High Temperature Coatings - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780750682527, 9780080469553

High Temperature Coatings

1st Edition

Authors: Sudhangshu Bose Sudhangshu Bose
eBook ISBN: 9780080469553
Hardcover ISBN: 9780750682527
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 23rd January 2007
Page Count: 312
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High Temperature Coatings demonstrates how to counteract the thermal effects of the rapid corrosion and degradation of exposed materials and equipment that can occur under high operating temperatures. This is the first true practical guide on the use of thermally-protective coatings for high-temperature applications, including the latest developments in materials used for protective coatings. It covers the make-up and behavior of such materials under thermal stress and the methods used for applying them to specific types of substrates, as well as invaluable advice on inspection and repair of existing thermal coatings.

With his long experience in the aerospace gas turbine industry, the author has compiled the very latest in coating materials and coating technologies, as well as hard-to-find guidance on maintaining and repairing thermal coatings, including appropriate inspection protocols. The book will be supplemented with the latest reference information and additional support for finding more application-type and industry-type coatings specifications and uses, with help for the reader in finding more detailed information on a specific type of coating or a specific type of use.

Key Features

· Offers overview of the underlying fundamental concepts of thermally-protective coatings, including thermodynamics, energy kinetics, crystallography, and equilibrium phases · Covers essential chemistry and physics of underlying substrates, including steels, nickel-iron alloys, nickel-cobalt alloys, and titanium alloys · Provides detailed guidance on wide variety of coating types, including those used against high temperature corrosion and oxidative degradation, as well as thermal barrier coatings


Primary: Professional engineers in materials engineering, metallurgy, mechanical engineering, aerospace engineering, and chemical engineering, Chemists and Physicists with any interest in high temperature physics and physical chemistry Secondary: Graduate students in materials engineering, metallurgy, mechanical engineering, aerospace engineering, and chemical engineering,Graduate students in chemistry and physics taking courses in solid physics and related subjects in physical chemistry

Table of Contents



CHAPTER 2.0 FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS 2.1 Thermodynamic Concepts Enthalpy Entropy Free Energy Equilibrium Constant Activity Coefficient 2.2 Concept of Kinetics Activation Energy Diffusion 2.3 Crystal Structure Defects in Crystals 2.4 Equilibrium Phases Binary Phase Diagram Ternary Phase Diagram REFERENCES

CHAPTER 3.0 SUBSTRATE ALLOYS 3.1 Temperature Capability of metal and alloys 3.2 Strengthening Mechanisms 3.3 Titanium Alloys 3.4 Steels 3.5 Nickel-Iron Alloys 3.6 Nickel and Cobalt base Superalloys 3.7 Need for Coatings REFERENCES

CHAPTER 4.0 OXIDATION 4.1 Oxidation Process Temperature Effects Partial Pressure Effects Composition Effects Kinetics of Oxidation Oxide Scale Protectiveness 4.2 Oxidation Testing and Evaluation Oxidation Rates Parabolic Growth, Linear Growth, Logarithmic Growth Breakaway Oxidation Influence of Thermocycling on Oxidation 4.3 Oxidation of Alloys Binary Alloy Systems Ternary and Multicomponent Alloy Systems 4.4 Role of Specific Alloying Constituents Aluminum, Chromium, Cobalt, Silicon, Boron, Titanium, Manganese, Tantalum, Molybdenum, Tungsten, Oxygen Reactive Elements, Rhenium / Ruthenium Reduction of Sulfur Level 4.5 Oxidation in the Presence of Water vapor 4.6 Oxidation of Polycrystalline Alloys versus Single Crystals REFERENCES

CHAPTER 5.0 HIGH TEMPERATURE CORROSION 5.1 Hot Corrosion Process The Corroding Salts Acid and Base Characteristics of Salts 5.2 Corrosion of Metals and Alloys Solubility of Oxides in Molten Salts Mechanism of Sustained Hot Corrosion Role of Vanadium 5.3 Role of Specific Alloying Elements in Hot Corrosion of Ni and Co Based Alloys and Coatings Chromium, Nickel, Cobalt, Tungsten, Molybdenum, Vanadium, Titanium, Rare Earth Elements, Platinum 5.4 Influence of Other Contaminants Presence of Carbon Presence of Chlorides 5.5 Hot Corrosion of TBC 5.6 Hot Corrosion – like Degradation REFERENCES

