Host Response to Biomaterials

Host Response to Biomaterials

The Impact of Host Response on Biomaterial Selection

1st Edition - May 7, 2015

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  • Editor: Stephen Badylak
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128001967
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128005002

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Host Response to Biomaterials: The Impact of Host Response on Biomaterial Selection explains the various categories of biomaterials and their significance for clinical applications, focusing on the host response to each biomaterial. It is one of the first books to connect immunology and biomaterials with regard to host response. The text also explores the role of the immune system in host response, and covers the regulatory environment for biomaterials, along with the benefits of synthetic versus natural biomaterials, and the transition from simple to complex biomaterial solutions. Fields covered include, but are not limited to, orthopaedic surgery, dentistry, general surgery, neurosurgery, urology, and regenerative medicine.

Key Features

  • Explains the various categories of biomaterials and their significance for clinical applications
  • Contains a range of extensive coverage, including, but not limited to, orthopedic, surgery, dental, general surgery, neurosurgery, lower urinary tract, and regenerative medicine
  • Includes regulations regarding combination devices


Biomedical engineers, Biomaterials scientists, Medical device developers, undergraduate and graduate level students in biomedical engineering, bioengineering, and materials science programs

Table of Contents

    • List of Contributors
    • Foreword
    • Preface
    • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 1. Factors Which Affect the Host Response to Biomaterials
      • Introduction
      • Biomaterial–Host Interaction
      • Host Factors
      • Age
      • Nutritional Status
      • Anatomic Factors
      • Comorbidities
      • Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy
      • Design Considerations
      • References
    • Chapter 2. Perspectives on the Inflammatory, Healing, and Foreign Body Responses to Biomaterials and Medical Devices
      • Introduction
      • Blood–Material Interactions/Provisional Matrix Formation
      • Acute Inflammation
      • Chronic Inflammation
      • Granulation Tissue
      • Foreign Body Reaction
      • Fibrosis/Fibrous Encapsulation
      • Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses
      • Discussion and Perspectives
      • References
    • Chapter 3. The Biocompatibility of Implant Materials
      • Introduction
      • The Meaning of Biocompatibility
      • Biocompatibility: Historical Thinking
      • Biocompatibility Today
      • Changing the Paradigm of Biocompatibility
      • Relevance to Biocompatibility
      • Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 4. Host Response to Naturally Derived Biomaterials
      • Introduction
      • The Use of Decellularized Tissue as a Biomaterial for Surgical Reconstruction and Constructive Remodeling
      • Immune Rejection
      • Decellularization Processes
      • α-Gal Epitope
      • DNA Content and Degree of Decellularization
      • Damage-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules
      • Chemical Cross-Linking of ECM Scaffolds
      • Response to Individual ECM Components and Degradation Products
      • Degradation of Naturally Derived Biomaterials
      • Effect of Source Animal Age on Natural Biomaterial Host Response
      • The Host Response to ECM Biomaterials
      • Th1- and Th2-Lymphocyte Response
      • Macrophage Polarization
      • Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 5. Molecular Events at Tissue–Biomaterial Interface
      • General Principles Guiding Protein Interactions at the Biomaterial Interface
      • Cell–Protein Interactions at the Interface
      • Molecular Pathways in the Regulation of Cell Activation and Cell–Cell Interactions
      • Molecular Pathways Mediating Tissue Remodeling at the Interface
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 6. Macrophage Plasticity and Polarization: Relevance to Biomaterials
      • Macrophage Diversity and Plasticity
      • Macrophage Polarization: M1 and M2 as Extremes of a Continuum. Limitations of the Paradigm
      • Macrophages in the Orchestration of Tissue Repair
      • Macrophage Polarization in the Response to Biomaterials
      • Concluding Remarks
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 7. Role of Dendritic Cells in Response to Biomaterials
      • Introduction
      • DC Immuno-Biology
      • DC Responses to Biomaterials
      • Conclusion—DC Role in Host Responses to Biomaterials
      • References
    • Chapter 8. The Acquired Immune System Response to Biomaterials, Including Both Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Biomaterials
      • Introduction
      • The Immune System and Graft Rejection
      • Biomaterials as Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering
      • The Adaptive Host Immune Response to Biomaterials
      • Generation of an Immunosuppression-Free State
      • Future Work and Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 9. Fibrotic Response to Biomaterials and all Associated Sequence of Fibrosis
      • Introduction
      • Biomaterials and the Wound Healing Paradigm
      • Clinical Applications of Biomaterials Affected by Fibrosis
      • General Mechanisms of Fibrosis
      • Initiation of Fibrosis
      • Cellular Contributors to Fibrosis
      • Molecular Mediators of Fibrosis
      • Engineering Anti-Fibrotic Responses to Biomaterials
      • Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 10. Human Anti-Gal and Anti-Non-Gal Immune Response to Porcine Tissue Implants
      • Introduction
      • Immune Mechanisms That Affect Tissue Implants
      • The Anti-Gal Antibody and the α-Gal Epitope
      • Production of Anti-Non-Gal Antibodies in Humans
      • Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 11. Aging and the Host Response to Implanted Biomaterials
      • Introduction
      • The Host FBR
      • Host Inflammatory Response
      • The Host Immune Response
      • Complement Activation
      • The Coagulation Cascade
      • Aging-Related Changes in Inflammation, Immune Response, Coagulation, and Complement Activation
      • Aging and Immune Functional Changes: Immunosenescence and Changes in Cell Functions, Signaling, and Cell–Cell Interactions
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgment
      • References
    • Chapter 12. Host Response to Orthopedic Implants (Metals and Plastics)
      • Introduction—Epidemiology and Basic Concepts/Definitions
      • Joint Replacement
      • Other Clinical Scenarios
      • Immune Responses to Biomaterials for Orthopedic Applications—Preclinical Studies
      • Modulating the Host Response to Orthopedic Implants
      • Summary and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 13. Host Response to Biomaterials for Pelvic Floor Reconstruction
      • Introduction
      • Pelvic Floor Anatomy
      • Pelvic Floor Disorders
      • Biomaterial-Related Complications in the Pelvic Floor
      • Factors Influencing the Host Response to Synthetic Mesh
      • Pelvic Floor Considerations for Mesh Implants
      • Looking to the Future
      • References
    • Chapter 14. Methods Used to Evaluate the Host Responses to Medical Implants In Vivo
      • Introduction
      • Ex Vivo Methods to Evaluate the Host Response
      • Early Detection of Molecular Cues and Events
      • Methods to Evaluate Innate Immune Responses Leading to Inflammation and Fibrosis
      • Mathematical Modeling and Prediction Methods
      • Conclusion and Summary
      • References
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 460
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2015
  • Published: May 7, 2015
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128001967
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128005002

About the Editor

Stephen Badylak

Dr. Badylak is Professor in the Departments of Surgery and BioEngineering at the University of Pittsburgh and Deputy Director of the McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. The focus of Dr. Badylak's work has been the mechanisms by which extracellular matrix signals host tissues to promote and support functional tissue reconstruction.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor in the Departments of Surgery and BioEngineering, University of Pittsburgh; Deputy Director of McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

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