Hormones and Breast Cancer - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124166738, 9780124166769

Hormones and Breast Cancer, Volume 93

1st Edition

Serial Editors: Gerald Litwack
eBook ISBN: 9780124166769
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124166738
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 8th July 2013
Page Count: 424
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Table of Contents

Former Editors



Chapter One. Estrogen-Mediated Mechanisms to Control the Growth and Apoptosis of Breast Cancer Cells: A Translational Research Success Story

1 Introduction

2 Clinical Presentation of Breast Cancer

3 Targeted Therapy

4 Transition to Tamoxifen

5 Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulation

6 Acquired Drug Resistance and the Surprise of SERMs

7 Estrogen-Induced Apoptosis: Back to the Beginning

8 The Legacy of Tamoxifen



Chapter Two. The Epidemiology and Molecular Mechanisms Linking Obesity, Diabetes, and Cancer

1 Introduction

2 Type 2 Diabetes and Breast Cancer

3 The Role of Cholesterol in Cancer Growth

4 Obesity, Estrogen, and Breast Cancer

5 Current Medications for Type 2 Diabetes: Relationship to Breast Cancer

6 Conclusions and Future Directions


Chapter Three. Sex Hormone Receptors in Breast Cancer

1 Introduction

2 Historical Perspective

3 Receptor Structure and Function

4 ER Agonists and Antagonists

5 Molecular Mechanisms of Estrogen Signaling

6 Implications in Breast Cancer

7 Future Directions


Chapter Four. Modulation of Estrogen Receptor Alpha Activity and Expression During Breast Cancer Progression

1 Introduction

2 DNA Methylation

3 ERα Transcriptional Regulation by cis- and trans-Acting Elements

4 ERα Gene Mutations and Splice Variants

5 MicroRNA Deregulation

6 Cross Talk with Growth Factor Receptor Signaling

7 ER Posttranslational Modifications

8 Hypoxia

9 ER Coregulators

10 Breast Cancer Stem-Like Cells

11 Pioneer Factors and Endocrine-Resistant Specific Cistromes

12 Conclusions and Future Directions



Chapter Five. Targeting Progesterone Receptors in Breast Cancer

1 Introduction

2 Progestins and Breast Cancer Risk

3 Progestins Stimulating Breast Cancer Growth in Animal Models

4 In Vitro Studies

5 Progestins Inhibiting Breast Cancer Growth

6 The Systemic Effect of Progestins

7 PRs and Gene Expression

8 Regulation of PR Activity

9 PRs as Therapeutical Targets for Breast Cancer Treatment



Chapter Six. The Hyperplastic Phenotype in PR-A and PR-B Transgenic Mice: Lessons on the Role of Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors in the Mouse Mammary Gland and Breast Cancer

1 Introduction

2 Developmental Stages in the Mouse Mammary Gland

3 Spatiotemporal Expression of Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors in the Mouse Mammary Gland

4 The Generation of PR-A and PR-B Transgenic Mice

5 Breast Cancer and PRs

6 PRs and Mammary Stem Cells

7 Conclusion and Future Directions



Chapter Seven. FOXP1 and Estrogen Signaling in Breast Cancer

1 Introduction

2 FOXP1 and FOXA1 in ERα-Positive Breast Cancer Cells

3 Clinicopathological Significances of FOXP1 and FOXA1 in ER-Positive Breast Cancer

4 Conclusions and Future Directions



Chapter Eight. Role of KLF5 in Hormonal Signaling and Breast Cancer Development

1 Introduction

2 Progesterone—PR Signaling, KLF5, and Breast Cancer

3 Estrogen—ER Signaling and KLF5 in Breast Cancer

4 Androgen/AR Signaling, KLF5, and Breast Cancer

5 Summary and Perspectives



Chapter Nine. Dynamic Regulation of Steroid Hormone Receptor Transcriptional Activity by Reversible SUMOylation

1 Introduction

2 Mechanisms of Protein SUMOylation

3 SR SUMOylation/deSUMOylation

4 SR SUMOylation Modulates Transcriptional Action and Promoter Selectivity

5 Conclusions


Chapter Ten. Beta-Endorphin Neuron Regulates Stress Response and Innate Immunity to Prevent Breast Cancer Growth and Progression

1 Introduction

2 Neuroendocrine Response to Stress

3 Chronic Stress and Its Effect on Immune Functions

4 Neuroendocrine-Immune Pathway of Cancer

5 Beta-Endorphin Neurotransmission Reduces the Body’s Stress Response

6 Beta-Endorphin Neurotransmission Enhances Innate Immunity

7 Beta-Endorphin Cell Transplantation Effects on the Neuroendocrine-Immune Pathway of Cancer

8 Conclusions


Chapter Eleven. The Functional Role of Notch Signaling in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

