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High Temperature Coatings demonstrates how to counteract the thermal effects of the rapid corrosion and degradation of exposed materials and equipment that can occur under high operating temperatures. This is the first true practical guide on the use of thermally-protective coatings for high-temperature applications, including the latest developments in materials used for protective coatings. It covers the make-up and behavior of such materials under thermal stress and the methods used for applying them to specific types of substrates, as well as invaluable advice on inspection and repair of existing thermal coatings.
With his long experience in the aerospace gas turbine industry, the author has compiled the very latest in coating materials and coating technologies, as well as hard-to-find guidance on maintaining and repairing thermal coatings, including appropriate inspection protocols. The book will be supplemented with the latest reference information and additional support for finding more application-type and industry-type coatings specifications and uses, with help for the reader in finding more detailed information on a specific type of coating or a specific type of use.
· Offers overview of the underlying fundamental concepts of thermally-protective coatings, including thermodynamics, energy kinetics, crystallography, and equilibrium phases · Covers essential chemistry and physics of underlying substrates, including steels, nickel-iron alloys, nickel-cobalt alloys, and titanium alloys · Provides detailed guidance on wide variety of coating types, including those used against high temperature corrosion and oxidative degradation, as well as thermal barrier coatings
Primary: Professional engineers in materials engineering, metallurgy, mechanical engineering, aerospace engineering, and chemical engineering, Chemists and Physicists with any interest in high temperature physics and physical chemistry Secondary: Graduate students in materials engineering, metallurgy, mechanical engineering, aerospace engineering, and chemical engineering,Graduate students in chemistry and physics taking courses in solid physics and related subjects in physical chemistry
CHAPTER 1.0 INTRODUCTION REFERENCES
CHAPTER 2.0 FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS 2.1 Thermodynamic Concepts Enthalpy Entropy Free Energy Equilibrium Constant Activity Coefficient 2.2 Concept of Kinetics Activation Energy Diffusion 2.3 Crystal Structure Defects in Crystals 2.4 Equilibrium Phases Binary Phase Diagram Ternary Phase Diagram REFERENCES
CHAPTER 3.0 SUBSTRATE ALLOYS 3.1 Temperature Capability of metal and alloys 3.2 Strengthening Mechanisms 3.3 Titanium Alloys 3.4 Steels 3.5 Nickel-Iron Alloys 3.6 Nickel and Cobalt base Superalloys 3.7 Need for Coatings REFERENCES
CHAPTER 4.0 OXIDATION 4.1 Oxidation Process Temperature Effects Partial Pressure Effects Composition Effects Kinetics of Oxidation Oxide Scale Protectiveness 4.2 Oxidation Testing and Evaluation Oxidation Rates Parabolic Growth, Linear Growth, Logarithmic Growth Breakaway Oxidation Influence of Thermocycling on Oxidation 4.3 Oxidation of Alloys Binary Alloy Systems Ternary and Multicomponent Alloy Systems 4.4 Role of Specific Alloying Constituents Aluminum, Chromium, Cobalt, Silicon, Boron, Titanium, Manganese, Tantalum, Molybdenum, Tungsten, Oxygen Reactive Elements, Rhenium / Ruthenium Reduction of Sulfur Level 4.5 Oxidation in the Presence of Water vapor 4.6 Oxidation of Polycrystalline Alloys versus Single Crystals REFERENCES
CHAPTER 5.0 HIGH TEMPERATURE CORROSION 5.1 Hot Corrosion Process The Corroding Salts Acid and Base Characteristics of Salts 5.2 Corrosion of Metals and Alloys Solubility of Oxides in Molten Salts Mechanism of Sustained Hot Corrosion Role of Vanadium 5.3 Role of Specific Alloying Elements in Hot Corrosion of Ni and Co Based Alloys and Coatings Chromium, Nickel, Cobalt, Tungsten, Molybdenum, Vanadium, Titanium, Rare Earth Elements, Platinum 5.4 Influence of Other Contaminants Presence of Carbon Presence of Chlorides 5.5 Hot Corrosion of TBC 5.6 Hot Corrosion – like Degradation REFERENCES
