HIV-1: Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis: Viral Mechanisms - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780123736109, 9780080548326

HIV-1: Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis: Viral Mechanisms, Volume 55

2nd Edition

Serial Volume Editors: Kuan-Teh Jeang J. August Ferid Murad
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123736109
eBook ISBN: 9780080548326
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 13th June 2007
Page Count: 488
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Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • Contributors to Volume 55
  • Preface
  • HIV-1 RNA Packaging
    • Publisher Summary
    • I Chapter Overview
    • II Introduction
    • III The Packaging Pathway
    • IV RNA/Protein Recognition for Encapsidation: Molecular and Structural Biology
    • V Conclusions
  • Structure and Function of the HIV Envelope Glycoprotein as Entry Mediator, Vaccine Immunogen, and Target for Inhibitors
    • Publisher Summary
    • I Chapter Overview
    • II Introduction
    • III Structure of the Env (gp120–gp41)
    • IV Env Interactions with CD4 and Coreceptor (CCR5 or CXCR4) Leading to Membrane Fusion
    • V Env Interactions with Antibodies
    • VI The Env as Vaccine Immunogen and Target for Inhibitors
    • VII Conclusions
    • Acknowledgments
  • HIV-1 Reverse Transcription: Close Encounters Between the Viral Genome and a Cellular tRNA
    • Publisher Summary
    • I Chapter Overview
    • II Introduction
    • III Reverse Transcription
    • IV Specificity of tRNA Primer Usage
    • V Identification of the PAS Motif
    • VI Proposed Mechanism of Primer Activation
    • VII HIV-1 Replication with a Nonself tRNA Primer Confirms the Importance of the PAS Motif
    • VIII Conclusions
    • Acknowledgments
  • Transcription of HIV: Tat and Cellular Chromatin
    • Publisher Summary
    • I Chapter Overview
    • II Introduction
    • III Integrated HIV-1 LTR and Cellular Chromatin
    • IV The HIV-1 Tat Protein and Its Modifications
    • V Tat-Mediated Transactivation
    • V Conclusions
    • Acknowledgments
  • Posttranscriptional Control of HIV-1 and Other Retroviruses and Its Practical Applications
    • Publisher Summary
    • I Chapter Overview
    • II Introduction
    • III HIV-1 Regulation of Gene Expression
    • IV Rev and Its Export Receptor CRM1
    • V Posttranscriptional Regulation of Other Complex Retroviruses
    • VI HIV-1 mRNAs Use Multiple Mechanisms to Express Many Proteins from One Transcript
    • VII Rev-Dependence of HIV-1 mRNAs
    • VIII Use of RNA Optimization to Achieve High Level of HIV-1 gag/pol and env Expression Plasmids
    • IX Posttranscriptional Control of Simple Retroviruses
    • X NXF1
    • XI Cellular CTEs
    • XII Posttranscriptional Control of LTR-Retroelements
    • XIII Comparison of RNA Export Systems
    • XIV Replacement of Rev Regulation Leads to SIV Attenuation
    • XV Conclusions
    • Acknowledgments
  • HIV Accessory Genes Vif and Vpu
    • Publisher Summary
    • I Chapter Overview
    • II Vif: A Potent Regulator of Viral Infectivity
    • III The HIV-1-Specific Vpu Protein
  • Interactions of HIV-1 Viral Protein R with Host Cell Proteins
    • Publisher Summary
    • I Chapter Overview
    • II Introduction
    • III Effects of HIV-1 Vpr on Host Cellular Activities
    • IV Activation and Counteraction of Host Immune Responses by Vpr
    • V Development of Anti-Vpr Therapies
    • Acknowledgment
  • HIV-1 Protease: Structure, Dynamics, and Inhibition
    • Publisher Summary
    • I Chapter Overview
    • II Introduction
    • III Mature Protease: Structure, Dynamics, and Relationship to Function
    • IV Active Site Inhibitors and Drug Resistance
    • V Dissociation of the Mature Protease Dimer and Characterization of the Monomeric Structure
    • VI Insights into the Structure of the Protease Precursor and Its Maturation
    • Acknowledgments
  • Properties, Functions, and Drug Targeting of the Multifunctional Nucleocapsid Protein of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus
    • Publisher Summary
    • I Chapter Overview
    • II The NC Protein: The Story So Far
    • III The Structure of HIV-1 NC
    • IV The Network of NC Functions
    • V The Role of NC in HIV-1 Assembly
    • VI The Role of NC in HIV-1 Variability and Fitness
    • VII Anti-NC Drug Screening
    • VIII Conclusions and Future Prospects
    • Acknowledgments
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Assembly, Release, and Maturation
    • Publisher Summary
    • I Chapter Overview
    • II Overview of HIV-1 Assembly, Release, and Maturation
    • III Multimerization of Gag to Form the Structural Framework of the Immature Virus Particle
    • IV Encapsidation of the Viral RNA Genome
    • V Trafficking Virion Components to the Site of Assembly
    • VI Acquisition of a Lipid Bilayer and Associated Env Glycoproteins
    • VII Virus Particle Release
    • VIII Generating a Mature Infectious Virion
    • IX HIV Assembly and Maturation as Targets for New Antiretroviral Drugs
    • Acknowledgments
  • Role of Nef in HIV-1 Replication and Pathogenesis
    • Publisher Summary
    • I Chapter Overview
    • II Introduction
    • III Nef and HIV-1 Infection of PBMCs
    • IV Nef Studies in Human Thymic Systems
    • V Mechanism of Nef Enhancement of Replication and Pathogenesis
    • VI Conclusions
  • Treatment Implications of the Latent Reservoir for HIV-1
    • Publisher Summary
    • I Chapter Overview
    • II Introduction
    • III What is the Latent Reservoir?
    • IV Resistance: Mechanism of Storage in the Latent Reservoir and Its Clinical Implications
    • V Genotypic and Phenotypic Assays: Treatment Implications of the Latent Reservoir
    • VI Drug Development: Taking the Latent Reservoir into Account
    • VII Conclusions
  • RNA Interference and HIV-1
    • Publisher Summary
    • I Chapter Overview
    • II Introduction
    • III siRNA as Anti-HIV Therapy
    • IV HIV-1 Remodels Cellular miRNA Expression in Infected Cells
    • V Does HIV-1 Encode miRNAs?
    • VI Future Perspectives
    • Acknowledgment
  • Index
  • Contents of Previous Volumes

