Human Growth and Development

Human Growth and Development

2nd Edition - June 8, 2012

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  • Editors: Noel Cameron, Lawrence Schell
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123838827
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123846518

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Description

Offering a study of biological, biomedical and biocultural approaches, the second edition of Human Growth and Development is a valued resource for researchers, professors and graduate students across the interdisciplinary area of human development. With timely chapters on obesity, diet / lifestyle, and genetics, this edition is the only publication offering a biological, biomedical and biocultural approach. The second edition of Human Growth and Development includes contributions from the well-known experts in the field and is the most reputable, comprehensive resource available.

Key Features

  • New chapters discussing genomics and epigenetics, developmental origins, body proportions and health and the brain and neurological development
  • Presented in the form of lectures to facilitate student programming
  • Updated content highlighting the latest research on the relationship between early growth and later (adult) outcomes: the developmental origins of health and disease

Readership

Professors, researchers and advanced students in medicine, physiotherapy, human biology and development, and anthropology.

Table of Contents

  • Dedication

    Contributors

    Introduction

    Chapter 1. The Human Growth Curve, Canalization and Catch-Up Growth

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Historical Background

    1.3 The Distance Curve of Growth

    1.4 The Velocity Growth Curve and Growth Spurts

    1.5 Other Patterns of Growth

    1.6 Growth Versus Maturity

    1.7 The Control of Growth

    1.8 Growth Reference Charts

    1.9 Canalization

    1.10 Catch-Up Growth

    1.11 Summary and Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    Suggested Reading

    Internet Resources

    Chapter 2. Growth in Infancy and Childhood: A Pediatric Approach

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 The Growth Curve

    2.3 Changes in Body Fat and Other Tissues

    2.4 Measurements of Clinical Importance

    2.5 Some Particular Features of Growth During Infancy and Childhood

    2.6 Growth Problems in Infancy and Childhood

    2.7 Causes of Short Stature

    2.8 Summary

    REFERENCES

    Internet Resources

    Chapter 3. Adolescent Growth

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 The Adolescent Growth Cycle

    3.3 Tempo of Growth

    3.4 Growth Modeling and Biological Parameters

    3.5 Individual Versus Average Growth

    3.6 Sex Differences in Growth

    3.7 Summary

    REFERENCES

    Suggested Reading

    Chapter 4. Puberty

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 The Neuroendocrinology of Puberty

    4.3 Upstream Factors Influencing Pubertal Timing

    4.4 Downstream Consequences of Pubertal Activation of the Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Gonadal Axis

    4.5 Summary

    REFERENCES

    Suggested Reading

    Internet Resources

    Chapter 5. Endocrine Control of Growth

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Why Do Animals Grow?

    5.3 What Causes Animals to Grow?

    5.4 Structure of Insulin-Like Growth Factor

    5.5 Targeted Disruption of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor Genes

    5.6 Growth Hormone Receptor

    5.7 Insulin-Like Growth Factor Deficiency

    5.8 Therapeutic Implications

    5.9 Summary

    REFERENCES

    Suggested Reading

    Internet Resources

    Chapter 6. Nutrition and Growth

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Nutrition for Students of Growth

    6.3 Nutrition and Growth

    6.4 Transitions in Nutrition and Growth

    REFERENCES

    Suggested Reading

    Internet Resources

    Chapter 7. Genomics, Epigenetics and Growth

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Genomic Factors that Influence and Regulate Growth

    7.3 Mutations in Genes

    7.4 Association Studies

    7.5 Epigenetic Factors that Influence and Regulate Growth

    7.6 Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    Internet Resources

    Chapter 8. The Genetic Epidemiology of Growth and Development

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Statistical Genetic Terms and Concepts

    8.3 Study Designs

    8.4 Studies of the Genetics of Growth and Development

    8.5 Examples from the Fels Longitudinal Study

    8.6 Summary

    Glossary

    REFERENCES

    Suggested Reading

    Internet Resources

    Chapter 9. Social and Economic Effects on Growth

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Socioeconomic Influences

    9.3 Consequences of Stature

    REFERENCES

    Suggested Reading

    Internet Resources

    Chapter 10. Environmental Effects on Growth

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Temperature and Climate

    10.3 Season

    10.4 High-Altitude Hypoxia

    10.5 Sleep

    10.6 Pollutants

    10.7 How Do We Interpret Differences in Growth Related to Environmental Factors?

    10.8 Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    Suggested Reading

    Internet Resources

    Chapter 11. The Evolution of Human Growth

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Life History and Stages of the Life Cycle

    11.3 Human Life Stages

    11.4 Evolution of the Human Life Cycle

    11.5 Life-Cycle Trade-Offs and Risks for Children, Adolescents and Postmenopausal Women

    11.6 Summary

    REFERENCES

    Suggested Reading

    Internet Resources

    Chapter 12. Early Environments, Developmental Plasticity and Chronic Degenerative Disease

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Developmental Origins of Health and Disease: Evidence and Mechanisms