CHAPTER 6.0 OXIDATION & CORROSION RESISTANT COATINGS 6.1 Requirements for Metallic Coatings 6.2 Coatings Processes 6.3 Diffusion Coatings 6.3.1 Pack Coatings Aluminiding of Ni base alloys Pack Process Above the Pack Process Pulse Aluminiding Slurry Aluminiding Role of Activator Microstructure and Mechanism of Coatings Formation Aluminiding of Co base alloys Chromium Modified Aluminide Coating for Ni base alloys Siliconized Coating for Ni base alloys Platinum Modified Aluminide for Ni base alloys 6.3.2 Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Platinum Aluminide by Chemical Vapor Deposition 6.3.3 Role of Reactive Elements in Diffusion Coatings 6.3.4 Microstructure of Platinum Aluminides 6.3.5 Manufacturing Aspects of the Coatings Process 6.3.6 Commercial Diffusion Coatings 6.3.7 Coating - Substrate Interdiffision Effects 6.3.8 Coatings Phase Stability Platinum modified Gamma + Gamma Prime Coating
6.3.9 Oxidation Resistance of Diffusion Coatings 6.3.10 Corrosion Resistance of Diffusion Coatings 6.3.11 Mechanical Properties of Platinum Aluminides 6.4 Overlay Coatings 6.5 Overlay Coatings by Spray and Arc Processes 6.5.1 Beta – Gamma System Phase Stability 6.5.2 Spray Coatings Cold Spray Thermal Spray Detonation Gun Process Flame Spray Process High Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF) Plasma Spray Process Low Pressure Plasma Spray (LPPS) 6.5.3 LPPS Coatings Deposition Profile and Microstructure 6.5.4 Arc Process Electric Arc Spray Electro – spark Deposition (ESD) 6.5.5 Coating - Substrate Diffusion Effects 6.5.6 Commercial Overlay Coatings 6.6 Overlay Coatings by Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) 6.6.1 Sputtering Planer Diode Sputtering Triode Sputtering Magnetron Sputtering Radio Frequency (R F) Sputtering 6.6.2 Ion Plating 6.6.3 Ion Implantation 6.6.4 Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition (EB-PVD) 6.6.5 Microstructure of Coatings 6.6.6 Mechanical Properties of Coatings and Coated Materials Ductile to Brittle Transition Temperature (DBTT) Tensile Properties Tensile Strength and Ductility Creep and Rupture Properties Low Cycle and Thermal Fatigue High Cycle Fatigue 6.7 Relative Oxidation and Corrosion Resistance of Coatings Oxidation Resistance Corrosion Resistance Diffusion Coatings Overlay Coatings Coatings for Marine Application 6.8 Modeling of Oxidation and Corrosion Life 6.8.1 Oxidation Life of Superalloys and Metallic Coatings Life Prediction Methodologies Life Equation Formulation Weight Change after the First Thermal Cycle Weight Change after the Second Thermal Cycle Cumulative Specific Weight Change of the Sample and Metal Loss Life Prediction 6.8.2 Hot Corrosion Life of Superalloys and Coatings Contributing Processes to the Corrosion Rate Total Contaminant Concentration Test Data Generation Life Equation Formulation Oxidation Type I Hot Corrosion Type II Hot Corrosion Vanadic Hot Corrosion Overall Corrosion Rate Influence of Other Variables 6.9 Interaction of Erosion – Oxidation and Erosion – Corrosion REFERENCES

CHAPTER 7.0 THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS (TBC) 7.1 Temperature Reduction by TBC 7.1.1 Magnitude of Temperature Reduction 7.1.2 The Benefits of TBC 7.2 Materials Requirements for TBC 7.3 Partially Stabilized Zirconia

