High Blood Pressure - 3rd Edition - ISBN: 9781483166964, 9781483194448

High Blood Pressure

3rd Edition

Its Variations and Control

Authors: J. F. Halls Dally
eBook ISBN: 9781483194448
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 1st January 1934
Page Count: 304
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Description

High Blood Pressure: Its Variations and Control, A Manual for Practitioners covers aspects and consideration of blood pressure estimation and control. The book discusses the advantages and limitations of sphygmomanometry in clinical medicine and the best practical method of taking arterial pressures. The text describes the instruments employed in the estimation of arterial pressure; the fundamental physiological and physical factors on which clinical variations of blood pressure depend; and the physiological variations in arterial pressure. The classification of hyperpiesis; the nature, clinical features, types, and the pathology of hyperpiesia; and hypertonia are also considered. The book then tackles the causes and pathology of arteriosclerosis and the causation, significance, symptomatology, diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, and control of high arterial pressure. Simultaneous arterial pressures (brachial) in pulmonary tuberculosis; the relation of arterial pressure to life assurance; and the epochs in the clinical estimation of blood pressure are also looked into. Practitioners, teachers, and students of medicine will find the book invaluable.

Table of Contents


Preface

Chapter I General Considerations

Introductory

Reliability of Results of Clinical Blood Pressure Estimation

Chapter II The Clinical Estimation of Arterial Pressure

When to take Blood Pressure

The Standard Measure of Arterial Pressure

The Standard Width of the Compression Armlet

The Five Methods of Estimation:

1. The Auditory Method

2. The Tactile Method

3. The Vibratory Method

4. The Oscillatory Method

5. The Graphic Method

Conclusions

The True Index of Diastolic Pressure

The True Index of Systolic Pressure

Technique of Arterial Pressure Estimation by the Auditory Method

The Complete Arterial Pressure Picture

Fallacies in Estimation of Arterial Pressure:—

A. Sources of Error affecting both Systolic and Diastolic Pressures

B. Sources of Error causing Over-estimation of the Systolic Pressure

Method of Relaxation of Contracted and Thickened Arteries to secure a Corrected Reading of Systolic Arterial Pressure

The Differential Blood Pressure Sign

Chapter III Present-Day Instruments Employed in Estimation of Arterial Pressure

Blood Pressure Instruments to be recommended :—

A. Mercurial Sphygmomanometers

B. Dial Sphygmomanometers (Aneroid)

C. Oscillometric Sphygmomanometers (Aneroid)

D. Self-recording Sphygmomanometers

Blood Pressure Instruments to be avoided

Chapter IV Fundamental Physiological Factors in Blood Pressure

Significance of Blood Pressure

Minimal, Maximal and Mean Arterial Pressures

Differential (Pulse) Pressure

Mean Pressure

The Aim of Blood Pressure

The Peripheral Resistance

The Sympathetic Vasomotor System

Tone, Tension and Viscosity

Chapter V Physiological Variations in Arterial Pressure

Significance and Importance of the Diastolic Pressure

Significance of the Systolic Pressure

Significance of the Differential (Pulse) Pressure

Significance of the Mean Pressure

Average Normal Arterial Pressures

I. In Children

II. In Adults

Theoretical Standard Arterial Pressures at Various Ages

Simple Rules for calculating Arterial Pressures

Limits of Normal Arterial Pressure Variation

Influence of Physiological Factors on Arterial Pressure

Chapter VI Hyperpieses; Hyperpiesia; Hypetronia

I. Hyperpiesis

II. Hyperpiesia

III. Hypertonia

Associations with Arteriosclerosis and Renal States

Chapter VII Arteriosclerosis

Definition and Causation of Arteriosclerosis

Pathology of Arteriosclerosis

Hyperpiesis and Arteriosclerosis

Chapter VIII The Causation and Significance of Pathologically High Arterial Pressure

