personality and Identity

Expectations and Images of School and Teacher

Freedom within a Framework

The Child from 7 to 11 (Junior School)

The Secret Life of Childhood

Child Health and School Life

Variations in Ability

Flight from Testing

Continuing Roles

Emerging into a Community

New Values in Home Life

Conflict and Coherence

15. The Secondary-School Child

Biological and Cultural Boundaries in Life of Child

Comprehensive Schools: New Ideas or Ideology

New Beginnings, New Problems

Diversity in Stages of Growth

School, School-Leaving and Afterwards

Burden of Fulfillment

Economic Consideration

Problems of Discipline

Need for New Curricula


Limits to Power of Compulsion

Educational Misfits

Images of the Pupil Role

16. Adolescence

Transitional Stage: Social Implications

Lengthening of Preparatory Stages for Adult Role

Occupational Marks of Maturity

Changing Fashions

Maturational Sequence

Physical Growth

Menstruation; Seminal Emissions

Physical Growth and Maturation

Nutrition and Health

Intellectual Maturation

Leaving School

Leisure and Pleasure

Further Education and Occupation

Conflicts in the Home

Instability During Transition

Social Attitudes to the Adolescent

Conflicts in the Community

Preparation for Sexual Fulfillment

Drugs, Delinquency and Social Excitement

Tolerance to Deviant Behavior

Exploitation of the Young

Rebellion as an Exploration of Human Potential

Rebellion Carrying Risks of Casualties

Ego Ideal and Idealism

17. Courtship and Marriage

Recapitulations of Early Stages

Fantasy and Romantic Love

Conscious and Unconscious Factors in Choice of Partner

Repetition of Pattern of Parents Marriage

Sexual Problems in Marriage

The Fact of Destructiveness

Inconsistencies in Standards

18. Adult Life

Maximum Responsibility

Sources of Satisfaction

Occupational Fulfillment

Limitations in Realization of Fantasies

The Single, Widowed, Separated and Divorced

19. Middle Age

Physical Wear and Tear

Alteration in Image of Self

Fertility and Sexuality

Conflicts, Anxieties and New Levels of Fulfillment

Depression in Middle Age

The Need to Mourn

Regression at Points of Change

Deferring Satisfactions

Depression and Attainment of Aims

Depression and Losses

Depression and Physical Factors

Taking Charge of the Patient

New Levels of Development

Value in Each Stage of Life

20. Retirement, Old Age and Death

Population Trends

Retirement as Normal Expectation

Preparing for Retirement

Social Problems of Dependence

Carrying the Culture

Reluctant Abdication

Changing Functions

Mental Disturbances: Functional and Organic

Problems of Residential Accommodation

Varieties of Hospital, Hostel and Housing Provision

Dependence and Independence within the Family and Community


Facts of Death

Fear of Death

Communications with the Dying

Counseling and Anticipatory Mourning

Death as a Fulfillment



Further Reading



No. of pages:
© Pergamon 1980
1st January 1980
eBook ISBN:

About the Authors

Jack Kahn

Susan Elinor Wright

About the Editor

Jean P. Nursten

Ratings and Reviews