    12.3 Developmental Plasticity as a Means of Adaptation

    12.4 Implications of Developmental Programming for Human Health Disparities

    12.5 Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    Suggested Reading

    Internet Resources

    Chapter 13. Leg Length, Body Proportion, Health and Beauty

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Leg Length Defined

    13.3 Practical Methods and Techniques

    13.4 Evolutionary Background of Human Body Shape

    13.5 Size and Shape in Living Humans

    13.6 Developmental Plasticity

    13.7 Use of Leg Length in Human Biology and Environmental Epidemiology

    13.8 Leg Length and Risk for Morbidity and Mortality

    13.9 Leg Length and Beauty

    13.10 Conclusion

    13.11 Summary

    REFERENCES

    Suggested Reading

    Internet Resources

    Chapter 14. Physical Activity as a Factor in Growth and Maturation

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior

    14.3 Approaches to the Study of Physical Activity

    14.4 Physical Activity, Height, Weight and Body Composition

    14.5 Physical Activity and Biological Maturation

    14.6 Physical Activity and Physical Fitness

    14.7 Physical Activity and Chronic Disease Risk

    14.8 Training for Sport and the Growth and Maturation of Young Athletes

    14.9 Overview

    14.10 Summary

    REFERENCES

    Suggested Reading

    Chapter 15. Comparative and Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Brain Growth

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Comparative Perspectives on Brain Size and Metabolism

    15.3 Human Brain Growth: Patterns and Metabolic Consequences

    15.4 Brain Growth and Body Composition

    15.5 Summary

    Glossary

    REFERENCES

    Suggested Reading

    Internet Resources

    Chapter 16. Saltation and Stasis

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Saltation and Stasis: How Children Grow

    16.3 Generation of the Saltation and Stasis Hypothesis

    16.4 Methods: How the Growth Process is Identified

    16.5 The Biology of Saltatory Growth: Mechanisms and Hypothesis Testing

    16.6 Summary

    REFERENCES

    Suggested Reading

    Internet Resources

    Chapter 17. Lectures on Human Growth

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Endocrinology of Growth

    17.3 The Growth Hormone–Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Axis and Its Association With Fetal Growth

    17.4 Endocrinology of Prepubertal Growth

    17.5 Endocrinology of Puberty

    17.6 Short Stature

    17.7 Conclusion

    Further Reading

    Chapter 18. Body Composition During Growth and Development

    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Basic Concepts

    18.3 Methods

    18.4 Body Composition and Growth

    18.5 Body Composition in Health and Disease

    18.6 Summary

    REFERENCES

    Suggested Reading

    Internet Resources

    Chapter 19. The Measurement of Human Growth

    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 The Context of Measurement: Screening, Surveillance and Monitoring

    19.3 Accuracy, Precision, Reliability and Validity

    19.4 Frequency of Measurement

    19.5 Measurements

    19.6 Summary

    REFERENCES

    Suggested Reading

    Internet Resources

    Chapter 20. Assessment of Maturation

    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 Initial Considerations

    20.3 Methods of Assessment

    20.4 Summary

    REFERENCES

    Suggested Reading

    Internet Resources

    Chapter 21. Growth References and Standards

    21.1 Introduction

    21.2 Defining the Reference Population

    21.3 Drawing the Sample

    21.4 Collecting the Data

    21.5 Cleaning the Data

    21.6 Estimating Distance Centiles

    21.7 Variants of the Distance Chart

    21.8 Interpreting the Curves

    21.9 Charting Velocity

    21.10 Conditional References

    21.11 Designing and Printing the Chart

    21.12 When to Replace

    21.13 Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    Internet Resources

    Color Plates

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 600
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2012
  • Published: June 8, 2012
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123838827
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123846518

About the Editors

Noel Cameron

Noel Cameron spent from 1984 to 1997 as Associate (1987) and then Full Professor of Anatomy and Human Biology (1994) in the Department of Anatomy of the University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa. He returned to the UK in 1997 as Professor of Human Biology at his alma mater, Loughborough University. He was made a Fellow of the Royal Society of Biology in 1998 for his significant contribution to research in human biology. Dr. Cameron is Secretary General of the International Society for the Study of Human Growth and Clinical Auxology (ISGA), and President of the European Anthropological Association. He is also an Honorary Research Associate of the Evolutionary Studies Institute at the University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa. He was awarded the Doctor of Science (DSc) degree from Loughborough University in 2018 for his significant contribution to knowledge in human growth and development.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Human Biology, Centre for Global Health and Human Development, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK

Lawrence Schell

Lawrence M. Schell is a Professor of Anthropology, Epidemiology and Biostatistics at the State University of New York in Albany, New York. His research concerns the interrelationship between biology and culture and focuses on biological responses to contemporary urban environments. Dr. Schell has three current research projects. One looks at the effect of lead on child physical and cognitive development in Albany, NY. The second project seeks to address the growing concern about the effect of certain pollutants on sexual and physical development. The third study examines the relationship of pollutants to the reproductive health of Akwesasne women who are concerned that pollution exposure may have damaged their ability to have children. He has published over 65 articles and reviews, including several reviews on urbanism, pollution and child health. He received his Ph.D. in biological anthropology from the University of Pennsylvania; his B.A. from Oberlin College.

Affiliations and Expertise

Distinguished Professor of Anthropology, Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Center for the Elimination of Minority Health Disparities, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY, United States

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