High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering

High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering

Fundamentals, Technologies, Challenges and Applications

1st Edition - August 28, 2019

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  • Editors: Daniel Lundin, Tiberiu Minea, Jon Tomas Gudmundsson
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128124550
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128124543

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High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering: Fundamentals, Technologies, Challenges and Applications is an in-depth introduction to HiPIMS that emphasizes how this novel sputtering technique differs from conventional magnetron processes in terms of both discharge physics and the resulting thin film characteristics. Ionization of sputtered atoms is discussed in detail for various target materials. In addition, the role of self-sputtering, secondary electron emission and the importance of controlling the process gas dynamics, both inert and reactive gases, are examined in detail with an aim to generate stable HiPIMS processes. Lastly, the book also looks at how to characterize the HiPIMS discharge, including essential diagnostic equipment. Experimental results and simulations based on industrially relevant material systems are used to illustrate mechanisms controlling nucleation kinetics, column formation and microstructure evolution.

Key Features

  • Includes a comprehensive description of the HiPIMS process from fundamental physics to applications
  • Provides a distinctive link between the process plasma and thin film communities
  • Discusses the industrialization of HiPIMS and its real world applications


Researchers within the Vacuum equipment, semiconductor, automotive, aeronautic, glass, and medical applications industries and academics within the Materials science, plasma physics, and nanomaterials areas

Table of Contents

  • 1. Introduction (particle surface interaction)

    o    Sputtering (background)

    o    Magnetron sputtering

    o    Magnetron configurations

    o    Overview of pulsed magnetron discharges

    2. Power coupling

    o    HiPIMS generator

    o    HiPIMS bias

    o    Multi-cathode configurations

    o    Superposition

    3. HiPIMS process characteristics

    o    Electrons: Electron energy, electron density, and electrical potentials

    o    Ions: Ion flux, energy, and composition

    o    Deposition rate

    o    Self-sputtering

    4. Reactive HiPIMS

    o    Fundamentals

    o    Experimental results

    5. HiPIMS modeling

    o    Types

    o    Results

    6. Physics of HiPIMS

    o    Deposition rate

    o    Transport of charged species

    o    Modes of operation

    o    Reactive HiPIMS

    7. HiPIMS thin films

    o    Deposition on complex-shaped substrates

    o    Phase composition tailoring

    o    Control of film microstructure

    o    Interface engineering

    o    Protecting films (corrosion, hardness, adhesion etc)

    o    Films for electronic applications

    8. Industrialization of HiPIMS

    o    Up-scaling

    o    Rotating magnetron sputtering

    o    Examples of industrially relevant thin films

Product details

  • No. of pages: 398
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2019
  • Published: August 28, 2019
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128124550
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128124543

About the Editors

Daniel Lundin

Daniel Lundin, Ph.D., has been working in the field of thin film synthesis using plasma-based techniques. His current research is focused on understanding and characterizing low-pressure plasma discharges, in particular the thin film plasma deposition technique High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS) and magnetron sputtering as a new type of surface coating technique. In 2008 his research on the HiPIMS process was awarded the Institute of Physics Prize for novelty, significance and potential impact on future research. In 2009 he was ranked as one of Sweden’s young ‘Supertalents’ by the Swedish business journal Veckans Affärer. Dr. Lundin has published more than 40 papers on HiPIMS and is currently working as a senior researcher at the University of Paris-Sud/CNRS.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Researcher, CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud, France

Tiberiu Minea

Tiberiu Minea, Ph.D. is currently serving as the Director the Laboratory of Physics and Gases and Plasmas at the University of Paris-Sud where he heads the group researching the theory and modeling of plasmas – discharge and surfaces. He is the President of the French Federation of Scientific Societies, as well as the president of Scientific and Technical Committee of SFV. Dr. Minea has published over 84 peer reviewed articles and has been an invited speaker at numerous conferences for his work on HiPIMS.

Affiliations and Expertise

Director of LPGP, Universite Paris-Sud, France

Jon Tomas Gudmundsson

Jon Tomas Gudmundsson has spent the last 18 years as a professor at the University of Iceland both within the Physics and Engineering schools. He holds a Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley, in Nuclear Engineering and his current field of study includes the characterization of the high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge using a Langmuir probe, as well as plasma characterization, plasma chemistry and photovoltaics. He was the keynote speaker at the 4th Magnetron, Ion Processing & Arc Technologies European Conference in December 2015 where he presented a paper on The current waveform in reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering.

Affiliations and Expertise

Research Scientist, Science Institute, University of Iceland

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