Description

  • Dedication
  • Contributors to Volume 55
  • Preface
  • HIV-1 RNA Packaging
    • Publisher Summary
    • I Chapter Overview
    • II Introduction
    • III The Packaging Pathway
    • IV RNA/Protein Recognition for Encapsidation: Molecular and Structural Biology
    • V Conclusions
  • Structure and Function of the HIV Envelope Glycoprotein as Entry Mediator, Vaccine Immunogen, and Target for Inhibitors
    • Publisher Summary
    • I Chapter Overview
    • II Introduction
    • III Structure of the Env (gp120–gp41)
    • IV Env Interactions with CD4 and Coreceptor (CCR5 or CXCR4) Leading to Membrane Fusion
    • V Env Interactions with Antibodies
    • VI The Env as Vaccine Immunogen and Target for Inhibitors
    • VII Conclusions
    • Acknowledgments
  • HIV-1 Reverse Transcription: Close Encounters Between the Viral Genome and a Cellular tRNA
    • Publisher Summary
    • I Chapter Overview
    • II Introduction
    • III Reverse Transcription
    • IV Specificity of tRNA Primer Usage
    • V Identification of the PAS Motif
    • VI Proposed Mechanism of Primer Activation
    • VII HIV-1 Replication with a Nonself tRNA Primer Confirms the Importance of the PAS Motif
    • VIII Conclusions
    • Acknowledgments
  • Transcription of HIV: Tat and Cellular Chromatin
    • Publisher Summary
    • I Chapter Overview
    • II Introduction
    • III Integrated HIV-1 LTR and Cellular Chromatin
    • IV The HIV-1 Tat Protein and Its Modifications
    • V Tat-Mediated Transactivation
    • V Conclusions
    • Acknowledgments
  • Posttranscriptional Control of HIV-1 and Other Retroviruses and Its Practical Applications
    • Publisher Summary
    • I Chapter Overview
    • II Introduction
    • III HIV-1 Regulation of Gene Expression
    • IV Rev and Its Export Receptor CRM1
    • V Posttranscriptional Regulation of Other Complex Retroviruses
    • VI HIV-1 mRNAs Use Multiple Mechanisms to Express Many Proteins from One Transcript
    • VII Rev-Dependence of HIV-1 mRNAs
    • VIII Use of RNA Optimization to Achieve High Level of HIV-1 gag/pol and env Expression Plasmids
    • IX Posttranscriptional Control of Simple Retroviruses
    • X NXF1
    • XI Cellular CTEs
    • XII Posttranscriptional Control of LTR-Retroelements
    • XIII Comparison of RNA Export Systems
    • XIV Replacement of Rev Regulation Leads to SIV Attenuation
    • XV Conclusions
    • Acknowledgments
  • HIV Accessory Genes Vif and Vpu
    • Publisher Summary
    • I Chapter Overview
    • II Vif: A Potent Regulator of Viral Infectivity
    • III The HIV-1-Specific Vpu Protein
  • Interactions of HIV-1 Viral Protein R with Host Cell Proteins
    • Publisher Summary
    • I Chapter Overview
    • II Introduction
    • III Effects of HIV-1 Vpr on Host Cellular Activities
    • IV Activation and Counteraction of Host Immune Responses by Vpr
    • V Development of Anti-Vpr Therapies
    • Acknowledgment
  • HIV-1 Protease: Structure, Dynamics, and Inhibition
    • Publisher Summary
    • I Chapter Overview
    • II Introduction
    • III Mature Protease: Structure, Dynamics, and Relationship to Function
    • IV Active Site Inhibitors and Drug Resistance
    • V Dissociation of the Mature Protease Dimer and Characterization of the Monomeric Structure
    • VI Insights into the Structure of the Protease Precursor and Its Maturation
    • Acknowledgments
  • Properties, Functions, and Drug Targeting of the Multifunctional Nucleocapsid Protein of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus
