Human Biochemistry

Human Biochemistry

2nd Edition - November 22, 2021

Write a review

  • Author: Gerald Litwack
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323910538
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323857185

Purchase options

Purchase options
DRM-free (EPub, PDF)
Available
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out

Institutional Subscription

Free Global Shipping
No minimum order

Description

Human Biochemistry, Second Edition provides a comprehensive, pragmatic introduction to biochemistry as it relates to human development and disease. Here, Gerald Litwack, award-wining researcher and longtime teacher, discusses the biochemical aspects of organ systems and tissue, cells, proteins, enzymes, insulins and sugars, lipids, nucleic acids, amino acids, polypeptides, steroids, and vitamins and nutrition, among other topics. Fully updated to address recent advances, the new edition features fresh discussions on hypothalamic releasing hormones, DNA editing with CRISPR, new functions of cellular prions, plant-based diet and nutrition, and much more. Grounded in problem-driven learning, this new edition features clinical case studies, applications, chapter summaries, and review-based questions that translate basic biochemistry into clinical practice, thus empowering active clinicians, students and researchers.

Key Features

  • Presents an update on a past edition winner of the 2018 Most Promising New Textbook (College) Award (Texty) from the Textbook and Academic Authors Association and the PROSE Award of the Association of American Publishers
  • Provides a fully updated resource on current research in human and medical biochemistry
  • Includes clinical case studies, applications, chapter summaries and review-based questions
  • Adopts a practice-based approach, reflecting the needs of both researchers and clinically oriented readers

Readership

Active researchers in biochemistry, molecular biology, pharmaceutical science, and cellular biology; medical chemists; Medical students, dentistry students, pharmaceutical students, and graduate students in medical biochemistry

