Histidine Kinases in Signal Transduction

Histidine Kinases in Signal Transduction

1st Edition - November 1, 2002

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  • Authors: Masayori Inouye, Rinku Dutta
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080534015
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123724847

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Living cells are constantly sensing environmental changes, and their abilities to sense these changes and adapt to them are essential for their survival. In bacteria, histidine kinases are the major sensors for these environmental stresses, enabling cells to adapt to new growth conditions. Written by leading experts in the field, this book provides an up-to-date and comprehensive review on the structure and function of histidine kinases. It also provides extensive information on the physiological roles of histidine kinases in bacteria and eukaryotes. An an essential reference for cell biologists, microbiologists, molecular biologists, and biochemists interested in signal transduction. Experimental biologists and pharmacologists studying signal transduction systems in living organisms will also find it a valuable research tool.

Key Features

  • The first comprehensive book on the roles of histidine kinases in cells
  • 23 in-depth chapters written by leading experts in the field
  • Describes the most recent advances in the field of signal transduction


Biochemists; molecular biologists, experimental biologists; pharmocologists; pharmaceutical companies with R&D programs in broad spectrum antibiotics; and specialists studying signal transduction systems in living organisms

Table of Contents

  • Preface


    1 Histidine Kinases: Introductory Remarks


    Basic Structure of Histidine Kinases (HKs)

    Uniqueness of HKs

    Difference between HKs and Ser/Thr/Tyr Kinases

    Signal Transduction Mechanism

    Regulation of Kinase and Phosphatase Activities: Switch Model and Rheostat Model

    Concluding Remarks


    2 The Histidine Kinase Family: Structures of Essential Building Blocks


    Kinase/Phosphatase Core Domain

    Phosphotransfer Domain

    Considerations on Domain Interactions

    Concluding Remarks


    3 Regulation of Porins in Escherichia coli by the Osmosensing Histidine Kinase~hosphatase EnvZ


    Domain A Is the Catalytic Domain

    Domain B Is the Catalysis-Assisting and ATP-Binding Domain

    Monomeric Histidine Kinase: Topological Arrangement between Domain A and Domain B

    Role of DNA in EnvZ Function

    Stoichiometric Complex Formation between EnvZ and OmpR

    Regulation of Kinase and Phosphatase Activities: Switch Model versus Rheostat Model

    Mechanism of Osmoregulation

    Concluding Remarks


    4 Structure and Function of CheA, the Histidine Kinase Central to Bacterial Chemotaxis


    Modular Structure of CheA

    A Superfamily of Histidine Kinases and ATPases

    Nucleotide Binding by CheA P4 and the GHL ATPases

    ATP Hydrolysis and Conformation of P4

    HPt Domain P1 and Phosphoryl Transfer

    P2 Domain and Response Regulator Coupling

    A Separate Dimerization Domain

    Receptor Coupling by the P5 Regulatory Domain

    Is Flexibility between Domains Important for Signaling?

    Controlling Protein-Protein Interactions with ATP

    Prospects for the Design of Antibiotics Directed at CheA

    What Is Next?


    5 Transmembrane Signaling and the Regulation of Histidine Kinase Activity


    Membrane Receptor Kinases

    Type I Histidine Kinase Receptors

    Receptors with Several Membrane-Spanning Segments

    Transmembrane Signaling in Bacterial Chemotaxis



    6 Structure-Function Relationships: Chemotaxis and Ethylene Receptors


    Chemotaxis and Chemoreceptors

    The Ethylene Receptor

    Chemoreceptors and Membrane-Bound Histidine Proteins Kinases


    7 New Insights into the Mechanism of the Kinase and Phosphatase Activities of Escherichia coli NRH (NtrB) and Their Regulation by the PII Protein


    Mechanism of NRII Autophosphorylation and Regulation of This Activity by PII

    Regulation of the Transphosphorylation Activity of NRII by PII

    Evidence for Conformational Alteration of NRII by PII Binding

    Mapping the Interaction of PII with NRII

    Mapping the Activities of NRII

    Explaining the Activities of Mutant Forms of NRII


    8 Role of the Histidine-Containing Phosphotransfer Domain (HPt) in the Muhistep Phosphorelay through the Anaerobic Hybrid Sensor, ArcB


    HPt Domain

    Structure and Function of Common HPt Domains

    Multistep ArcB→ArcA Phosphorelay System in Escherichia coli Anaerobiosis

    Advantage of Multistep Phosphorelay

    Multisignaling Circuitry of the ArcB→ArcA Phosphorelay

    Phospho-HPt Phosphatase Is Involved in the ArcB→ArcA Signaling Circuitry

    Physiological Role of SixA-Phosphatase in Response to Anaerobic Respiratory Conditions