    • Publisher Summary
    • I Chapter Overview
    • II The NC Protein: The Story So Far
    • III The Structure of HIV-1 NC
    • IV The Network of NC Functions
    • V The Role of NC in HIV-1 Assembly
    • VI The Role of NC in HIV-1 Variability and Fitness
    • VII Anti-NC Drug Screening
    • VIII Conclusions and Future Prospects
    • Acknowledgments
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Assembly, Release, and Maturation
    • Publisher Summary
    • I Chapter Overview
    • II Overview of HIV-1 Assembly, Release, and Maturation
    • III Multimerization of Gag to Form the Structural Framework of the Immature Virus Particle
    • IV Encapsidation of the Viral RNA Genome
    • V Trafficking Virion Components to the Site of Assembly
    • VI Acquisition of a Lipid Bilayer and Associated Env Glycoproteins
    • VII Virus Particle Release
    • VIII Generating a Mature Infectious Virion
    • IX HIV Assembly and Maturation as Targets for New Antiretroviral Drugs
    • Acknowledgments
  • Role of Nef in HIV-1 Replication and Pathogenesis
    • Publisher Summary
    • I Chapter Overview
    • II Introduction
    • III Nef and HIV-1 Infection of PBMCs
    • IV Nef Studies in Human Thymic Systems
    • V Mechanism of Nef Enhancement of Replication and Pathogenesis
    • VI Conclusions
  • Treatment Implications of the Latent Reservoir for HIV-1
    • Publisher Summary
    • I Chapter Overview
    • II Introduction
    • III What is the Latent Reservoir?
    • IV Resistance: Mechanism of Storage in the Latent Reservoir and Its Clinical Implications
    • V Genotypic and Phenotypic Assays: Treatment Implications of the Latent Reservoir
    • VI Drug Development: Taking the Latent Reservoir into Account
    • VII Conclusions
  • RNA Interference and HIV-1
    • Publisher Summary
    • I Chapter Overview
    • II Introduction
    • III siRNA as Anti-HIV Therapy
    • IV HIV-1 Remodels Cellular miRNA Expression in Infected Cells
    • V Does HIV-1 Encode miRNAs?
    • VI Future Perspectives
    • Acknowledgment
  • Index
  • Contents of Previous Volumes

Readership

Pharmacologists, Molecular biologists, Virologists, Immunologists


Details

No. of pages:
488
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2007
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780080548326
Hardcover ISBN:
9780123736109

About the Serial Volume Editors

Kuan-Teh Jeang Serial Volume Editor

Affiliations and Expertise

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, U.S.A.

J. August Serial Volume Editor

Affiliations and Expertise

John Hopkins University; Department of Pharmacology, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.

Ferid Murad Serial Volume Editor

Ferid Murad was born in Whiting, Indiana. Working concurrently on an M.D. and Ph.D. in Pharmacology, Dr. Murad graduated with both degrees from Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, in 1965. His many honors include the Alfred S. Maschke Award for Clinical Excellence from Case Western Reserve University in 1965. He has held several distinguished positions, including Acting Chairman in the Department of Medicine and Acting Division Chief, Division of Respiratory Medicine at Stanford University. He currently is CEO and President of Molecular Geriatrics Corporation in Lake Bluff, Illinois. Dr. Murad is married and has five children.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Texas Medical School, Houston, U.S.A.