CHAPTER 6.0 OXIDATION & CORROSION RESISTANT COATINGS
6.1 Requirements for Metallic Coatings
6.2 Coatings Processes
6.3 Diffusion Coatings
6.3.1 Pack Coatings
184.108.40.206 Aluminiding of Ni base alloys
Above the Pack Process
Role of Activator
Microstructure and Mechanism of Coatings Formation
220.127.116.11 Aluminiding of Co base alloys
18.104.22.168 Chromium Modified Aluminide Coating for Ni base alloys
22.214.171.124 Siliconized Coating for Ni base alloys
126.96.36.199 Platinum Modified Aluminide for Ni base alloys
6.3.2 Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)
188.8.131.52 Platinum Aluminide by Chemical Vapor Deposition
6.3.3 Role of Reactive Elements in Diffusion Coatings
6.3.4 Microstructure of Platinum Aluminides
6.3.5 Manufacturing Aspects of the Coatings Process
6.3.6 Commercial Diffusion Coatings
6.3.7 Coating - Substrate Interdiffision Effects
6.3.8 Coatings Phase Stability
184.108.40.206 Platinum modified Gamma + Gamma Prime Coating
6.3.9 Oxidation Resistance of Diffusion Coatings 6.3.10 Corrosion Resistance of Diffusion Coatings 6.3.11 Mechanical Properties of Platinum Aluminides 6.4 Overlay Coatings 6.5 Overlay Coatings by Spray and Arc Processes 6.5.1 Beta – Gamma System Phase Stability 6.5.2 Spray Coatings 220.127.116.11 Cold Spray 18.104.22.168 Thermal Spray Detonation Gun Process Flame Spray Process High Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF) Plasma Spray Process Low Pressure Plasma Spray (LPPS) 6.5.3 LPPS Coatings Deposition Profile and Microstructure 6.5.4 Arc Process Electric Arc Spray Electro – spark Deposition (ESD) 6.5.5 Coating - Substrate Diffusion Effects 6.5.6 Commercial Overlay Coatings 6.6 Overlay Coatings by Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) 6.6.1 Sputtering Planer Diode Sputtering Triode Sputtering Magnetron Sputtering Radio Frequency (R F) Sputtering 6.6.2 Ion Plating 6.6.3 Ion Implantation 6.6.4 Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition (EB-PVD) 6.6.5 Microstructure of Coatings 6.6.6 Mechanical Properties of Coatings and Coated Materials Ductile to Brittle Transition Temperature (DBTT) Tensile Properties Tensile Strength and Ductility Creep and Rupture Properties Low Cycle and Thermal Fatigue High Cycle Fatigue 6.7 Relative Oxidation and Corrosion Resistance of Coatings Oxidation Resistance Corrosion Resistance Diffusion Coatings Overlay Coatings Coatings for Marine Application 6.8 Modeling of Oxidation and Corrosion Life 6.8.1 Oxidation Life of Superalloys and Metallic Coatings 22.214.171.124 Life Prediction Methodologies 126.96.36.199 Life Equation Formulation Weight Change after the First Thermal Cycle Weight Change after the Second Thermal Cycle Cumulative Specific Weight Change of the Sample and Metal Loss Life Prediction 6.8.2 Hot Corrosion Life of Superalloys and Coatings 188.8.131.52 Contributing Processes to the Corrosion Rate Total Contaminant Concentration Test Data Generation 184.108.40.206 Life Equation Formulation Oxidation Type I Hot Corrosion Type II Hot Corrosion Vanadic Hot Corrosion Overall Corrosion Rate Influence of Other Variables 6.9 Interaction of Erosion – Oxidation and Erosion – Corrosion REFERENCES
CHAPTER 7.0 THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS (TBC) 7.1 Temperature Reduction by TBC 7.1.1 Magnitude of Temperature Reduction 7.1.2 The Benefits of TBC 7.2 Materials Requirements for TBC 7.3 Partially Stabilized Zirconia
7.4 Plasma Sprayed TBC The Plasma 7.4.1 The Plasma Spray Process 7.4.2 Microstructure of Plasma Sprayed TBC 7.4.3 Microstructure Development and Structure Property Relationship 220.127.116.11 Microstructure Formation Segmented TBC Phase Identification in Ceramic Coating 18.104.22.168 Role of Substrate Surface Roughness 22.214.171.124 Thick TBC 126.96.36.199 Thermal Properties and Consequence Thermal conductivity 7.4.4 Residual Stresses 7.4.5 Role of Thermally Grown Oxide (TGO) 7.4.6 Structural Properties 7.4.7 Plasma TBC Durability 188.8.131.52 Effects of Thermal cycling in Oxidizing Environment 184.108.40.206 TBC Degradation Modes and Locations 220.127.116.11 Failure Mechanism of Plasma Sprayed TBC 18.104.22.168 Design Capable Phenomenological Life Model Life Equations Impact of Oxidation