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • About the author
  • Preface
  • Introduction
  • Chapter 1. Organ Systems and Tissues
  • Abstract
  • Treatment of the Injured Knee: Use of Stem Cells to Replace Damaged Cartilage
  • Development of Organs
  • Gross Structures and Functions of Organ Systems
  • Summary
  • Suggested Reading
  • Multiple-Choice Questions
  • Chapter 2. The Cell
  • Abstract
  • Cellular Trafficking in Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Cell Membrane
  • Nucleus and Cell Division
  • Cytoplasm and Cytoskeleton
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • Golgi Apparatus
  • Mitochondria
  • Peroxisome
  • Lysosome
  • Summary
  • Suggested Reading
  • Multiple-Choice Questions
  • Chapter 3. Introductory Discussion on Water, pH, Buffers, and General Features of Receptors, Channels, and Pumps
  • Abstract
  • Diabetes Insipidus
  • Thirst and Arginine Vasopressin
  • Action of Arginine Vasopressin on the Distal Kidney Tubule
  • Water and Biological Roles
  • Water Channels: Aquaporins
  • The Role of Water in Protein Folding
  • Protein–Water Interactions in Enzymatic Reactions
  • Metabolic Water
  • Proton Transfer in Liquid Water
  • The Concentration of Hydrogen Ions (Protons) in Solution (pH)
  • Buffers
  • Receptors
  • Ion Channels
  • Enzymatic Pumping Mechanism
  • Summary
  • Suggested Reading
  • Multiple-Choice Questions
  • Chapter 4. Proteins
  • Abstract
  • Prion Disease, A Disease of Protein Conformational Change
  • Amino Acids
  • Proteins
  • Protein Classification
  • Proteomics
  • Protein Microarray
  • Summary
  • Suggested Reading
  • Multiple-Choice Questions
  • Chapter 5. Enzymes
  • Abstract
  • Diagnostic Enzymology
  • General Aspects of Catalysis
  • Classification
  • Coenzymes
  • Prosthetic Groups
  • Enzyme Filamentation in Cellular Regulation
  • Drugs That Operate as Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Enzyme Replacement Therapy—Gaucher Disease
  • Summary
  • Suggested Reading
  • Multiple-Choice Questions
  • Chapter 6. Insulin and Sugars
  • Abstract
  • Diabetes
  • Insulin
  • The Pancreatic β-Cell and Insulin Secretion
  • Detrimental Effects of Diabetes
  • Synthetic Sweeteners
  • Chemistry of Simple Sugars
  • Glucose Transport
  • Pentose Phosphate Pathway
  • Conversion of Ribose to Deoxyribose
  • Carbohydrate Constituents of Proteins—Glycoproteins
  • Transfer of Nucleotide Sugars Into the Golgi Cisternae
  • Sugars in Blood Group Proteins
  • Enzymatic Conversion of A and B Blood Types to Type O (Universal Donor)
  • Lactose Intolerance
  • Glycobiology
  • Summary
  • Suggested Reading
  • Multiple-Choice Questions
  • Chapter 7. Glycogen and Glycogenolysis
  • Abstract
  • Glycogen Storage Disease Type I, von Gierke Disease (and Others: At Least 11 Types of Glycogen Storage Disease)
  • Glycogen—The Storage Carbohydrate
  • Glucose Metabolism in Muscle
  • Glycogenin and Formation of Glycogen
  • Glycogenolysis (Releasing Glucose from Glycogen)
  • Hormonal Control of Glycogen Metabolism and Blood Glucose Level
  • Different Glucose Transporters in Different Tissues
  • Summary
  • Suggested Reading
  • Multiple-Choice Questions
  • Chapter 8. Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis
  • Abstract
  • Hemolytic Anemia: Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency (A Rare Disease)
  • Phosphofructokinase Enzymes Involved in the Conversion of Fructose-6-Phosphate to Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphate
  • Cell Proliferation and Tumor Growth—The Warburg Effect
  • Gluconeogenesis
  • Alanine Cycle
  • Glucose Can Be Formed From Glycerol
  • Small-Molecule Regulation of Gluconeogenesis
  • Glucose Transporters
  • Summary
  • Suggested Reading
  • Multiple-Choice Questions
  • Chapter 9. Lipids
  • Abstract
  • Hypercholesterolemia
  • Biosynthesis of Cholesterol
  • Inhibition of Liver HMG-CoA Reductase by Drugs (Statins)
  • The ARH Protein
  • Bile Acids
  • Fatty Acids and Fat
  • Properties of Lipoproteins
  • Lipid Anchoring of Proteins to Membranes
  • Summary
  • Suggested Reading