1 Background—Triple-Negative Breast Cancer and Notch

2 Notch—Breast Oncogenes

3 Notch in TNBC

4 Notch in Luminal Versus Basal-Like Breast Cancer

5 ER and Notch

6 PR and Notch

7 HER-2 and Notch

8 Prognostic Makers for Survival Associated with Notch in TNBC

9 Therapeutic Strategies in TNBC


Chapter Twelve. ADAM22 as a Prognostic and Therapeutic Drug Target in the Treatment of Endocrine-Resistant Breast Cancer

1 Introduction

2 ADAM Proteins in Breast Cancer

3 ADAM22 and Breast Cancer

4 A Functional Role for ADAM22

5 ADAMs as Therapeutic Targets

6 Conclusions


Chapter Thirteen. Alpha-Actinin 4 and Tumorigenesis of Breast Cancer

1 Introduction

2 Overview of ACTNs

3 The Function of ACTN4 in Breast Cancer

4 ACTN4 and Other Cancers

5 Conclusion and Future Direction



Chapter Fourteen. Adherence Rates and Correlates in Long-term Hormonal Therapy

1 Introduction

2 Nonadherence in Clinical Practice

3 Patient-Reported Barriers to Adherence to Adjuvant Hormonal Therapies

4 Interventions to Increase Adherence

5 Discussion

6 Conclusion




First published in 1943, Vitamins and Hormones is the longest-running serial published by Academic Press. The Editorial Board now reflects expertise in the field of hormone action, vitamin action, X-ray crystal structure, physiology and enzyme mechanisms.

Under the capable and qualified editorial leadership of Dr. Gerald Litwack, Vitamins and Hormones continues to publish cutting-edge reviews of interest to endocrinologists, biochemists, nutritionists, pharmacologists, cell biologists and molecular biologists. Others interested in the structure and function of biologically active molecules like hormones and vitamins will, as always, turn to this series for comprehensive reviews by leading contributors to this and related disciplines.

This volume focuses on hormones and breast cancer.

Key Features

  • Contributions from leading authorities
  • Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field


Researchers, faculty, and graduate students interested in cutting-edge review concerning the molecular and cellular biology of vitamins, hormones, and related factors and co-factors. Libraries and laboratories at institutes with strong programs in cell biology, biochemistry, molecular biology, gene regulation, hormone control, and signal transduction are likely to be interested


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© Academic Press 2013
Academic Press
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About the Serial Editors

Gerald Litwack Serial Editor

Following a liberal arts education with a major in chemistry and biology at Hobart College, Gerald (Gerry) Litwack earned M.S. and PhD degrees in biochemistry from the University of Wisconsin, Madison where he served as a Lecturer in Enzymology before starting a postdoctoral fellowship from the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis at the Biochemical Institute of the Sorbonne in Paris. His first academic position was assistant professor of biochemistry at Rutgers University where he started his work on hormone action for six years. During this period, he did a sabbatical at the University of California, Berkeley, where he concentrated on rapid enzyme kinetics. In 1960 he accepted an offer of an associate professorship at the University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Medicine. In 1964, he was invited to be full professor of biochemistry at The Fels Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Biology at Temple Medical School, simultaneously with a Career Development Award from the NIH, where he later was named Deputy Director of the Institute and the Laura H. Carnell Professor in biochemistry. Subsequently, he was given the Faculty Research Award. He co-discovered ligandin, later found to be in the family of glutathione S-transferases, enzymes that protect the body from carcinogens. In 1991, he moved to the Jefferson Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University as Professor of Biochemistry, Chair of the Department of Pharmacology and Deputy Director of the Kimmel Cancer Research Institute. Later, he became chair of the combined Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology and concurrently held the position of Vice Dean for Research. In 2003, he moved to Los Angeles and from 2004-2006 was a Visiting Scholar at the University of California, Los Angeles, in the Department of Biological Chemistry of the Geffen School of Medicine and, in this period, wrote “Human Biochemistry and Disease” a volume of 1254 pages. In 2007, he moved to Scranton, Pennsylvania, as Founding Chair of Basic Sciences and Acting Associate Dean for Research to start a new medical school, The Commonwealth Medical College. Having completing his mission in 2010, he moved to The Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Texas A & M Health Science Center, as Professor of Biochemistry and Associate Director. Currently, he is retired and lives in North Hollywood, California, where he continues as an author and as Series Editor of Vitamins and Hormones. He is involved in writing another textbook and has written a first novel, “One-Eighty”.

Affiliations and Expertise

Toluca Lake, North Hollywood, California, USA