7.4 Plasma Sprayed TBC The Plasma 7.4.1 The Plasma Spray Process 7.4.2 Microstructure of Plasma Sprayed TBC 7.4.3 Microstructure Development and Structure Property Relationship Microstructure Formation Segmented TBC Phase Identification in Ceramic Coating Role of Substrate Surface Roughness Thick TBC Thermal Properties and Consequence Thermal conductivity 7.4.4 Residual Stresses 7.4.5 Role of Thermally Grown Oxide (TGO) 7.4.6 Structural Properties 7.4.7 Plasma TBC Durability Effects of Thermal cycling in Oxidizing Environment TBC Degradation Modes and Locations Failure Mechanism of Plasma Sprayed TBC Design Capable Phenomenological Life Model Life Equations Impact of Oxidation

7.5 Electron Beam Physical Vapor deposited (EB-PVD) TBC 7.5.1 Why Electron Beam General Principle 7.5.2 Processing 7.5.3 Microstructure Formation Directed Vapor EB-PVD 7.5.4 TGO Role of Interface and Surface Roughness 7.5.5 EB-PVD TBC Degradation Modes and Locations Infiltration by Environmental Deposits Hot Corrosion Erosion Damage Dependence on Microstructure and Test Parameters Foreign Object Damage (FOD) Damage Due to Changes in the TGO 7.5.6 Role of Residual Stress Stress within the TGO Stress within the Ceramic Coating 7.5.7 Role of Oxygen Active Elements 7.5.8 Bond Strength 7.5.9 Structural Properties 7.5.10 Oxidation and Thermocyclic Behavior 7.5.11 Failure Mechanisms and Life Modeling Spall Mechanism and Fracture Mechanics Model 7.5.12 Thermal Properties of TBC Thermal Behavior of 7YSZ Thermal Expansion Thermal Conductivity and Specific Heat The Effect of Microstructure Reduction of Thermal Conductivity Microstructural Modification Alternate Alloying Additions Novel Oxide Ceramics Thermal Consequence of Increased Insulation 7.6 Environmental Barrier Coatings (EBC) REFERENCES

CHAPTER 8.0 NONDESTRUCTIVE INSPECTION OF COATINGS 8.1 NDI Techniques Fluorescent Penetrant Inspection (FPI) Ultrasonic Inspection Eddy Current Infrared Imaging Acoustic Emission Photoacoustic Technique Mid-Infrared Reflectance Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Photoluminescence Piezospectroscopy Interferometric Techniques REFERENCES

CHAPTER 9.0 COATINGS REPAIR 9.1 Limits to Coatings Repair 9.2 The Repair Process Component Cleaning Consequence of Remnants of Old Coating 9.2.1 Removal of Ceramic Coatings Grit blasting Alkali Solution Molten Alkali Water – jet 9.2.2 Removal of Metallic Coatings Acid Stripping 9.3 Recoating and Material Restoration REFERENCES

CHAPTER 10.0 FIELD AND SIMULATED FIELD EXPERIENCE 10.1 Gas Turbine Engine Application 10.1.1 Metallic Coatings Coating Oxidation in Aircraft Engines Coating Cracking in Aircraft Engines Oxidation and Hot Corrosion in Aircraft and Marine Engine Simulation Test Oxidation and Hot Corrosion in Industrial Gas Turbines Coating Cracking in Industrial Gas Turbine Engines Marine Application 10.1.2 TBC Plasma Sprayed TBC TBC on combustor TBC on vane platform TBC on vane airfoil EB-PVD TBC TBC on blades and vanes TBC in Industrial Gas Turbine Engines 10.2 Other Applications Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Power Plant Fast Breeder Reactors Waste to Energy Plants Diesel Engine REFERENCES


INDEX Subject Author


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About the Author

Sudhangshu Bose

Affiliations and Expertise

Fellow, Pratt & Whitney Adjunct Professor, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Hartford Hartford, CT

Sudhangshu Bose

Affiliations and Expertise

Fellow, Pratt & Whitney Adjunct Professor, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Hartford Hartford, CT