High Performance Silicon Imaging - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780857095985, 9780857097521

High Performance Silicon Imaging

1st Edition

Fundamentals and Applications of CMOS and CCD sensors

Editors: Daniel Durini
eBook ISBN: 9780857097521
Hardcover ISBN: 9780857095985
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 12th May 2014
Page Count: 476
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Table of Contents

  • Contributor contact details
  • Woodhead Publishing Series in Electronic and Optical Materials
  • Part I: Fundamentals
    • 1. Fundamental principles of photosensing
      • Abstract:
      • 1.1 Introduction
      • 1.2 The human vision system
      • 1.3 Photometry and radiometry
      • 1.4 History of photosensing
      • 1.5 Early developments in photodetector technology
      • 1.6 References
    • 2. Operational principles of silicon image sensors
      • Abstract:
      • 2.1 Introduction
      • 2.2 Silicon phototransduction
      • 2.3 Principles of charged coupled device (CCD) and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) photosensing technologies
      • 2.4 Metal-oxide-semiconductor-capacitor (MOS-C) structure-based photodetectors
      • 2.5 p-n junction-based photodetectors
      • 2.6 Noise considerations in pixel structures
      • 2.7 High-performance pixel structures
      • 2.8 Miniaturization and other development strategies followed in image sensor technologies
      • 2.9 Hybrid and 3D detector technologies
      • 2.10 Conclusion
      • 2.11 References
    • 3. Charge coupled device (CCD) image sensors
      • Abstract:
      • 3.1 Introduction
      • 3.2 Charge coupled device (CCD) design, architecture and operation
      • 3.3 Illumination modes
      • 3.4 Imaging parameters and their characterization
      • 3.5 Conclusion and future trends
      • 3.6 References
    • 4. Backside illuminated (BSI) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors
      • Abstract:
      • 4.1 Introduction
      • 4.2 Challenges facing a scaled-down frontside illuminated (FSI) sensor
      • 4.3 Basics of backside illuminated (BSI) sensor process integration
      • 4.4 Interface solutions to BSI sensors
      • 4.5 Conclusion
      • 4.6 References
    • 5. Circuits for high performance complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors
      • Abstract:
      • 5.1 Introduction
      • 5.2 High resolution image sensors
      • 5.3 Low noise complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors
      • 5.4 High speed image sensors
      • 5.5 Low power image sensors
      • 5.6 Wide dynamic range sensors
      • 5.7 Other high performance designs
      • 5.8 Conclusion
      • 5.9 References
    • 6. Smart cameras on a chip: using complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors to create smart vision chips
      • Abstract:
      • 6.1 Introduction
      • 6.2 The concept of a smart camera on a chip
      • 6.3 The development of vision chip technology
      • 6.4 From special-purpose chips to smart computational chips
      • 6.5 From video rate applications to high-speed image processing chips
      • 6.6 Future trends
      • 6.7 Conclusion
      • 6.8 References
  • Part II: Applications
    • 7. Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors for mobile devices
      • Abstract:
      • 7.1 Introduction
      • 7.2 Core image/video capture technology requirements and advances in mobile applications
      • 7.3 Emerging complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) ‘sensor-embedded’ technologies
      • 7.4 Mobile image sensor architecture and product considerations
      • 7.5 Future trends
      • 7.6 Conclusion
      • 7.7 References
    • 8. Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors for automotive applications
      • Abstract:
      • 8.1 Automotive applications
      • 8.2 Vision systems
      • 8.3 Sensing systems
      • 8.4 Requirements for automotive image sensors
      • 8.5 Future trends
      • 8.6 References
    • 9. Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors for use in space
      • Abstract:
      • 9.1 Introduction
      • 9.2 General requirements for use of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) sensors in space
      • 9.3 Comparison of CMOS sensors and charge coupled devices (CCDs) for space applications
      • 9.4 CMOS sensors for space applications
      • 9.5 References
    • 10. Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) sensors for high-performance scientific imaging
      • Abstract:
      • 10.1 Introduction
      • 10.2 Detection in silicon
      • 10.3 Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) sensors for the detection of charged particles
      • 10.4 CMOS sensors for X-ray detection
      • 10.5 Future trends
      • 10.6 Sources of further information and advice
      • 10.7 References
    • 11. Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) sensors for fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM)
      • Abstract:
      • 11.1 Introduction
      • 11.2 Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM)
      • 11.3 Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) detectors and pixels
      • 11.4 FLIM system-on-chip
      • 11.5 Future trends
      • 11.6 Sources of further information and advice
      • 11.7 References
    • 12. Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) X-ray sensors
      • Abstract:
      • 12.1 Introduction
      • 12.2 Intra-oral and extra-oral dental X-ray imaging
      • 12.3 Medical radiography, fluoroscopy and mammography
      • 12.4 CMOS image sensor (CIS)-based flat panel display (FPD) technology
      • 12.5 Pixel design considerations for CMOS-based FPDs
      • 12.6 Key parameters for X-ray sensors
      • 12.7 X-ray sensors: types and requirements
      • 12.8 Direct X-ray sensors
      • 12.9 Conclusion and future trends
      • 12.10 References
    • 13. Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) and charge coupled device (CCD) image sensors in high-definition TV imaging
      • Abstract:
      • 13.1 Introduction
      • 13.2 Broadcast camera performance
      • 13.3 Modulation transfer function (MTF), aliasing and resolution
      • 13.4 Aliasing and optical low pass filtering
      • 13.5 Opto-electrical matching and other parameters
      • 13.6 Standards for describing the performance of broadcast cameras
      • 13.7 Charge coupled device (CCD) and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors used in broadcast cameras
      • 13.8 Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)
      • 13.9 Bit size, pixel count and other issues
      • 13.10 Three-dimensional and ultra high-defi nition (UHD) television
      • 13.11 Conclusion
      • 13.12 Sources of further information and advice
      • 13.13 References
    • 14. High-performance silicon imagers and their applications in astrophysics, medicine and other fields
      • Abstract:
      • 14.1 Introduction
      • 14.2 Solid-state imaging detectors: principles of operation
      • 14.3 Scientific imaging detectors
      • 14.4 Readout structures
      • 14.5 Photon counting detectors
      • 14.7 Planetary and astronomy applications
      • 14.8 Commercial applications of high-performance imaging detectors
      • 14.9 Brief note on biological and medical applications
      • 14.10 References and further reading
  • Index