  • Multiple-Choice Questions
  • Case Study
  • Chapter 10. Nucleic Acids and Molecular Genetics
  • Abstract
  • Huntington’s Disease, A Single-Gene Mutation
  • Purines and Pyrimidines
  • Base Pairing
  • The Structure of DNA
  • Biosynthesis of Purines and Pyrimidines
  • Purine Interconversions
  • Catabolism of Purine and Pyrimidine Nucleotides
  • Salvage Pathway
  • Mitochondrial DNA Synthesis
  • DNA Mutations and Damage
  • Epigenetics
  • Summary
  • Suggested Reading
  • Multiple-Choice Questions
  • Chapter 11. Protein Biosynthesis
  • Abstract
  • Defects in Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation and Disease: Deficiency in Mitochondrial Translation
  • Protein Synthesis in the Mitochondrion
  • Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy With Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-Like Episodes
  • Protein Synthesis Directed by the Nucleus
  • The Ribosome
  • Proteins Synthesized in the Cytoplasm but Destined for the Mitochondria
  • Proteins Destined for the Nucleus
  • Proteins Destined for Other Sites, Including the Plasma Membrane and Secretion from the Cell
  • Summary
  • Suggested Reading
  • Multiple-Choice Questions
  • Chapter 12. Transcription
  • Abstract
  • Congenital Heart Disease: Mutations of Transcription Factors
  • Transcription Factors Control Heart Development
  • Transcription Factors Involved in Cardiac Hypertrophy
  • Transcription Factors and the Transcription Complex
  • Enhancers
  • Coactivators and Corepressors
  • The Glucocorticoid Receptor as a Model Transcription Factor
  • The Inactive Glucocorticoid Receptor in the Cytoplasm and Its Activation
  • Classes of Nuclear Receptors
  • Cell Membrane Receptors
  • Receptor Isoforms
  • Chromatin
  • Summary
  • Suggested Reading
  • Multiple-Choice Questions
  • Case Study
  • Chapter 13. Metabolism of Amino Acids
  • Abstract
  • Urea Cycle–Related Disease: Hyperammonemia
  • The Urea Cycle
  • Amino Acid Metabolism: Amino and Amide Group Transfers
  • Transamination
  • Transamidation
  • Deamination
  • Oxidation of Amino Acids
  • Amino Acid Racemization
  • L-Amino Acid Decarboxylation
  • Metabolism of Amino Acids to Active Substances
  • Catabolism of Amino Acids
  • Summary
  • Suggested Reading
  • Multiple-Choice Questions
  • Chapter 14. Metabolism of Fat, Carbohydrate, and Nucleic Acids
  • Abstract
  • Gaucher’s Disease: Most Common Lipid Storage Disease
  • Lipid Metabolism
  • Carbohydrate Metabolism
  • The Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle, Citric Acid Cycle, or Kreb’s Cycle
  • Nucleic Acid Metabolism
  • Overview of Metabolism
  • Summary
  • Suggested Reading
  • Multiple-Choice Questions
  • Chapter 15. Polypeptide Hormones
  • Abstract
  • Panhypopituitarism: Malfunction of the Hypothalamus–Pituitary–End Organ Axis
  • Hormonal Signaling Pathways
  • Models of Hormone Action of Anterior Pituitary Hormones
  • Orexins (Hypocretins): Hypothalamic Hormones Controlling Sleep and Feeding
  • Adiponectin From Adipose (Fat) Tissue
  • Hormones of the Gastrointestinal Tract
  • Summary
  • Suggested Reading
  • Multiple-Choice Questions
  • Chapter 16. Steroid Hormones
  • Abstract
  • Stress
  • Nociceptin
  • Responses to Stress
  • Production of High Levels of Cortisol (Cushing’s Disease) and Subnormal Levels of Cortisol (Addison’s Disease)
  • Adrenal Cortex
  • Structures of Steroid Hormone Receptors
  • Coactivators and Corepressors
  • Physiological Functions of Steroid Hormones From Specific Receptor Knockouts
  • Steroid Transporting Proteins in Plasma
  • Enzymatic Inactivation of Cortisol
  • Cortisol and Aldosterone
  • Dehydroepiandrosterone
  • Structural Considerations of Steroid Hormones
  • Receptor Activation
  • Vitamin D Hormone
  • Thyroid Hormone
  • Environmental Xenobiotics That Agonize or Antagonize the Estrogen Receptor
  • Cross talk Between Steroid Receptors and Peptide Hormones
  • Sex Hormones
  • Peroxisome Proliferators and Their Receptors
  • Glucocorticoid Induction of Programmed Cell Death (Apoptosis)
  • Summary
  • Suggested Reading
  • Multiple-Choice Questions