Causal Factors

Hyperpiesis not necessarily a symptom of Cardio-arteriorenal Changes

Association of Hyperpiesis with Renal and Myocardial Involvement

Chapter IX Symptomatology of High Arterial Pressure

A. Symptoms

B. Signs

C. Effects:—

1. On the Heart

2. On the Arteries and Arterioles

3. On the Kidneys

4. On the Brain

Chapter X Diagnosis and Prognosis of High Arterial Pressure

A. Diagnosis of High Arterial Pressure

Clinical Examination of the Patient

B. Bacteriological and Histological Investigations

C. Biochemical Investigations :—

1. Tests of Renal Efficiency

D. Prognosis of High Arterial Pressure

1. Favourable Features

2. Unfavourable Features

Pathologically High Arterial Pressures

Range of High Arterial Pressures

Basal Metabolism in Hyperpiesis

Importance of the Heart and Systolic Pressure in Prognosis

Importance of the Diastolic and Mean Pressures in Diagnosis and Prognosis

Raised Arterial Pressure in association with :—

1. Arteriosclerosis

2. Chronic Heart Muscle Insufficiency

3. Acute Infections

4. Acute Nephritis

5. Chronic Nephritis

6. Cerebral Angiospasm

7. Cerebral Haemorrhage

8. Cerebral Thrombosis

9. Aortic Regurgitation

10. Hyperthyroidism

11. Bilateral Carotid Pulsation

12. Ocular Changes

Latency

Effect on Mortality of High Arterial Pressures

Chapter XI Prevention of High Arterial Pressure

1. The Hours of Activity

2. The Hours of Rest

Chapter XII Control of High Arterial Pressure

High Arterial Pressures at times protective or compensatory

Control varies in the following groups :-

1. Simple High Pressure Group

2. Cardiovascular Group .

A. The Heart

B. The Arteries

3. Renal Group .

Psychical Measures

Diet

Physical Measures:-

1. Rest

2. Exercise

3. Deep Breathing Exercises

4. Relaxation Exercises and Passive Movements

5. Resistance Exercises

6. Massage

7. Diaphoresis

8. High Frequency and Diathermic Currents

9. Ultra-Violet Rays

10. X-Rays

11. Lumbar Puncture

12. Venesection and Fasting

13. Drug Therapy

Appendix. The Treatment of High Arterial Pressure by Baths and Waters

Chapter XIII Arterial Pressure in Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Low Arterial Pressures not the Rule in Chronic Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Decline in Arterial Pressures depends on Absorption of Toxins

Fluctuations with Altitude

Prognosis

The Author's Observations on Simultaneous Brachial Pressures in Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Effect of Tuberculous Toxins upon Nervous and Endocrine Systems

Diminution in Inspiratory Descent of Diaphragm in Pulmonary Tuberculosis and its Effects

Results of Treatment on Arterial Pressure in Tuberculosis

Chapter XIV Arterial Pressure in Relation to Life Assurance

Indications afforded by the Diastolic Pressure

Importance of recording the Complete Arterial Pressure Picture

Value of Serial Estimations of Arterial Pressure

Effects of Associated Conditions on Arterial Pressure

General Hints on Life Assurance Examination

Value of Sphygmomanometry in Life Assurance

Chapter XV Epochs in the Clinical Estimation of Arterial Pressure

1. The Circulation of the Blood

2. Direct Estimation of Arterial Pressure—Physiological:—

The Mercurial Manometer

The Kymograph

The Elastic or Spring Manometer

3. Indirect Estimation of Arterial Pressure—Clinical:—The Sphygmograph and the Weighted Sphygmograph

Other Methods applying Pressure through Solids

Sphygmomanometers applying Pressure through Fluids

Pioneers in the Clinical Study of Arterial Pressure

Index






Details

No. of pages:
304
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 2034
Published:
Imprint:
Butterworth-Heinemann
eBook ISBN:
9781483194448

About the Author

J. F. Halls Dally