High Performance Silicon Imaging covers the fundamentals of silicon image sensors, with a focus on existing performance issues and potential solutions. The book considers several applications for the technology as well. Silicon imaging is a fast growing area of the semiconductor industry. Its use in cell phone cameras is already well established, and emerging applications include web, security, automotive, and digital cinema cameras.

Part one begins with a review of the fundamental principles of photosensing and the operational principles of silicon image sensors. It then focuses in on charged coupled device (CCD) image sensors and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors. The performance issues considered include image quality, sensitivity, data transfer rate, system level integration, rate of power consumption, and the potential for 3D imaging. Part two then discusses how CMOS technology can be used in a range of areas, including in mobile devices, image sensors for automotive applications, sensors for several forms of scientific imaging, and sensors for medical applications.

High Performance Silicon Imaging is an excellent resource for both academics and engineers working in the optics, photonics, semiconductor, and electronics industries.

Key Features

  • Covers the fundamentals of silicon-based image sensors and technical advances, focusing on performance issues
  • Looks at image sensors in applications such as mobile phones, scientific imaging, TV broadcasting, automotive, and biomedical applications


Electronics engineers, integrated circuit design engineers, life science researchers employing fluorescence techniques, physicists involved in optical microscopy


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© Woodhead Publishing 2014
Woodhead Publishing
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Ratings and Reviews

About the Editors

Daniel Durini Editor

Daniel Durini is currently Research Professor in areas of microelectronics and radiation detection at the National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics (INAOE) in Puebla, Mexico. He obtained the B.Sc. degree in Electrical-Electronic Engineering from the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) in 2002, the M.Sc. degree in area of Microelectronics from the National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics in Mexico in 2003, and the Ph.D. degree in area of Microelectronics from the University of Duisburg-Essen in Germany in 2009. He was with the Fraunhofer Institute for Microelectronic Circuits and Systems (IMS) in Duisburg, Germany, between 2004 and end of 2013, where he led during the last four years a group dedicated to developing special CMOS process modules for high-performance photodetection devices, pixel structures and imagers. Prior to his current position, he was with the Central Institute of Engineering, Electronics and Analytics, ZEA-2 – Electronic Systems of the research centre Forschungszentrum Jülich in Jülich, Germany, where he headed between 2015 and beginning of 2018 the development of Detector Systems dedicated to scientific applications. He received the Duisburger Sparkasse Award for outstanding Ph.D. thesis in 2009 and two best paper awards. He has authored and co-authored more than 60 technical papers and three book chapters, and holds six patents in the area of CMOS image sensors. He is Member of the IEEE since 2009, and forms part of the National System for Researchers (SNI) in Mexico since 2014.

Affiliations and Expertise

Research Professor, National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics (INAOE),Puebla, Mexico