High Collection Nonimaging Optics - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780127428857, 9780323157230

High Collection Nonimaging Optics

1st Edition

Authors: W.T. Welford
eBook ISBN: 9780323157230
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th December 1989
Page Count: 296
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High Collection Nonimaging Optics covers the many developments and the wider range of applications of nonimaging optics. This book is organized into 11 chapters that emphasize the application of nonimaging optics to concentrators for solar energy. This text begins with discussions on the development of formalisms in nonimaging optics, specifically in the use of geometrical vector flux concept, which have led to entirely different concentrator designs. These topics are followed by a description of the so-called compound parabolic concentrator, the prototype of a series of nonimaging concentrators that approach very close to being ideal and having the maximum theoretical concentration ratio. The next chapters examine the concept of the flow line approach to nonimaging concentration; the geometrical optics model of nonimaging optics; and constructional tolerances and manufacturing methods for nonimaging optical components. A chapter highlights the applications of concentrator designs to solar energy concentrations. The last chapter surveys the applications of nonimaging optics to optical system design and to instrument design, with particular reference to utilization of light sources with maximum efficiency.
This book will be of great benefit to nonimaging optics scientists and design engineers.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1 Concentrators and Their Uses

1.1 Concentrating Collectors

1.2 Definition of the Concentration Ratio; the Theoretical Maximum

1.3 Uses of Concentrators

Chapter 2 Some Basic Ideas in Geometrical Optics

2.1 The Concepts of Geometrical Optics

2.2 Formulation of the Ray-Tracing Procedure

2.3 Elementary Properties of Image-Forming Optical Systems

2.4 Aberrations in Image-Forming Optical Systems

2.5 The Effect of Aberrations in an Image-Forming System on the Concentration Ratio

2.6 The Optical Path Length and Fermat's Principle

2.7 The Generalized Etendue or Lagrange Invariant and the Phase Space Concept

2.8 The Skew Invariant

2.9 Different Versions of the Concentration Ratio

Chapter 3 Some Designs of Image-Forming Concentrators

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Some General Properties of Ideal Image-Forming Concentrators

3.3 Can an Ideal Image-Forming Concentrator Be Designed?

3.4 Media with Continuously Varying Refractive Index

3.5 Another System of Spherical Symmetry

3.6 Image-Forming Mirror Systems

3.7 Conclusions on Image-Forming Concentrators

Chapter 4 Nonimaging Concentrators: The Compound Parabolic Concentrator

4.1 Light Cones

4.2 The Edge-Ray Principle

4.3 The Compound Parabolic Concentrator

4.4 Properties of the Compound Parabolic Concentrator

4.5 Cones and Paraboloids as Concentrators

Chapter 5 Developments and Modifications of the Basic Compound Parabolic Concentrator

5.1 Introduction

5.2 The Dielectric-Filled CPC with Total Internal Reflection

5.3 The CPC with Exit Angle Less Than π/2

5.4 The Concentrator for a Source at a Finite Distance

5.5 The Two-Stage CPC

5.6 The CPC Designed for Skew Rays

5.7 The Truncated CPC

5.8 The Lens-Mirror CPC

Chapter 6 Developments of the Compound Parabolic Concentrator for Nonplane Absorbers

6.1 2D Collection in General

6.2 Extension of the Edge-Ray Principle

6.3 Some Examples

6.4 The Differential Equation for the Concentrator Profile

6.5 Mechanical Construction for 2D Concentrator Profiles

6.6 The Most General Design Method for a 2D Concentrator

6.7 A Constructive Design Principle for Optimal Concentrators

Chapter 7 Flowline Approach to Nonimaging Concentration

7.1 The Concept of the Flowline

7.2 Lines of Flow from Lambertian Radiators: 2D Examples

7.3 3D Example

7.4 A Simplified Method for Calculating Lines of Flow

7.5 Properties of the Lines of Flow

7.6 Application to Concentrator Design

7.7 The Hyperboloid of Revolution as a Concentrator

7.8 Elaborations of the Hyperboloid: The Truncated Hyperboloid

7.9 The Hyperboloid Combined with a Lens

7.10 The Hyperboloid Combined with Two Lenses

7.11 Generalized Flowline Concentrators with Refractive Components

Chapter 8 Physical Optics Aspects of Concentrators and Collectors

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Etendue in the Physical Optics Model

8.3 Defining Generalized Radiance

8.4 Efficiency of 2D Concentrators in the Scalar Wave Model

8.5 Efficiency of 3D Concentrators: An Image-Formation Approach

8.6 The Quantum Optics Approach

8.7 Resonance Effects

8.8 Focusing in Electromagnetic Theory

8.9 More about Generalized Radiance

8.10 Conclusions

Chapter 9 Shape Tolerances and Manufacturing Methods for Nonimaging Optical Components

9.1 Optical Tolerances

9.2 Tolerances for Nonimaging Concentrators

9.3 Ray-Tracing Results

9.4 Peaks in the Emergent Light Distribution

9.5 Reflectors for Uniform Illumination

9.6 Materials and Manufacture

Chapter 10 Applications to Solar Energy Concentration

10.1 The Requirements for Concentrators

10.2 Earth-Sun Geometry

10.3 Insolation Characteristics

10.4 Collector Design

10.5 Nonevacuated CPCs

10.6 Evacuated CPCs

10.7 An Advanced CPC: The Integrated Concentrator

10.8 Nonimaging Secondary Concentrators

Chapter 11 Illumination of Optical Systems and Instruments

11.1 Introduction: The Radiance Theorem

11.2 Radiance of Laboratory Light Sources

11.3 Conventional Illumination Systems for Instruments

11.4 Nonimaging Optics in Light Collection for Instruments

11.5 Lasers as Sources for Optical Instruments

11.6 Fiber Optics Applications

11.7 Collection of Cerenkov and Other Radiation

11.8 Concentration of Radiation in Detector Systems Limited by Detector Noise

11.9 Stray-Radiation Shields

11.10 Optical Pumping and General Condensing Problems

11.11 Biological Analogs

Appendix A Derivation and Explanation of the Etendue Invariant, Including the Dynamical Analogy; Derivation of the Skew Invariant

A.l The Generalized Etendue

A.2 Proof of the Generalized Etendue Theorem

A.3 The Mechanical Analogies and Liouville's Theorem

A.4 The Skew Invariant

A.5 Conventional Photometry and the Etendue

Appendix B The Impossibility of Designing a "Perfect" Imaging Optical System: The Corresponding Nonimaging Problem

Appendix C The Lüneburg Lens

Appendix D The Geometry of the Basic Compound Parabolic Concentrator

Appendix E The θi/θ0 Concentrator

Appendix F The Concentrator Design for Skew Rays

F.l The Differential Equation

F.2 The Ratio of Input to Output Areas for the Concentrator

F.3 Proof That Extreme Rays Intersect at the Exit Aperture Rim

F.4 Another Proof of the Sine Relation for Skew Rays

F.5 The Frequency Distribution of h

Appendix G The Truncated Compound Parabolic Concentrator

Appendix H The Differential Equation for the 2D Concentrator Profile with Nonplane Absorber

Appendix I Deriving a Formula for Generalized Radiance

Appendix J Skew Rays in Hyperboloid Concentrator

Appendix K Sine Relation for Hyperboloid Lens Concentrator




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W.T. Welford

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