    Cross-Phosphorelay Occurs on OmpR through EnvZ Osmosensor and ArcB Anaerosensor

    Atypical HPt Factor Is Involved in the Multistep RcsC→YojN→RcsB Phosphorelay

    HPt Domains in Higher Plants

    Concluding Remarks


    9 Genome-Wide Analysis of Escherichia coli Histidine Kinases


    Histidine Kinase Genes in the E. coli Genome

    Versatility of E. coli Histidine Kinases

    Deletion Analysis of Every Histidine Kinase Gene in the E. coli Genome

    DNA Microarray Analysis of Histidine Kinases for Gene Regulations


    10 Signal Transmission and Specificity in the Sporulation Phosphorelay of Bacillus subtilis


    Structural Characterization of Phosphorelay Components

    Interactions of the Response Regulator with the Phosphotransferase Domain



    11 Histidine Kinases: Extended Relationship with GHL ATPases


    Diverse Functions Supported by a Conserved ATP-Binding Site

    Features of the ATP-Binding Site

    Mechanistic Implications

    Closing Remarks


    12 Response Regulator Proteins and Their Interactions with Histidine Protein Kinases


    Regulatory Domains

    Effector Domains

    Regulation of Response Regulatory Phosphorylation

    Interactions of Response Regulators with Histidine Kinases and Histidine-Containing Phosphotransfer Domains



    13 Cyanophytochromes, Bacteriophytochromes, and Plant Phytochromes: Light-Regulated Kinases Related to Bacterial Two-Component Regulators

    Introduction to Phytochromes (Phys)

    Phys as Proteins Kinases?

    Discovery of Cyanophytochromes (CphPs) and Bacteriophytochromes (BphPs)

    Photochemical Properties of CphPs and BphPs

    Histidine Kinase Domains and Kinase Activity for CphPs and BphPs

    Biological Functions of Prokaryotic Phys

    Do Higher Plant Phys Function as Two-Component Histidine Kinases?

    Functions of the Kinase Activity of Phys

    BphP, CphP, and Phy Evolution



    14 Histidine Kinases in the Cyanobacterial Circadian System


    Cyanobacterial Circadian Rhythms

    Molecular Genetics of Cyanobacterial Circadian System: Kai Genes

    SasA, a KaiC-Binding Histidine Kinase as a Circadian Amplifier

    CikA, a Bacteriophytochrome Family Histidine Kinase as a Circadian Photic Input Factor

    Perspectives: Toward Further Understanding of His-to-Asp Signaling

    Pathways in the Circadian Network in Cyanobacteria


    15 Two-Component Control of Quorum Sensing in Gram-Negative Bacteria


    Quorum Sensing in Vibrio harveyi

    Quorum Sensing in Myxococcus xanthus



    16 Intercellular Communication in Gram-Positive Bacteria Depends on Peptide Pheromones and Their Histidine Kinase Receptors


    Intercellular Communication by Unmodified Peptides

    Intercellular Communication by Modified Peptides

    Bacteria Speak Different Languages

    Peptide Pheromones Depend on Histidine Kinase Receptors

    The HPK10 Subfamily of Histidine Kinases


    17 Initiation of Bacterial Killing by Two-Component Sensing of a "Death Peptide": Development of Antibiotic Tolerance in Streptococcus pneumoniae


    Cell Death and Signal Transduction

    Summary and Perspectives


    18 Role of Multiple Sensor Kinases in Cell Cycle Progression and Differentiation in Caulobacter crescentus


    Temporal and Spatial Control of Cell Cycle Events

    Levels of Developmental Regulation

    Control of Differentiation by Cell Cycle Checkpoints

    Two-Component Signal Transduction and Cell Cycle Regulation

    Summary and Perspectives


    19 The Slnl-Ypdl-Sskl Multistep Phosphorelay System That Regulates an Osmosensing MAP Kinase Cascade in Yeast


    The Common Downstream Pathway

    The SLN 1 Branch

    The SHO 1 Branch

    Concluding Remarks


    20 Histidine Kinases of Dictyostelium


    Eukaryotic Histidine Kinases

    Dictyostelium Histidine Kinases

    Phenotypic Analyses

    Double Mutants

    Structure and Function of DhkA

    The Late Adenylyl Cyclase ACR

    Summary and Perspectives


    21 Ethylene Perception in Arabidopsis by the ETR1 Receptor Family: Evaluating a Possible Role for Two-Component Signaling in Plant Ethylene Responses


    ETR1 Family Gene Structure and Biochemistry

    Ethylene Sensor Domain

    GAF-like Domain

    Histidine Kinase-Coupled Receptor

    Receiver Domain

    Kinase Activity in the Cytosolic Portion of ETR1

    Mutational Analysis of the Ethylene Pathway

    TwomComponent Signaling through MAPk Kinases in Saccharomyces cerevesiae and Arabidopsis


    22 Pathogenicity and Histidine Kinases: Approaches Toward the Development of a New Generation of Antibiotics


    Are Histidine Kinases Good Antibacterial Targets?

    Alternatives to High Throughput Screens: Possibilities for Structure-Based Screening for Identification Histidine of Kinase Inhibitors


    23 Molecular Evolution of Histidine Kinases


    Domains of Histidine Kinases

    Evolution of Histidine Kinases




Product details

  • No. of pages: 520
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2002
  • Published: November 1, 2002
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080534015
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123724847

About the Authors

Masayori Inouye

Affiliations and Expertise

Robert Johnson Medical School, Picataway, New Jersey, U.S.A.

Rinku Dutta

Affiliations and Expertise

Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, NJ, USA

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