7.5 Electron Beam Physical Vapor deposited (EB-PVD) TBC 7.5.1 Why Electron Beam 22.214.171.124 General Principle 7.5.2 Processing 7.5.3 Microstructure Formation 126.96.36.199 Directed Vapor EB-PVD 7.5.4 TGO 188.8.131.52 Role of Interface and Surface Roughness 7.5.5 EB-PVD TBC Degradation Modes and Locations 184.108.40.206 Infiltration by Environmental Deposits 220.127.116.11 Hot Corrosion 18.104.22.168 Erosion Damage Dependence on Microstructure and Test Parameters 22.214.171.124 Foreign Object Damage (FOD) 126.96.36.199 Damage Due to Changes in the TGO 7.5.6 Role of Residual Stress Stress within the TGO Stress within the Ceramic Coating 7.5.7 Role of Oxygen Active Elements 7.5.8 Bond Strength 7.5.9 Structural Properties 7.5.10 Oxidation and Thermocyclic Behavior 7.5.11 Failure Mechanisms and Life Modeling 188.8.131.52 Spall Mechanism and Fracture Mechanics Model 7.5.12 Thermal Properties of TBC 184.108.40.206 Thermal Behavior of 7YSZ Thermal Expansion Thermal Conductivity and Specific Heat The Effect of Microstructure 220.127.116.11 Reduction of Thermal Conductivity Microstructural Modification Alternate Alloying Additions Novel Oxide Ceramics Thermal Consequence of Increased Insulation 7.6 Environmental Barrier Coatings (EBC) REFERENCES
CHAPTER 8.0 NONDESTRUCTIVE INSPECTION OF COATINGS 8.1 NDI Techniques Fluorescent Penetrant Inspection (FPI) Ultrasonic Inspection Eddy Current Infrared Imaging Acoustic Emission Photoacoustic Technique Mid-Infrared Reflectance Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Photoluminescence Piezospectroscopy Interferometric Techniques REFERENCES
CHAPTER 9.0 COATINGS REPAIR 9.1 Limits to Coatings Repair 9.2 The Repair Process Component Cleaning Consequence of Remnants of Old Coating 9.2.1 Removal of Ceramic Coatings Grit blasting Alkali Solution Molten Alkali Water – jet 9.2.2 Removal of Metallic Coatings Acid Stripping 9.3 Recoating and Material Restoration REFERENCES
CHAPTER 10.0 FIELD AND SIMULATED FIELD EXPERIENCE 10.1 Gas Turbine Engine Application 10.1.1 Metallic Coatings Coating Oxidation in Aircraft Engines Coating Cracking in Aircraft Engines Oxidation and Hot Corrosion in Aircraft and Marine Engine Simulation Test Oxidation and Hot Corrosion in Industrial Gas Turbines Coating Cracking in Industrial Gas Turbine Engines Marine Application 10.1.2 TBC 10.1.2.1 Plasma Sprayed TBC TBC on combustor TBC on vane platform TBC on vane airfoil 10.1.2.2 EB-PVD TBC TBC on blades and vanes 10.1.2.3 TBC in Industrial Gas Turbine Engines 10.2 Other Applications Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Power Plant Fast Breeder Reactors Waste to Energy Plants Diesel Engine REFERENCES
INDEX Subject Author
- No. of pages:
- © Butterworth-Heinemann 2007
- 23rd January 2007
- Hardcover ISBN:
- eBook ISBN:
Dr. Sudhangshu Bose is a retired Fellow and Manager, and currently consultant at Pratt & Whitney, the manufacturer of Gas Turbine and Rocket Engines. He has also been Professor of Practice in Mechanical Engineering at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York and Hartford, Connecticut, USA. He holds a Ph.D in Materials Science and Engineering from University of California, Berkeley, having previously obtained B.Sc (Honors) and M.Sc in Physics from Ranchi University, Ranchi, India. While at Pratt & Whitney and its sister divisions, Dr. Bose has conducted and managed research, development, and testing of advanced materials and processes including oxidation and corrosion in fuel cells and gas turbine engine, catalysis, high temperature coatings, superalloys, intermetallics, and ceramic matrix composites. He holds over 24 patents. As a Professor of Practice at Rensselaer, he taught courses and supervised research in the areas of Superalloys, High Temperature Coatings, and Conventional and Renewable Energy Technologies. He is currently associated with the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science at Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.
Retired Fellow, Pratt and Whitney. Retired Professor Emeritus, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Hartford, CT, USA
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