  • Chapter 17. Growth Factors and Cytokines
  • Abstract
  • Prospects for Cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor–Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand and Ovarian Cancer
  • The Tumor Necrosis Factor Superfamily
  • Growth Factors
  • Summary
  • Suggested Reading
  • Multiple-Choice Questions
  • Chapter 18. Membrane Transport
  • Abstract
  • Cystic Fibrosis (Mucoviscidosis) and Aberrant Ion Transport
  • Types of Membrane Transport
  • Fatty Acid Transport Proteins
  • Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels
  • Epithelial Sodium Conductance Channel
  • Multidrug Resistance Channel (MDR): A Member of the Adenosine Triphosphate–Binding Cassette Transporter Superfamily
  • Blood–Brain Barrier
  • Summary
  • Multiple-Choice Questions
  • Case Study
  • Suggested Reading
  • Chapter 19. Micronutrients (Metals and Iodine)
  • Abstract
  • Iron-deficiency Anemia
  • Uptake of Iron During Digestion
  • Hepcidin, A Peptide Hormone, Is the Principal Regulator of Iron Homeostasis
  • Hemojuvelin, An Anchored Membrane Protein Stimulates Hepcidin Transcription Through Bone Morphogenic (Morphogenetic) Proteins and Smad
  • Heme Synthesis
  • Hemoglobin Formation
  • Trace Elements
  • Summary
  • Suggested Reading
  • Multiple-Choice Questions
  • Chapter 20. Vitamins and Nutrition
  • Abstract
  • Vitamin D Deficiency
  • Vitamins
  • Thiamine (Vitamin B1, Aneurine)
  • Addiction
  • Fat-Soluble Vitamins
  • Eye Health
  • The Vegan Diet
  • The Ketogenic (Keto) Diet and Weight Loss
  • The Mediterranean Diet: Probably the Healthiest Diet
  • Dietary Considerations in Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Summary
  • Suggested Reading
  • Multiple-Choice Questions
  • Case Study
  • Chapter 21. Blood and Lymphatic System
  • Abstract
  • Deep Vein Thrombosis
  • Factor V Leiden
  • Blood-Clotting Mechanism
  • Blood
  • Transport of Oxygen
  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Degradation of the Red Blood Cell
  • Bilirubin
  • Blood Cells
  • Blood Proteins
  • Blood Type and Rh Factor
  • Origin of Nonself Blood Type Antibodies
  • Rh Antigen
  • Lymphatic System
  • Thymosin
  • Summary
  • Suggested Reading
  • Multiple-Choice Questions
  • List of Abbreviations
  • Appendix 1. Abbreviations of the Common Amino Acids
  • Appendix 2. The Genetic Code
  • Appendix 3. Weights and Measures
  • Appendix 4. Case Based Problems Discussion
  • Chapter 1: Organ Systems and Tissues
  • Chapter 2: The Cell
  • Chapter 3: Introductory Discussion on Water, pH, Buffers, and General Features of Receptors, Channels, and Pumps
  • Chapter 4: Proteins
  • Chapter 5: Enzymes
  • Chapter 6: Insulin and Sugars
  • Chapter 7: Glycogen and Glycogenolysis
  • Chapter 8: Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis
  • Chapter 9: Lipids
  • Chapter 9: Case Study
  • Chapter 10: Nucleic Acids and Molecular Genetics
  • Chapter 11: Protein Biosynthesis
  • Chapter 12: Transcription
  • Chapter 12: Case Study
  • Chapter 13: Metabolism of Amino Acids
  • Chapter 14: Metabolism of Fat, Carbohydrate, and Nucleic Acids
  • Chapter 15: Polypeptide Hormones
  • Chapter 16: Steroid Hormones
  • Chapter 17: Growth Factors and Cytokines
  • Chapter 18: Membrane Transport
  • Chapter 18: Case Study
  • Chapter 19: Micronutrients (Metals and Iodine)
  • Chapter 20: Vitamins and Nutrition
  • Chapter 20: Case Study
  • Chapter 21: Blood and Lymphatic System
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 882
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2021
  • Published: November 22, 2021
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323910538
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323857185

About the Author

Gerald Litwack

Dr. Litwack was formerly Professor of Molecular and Cellular Medicine and Associate Director at the Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Texas A & M Health Science Center.

Affiliations and Expertise

Toluca Lake, North Hollywood, CA, USA

Ratings and Reviews

Write a review

There are currently no reviews for "Human Biochemistry"