High Blood Pressure

High Blood Pressure

Its Variations and Control

3rd Edition - January 1, 1934

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  • Author: J. F. Halls Dally
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483194448

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High Blood Pressure: Its Variations and Control, A Manual for Practitioners covers aspects and consideration of blood pressure estimation and control. The book discusses the advantages and limitations of sphygmomanometry in clinical medicine and the best practical method of taking arterial pressures. The text describes the instruments employed in the estimation of arterial pressure; the fundamental physiological and physical factors on which clinical variations of blood pressure depend; and the physiological variations in arterial pressure. The classification of hyperpiesis; the nature, clinical features, types, and the pathology of hyperpiesia; and hypertonia are also considered. The book then tackles the causes and pathology of arteriosclerosis and the causation, significance, symptomatology, diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, and control of high arterial pressure. Simultaneous arterial pressures (brachial) in pulmonary tuberculosis; the relation of arterial pressure to life assurance; and the epochs in the clinical estimation of blood pressure are also looked into. Practitioners, teachers, and students of medicine will find the book invaluable.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    Chapter I General Considerations


    Reliability of Results of Clinical Blood Pressure Estimation

    Chapter II The Clinical Estimation of Arterial Pressure

    When to take Blood Pressure

    The Standard Measure of Arterial Pressure

    The Standard Width of the Compression Armlet

    The Five Methods of Estimation:

    1. The Auditory Method

    2. The Tactile Method

    3. The Vibratory Method

    4. The Oscillatory Method

    5. The Graphic Method


    The True Index of Diastolic Pressure

    The True Index of Systolic Pressure

    Technique of Arterial Pressure Estimation by the Auditory Method

    The Complete Arterial Pressure Picture

    Fallacies in Estimation of Arterial Pressure:—

    A. Sources of Error affecting both Systolic and Diastolic Pressures

    B. Sources of Error causing Over-estimation of the Systolic Pressure

    Method of Relaxation of Contracted and Thickened Arteries to secure a Corrected Reading of Systolic Arterial Pressure

    The Differential Blood Pressure Sign

    Chapter III Present-Day Instruments Employed in Estimation of Arterial Pressure

    Blood Pressure Instruments to be recommended :—

    A. Mercurial Sphygmomanometers

    B. Dial Sphygmomanometers (Aneroid)

    C. Oscillometric Sphygmomanometers (Aneroid)

    D. Self-recording Sphygmomanometers

    Blood Pressure Instruments to be avoided

    Chapter IV Fundamental Physiological Factors in Blood Pressure

    Significance of Blood Pressure

    Minimal, Maximal and Mean Arterial Pressures

    Differential (Pulse) Pressure

    Mean Pressure

    The Aim of Blood Pressure

    The Peripheral Resistance

    The Sympathetic Vasomotor System

    Tone, Tension and Viscosity

    Chapter V Physiological Variations in Arterial Pressure

    Significance and Importance of the Diastolic Pressure

    Significance of the Systolic Pressure

    Significance of the Differential (Pulse) Pressure

    Significance of the Mean Pressure

    Average Normal Arterial Pressures

    I. In Children

    II. In Adults

    Theoretical Standard Arterial Pressures at Various Ages

    Simple Rules for calculating Arterial Pressures

    Limits of Normal Arterial Pressure Variation

    Influence of Physiological Factors on Arterial Pressure

    Chapter VI Hyperpieses; Hyperpiesia; Hypetronia

    I. Hyperpiesis

    II. Hyperpiesia

    III. Hypertonia

    Associations with Arteriosclerosis and Renal States

    Chapter VII Arteriosclerosis

    Definition and Causation of Arteriosclerosis

    Pathology of Arteriosclerosis

    Hyperpiesis and Arteriosclerosis

    Chapter VIII The Causation and Significance of Pathologically High Arterial Pressure

    Causal Factors

    Hyperpiesis not necessarily a symptom of Cardio-arteriorenal Changes

    Association of Hyperpiesis with Renal and Myocardial Involvement

    Chapter IX Symptomatology of High Arterial Pressure

    A. Symptoms

    B. Signs

    C. Effects:—

    1. On the Heart

    2. On the Arteries and Arterioles

    3. On the Kidneys

    4. On the Brain

    Chapter X Diagnosis and Prognosis of High Arterial Pressure

    A. Diagnosis of High Arterial Pressure

    Clinical Examination of the Patient

    B. Bacteriological and Histological Investigations

    C. Biochemical Investigations :—

    1. Tests of Renal Efficiency

    D. Prognosis of High Arterial Pressure

    1. Favourable Features

    2. Unfavourable Features

    Pathologically High Arterial Pressures

    Range of High Arterial Pressures

    Basal Metabolism in Hyperpiesis

    Importance of the Heart and Systolic Pressure in Prognosis

    Importance of the Diastolic and Mean Pressures in Diagnosis and Prognosis

    Raised Arterial Pressure in association with :—

    1. Arteriosclerosis

    2. Chronic Heart Muscle Insufficiency

    3. Acute Infections

    4. Acute Nephritis

    5. Chronic Nephritis

    6. Cerebral Angiospasm

    7. Cerebral Haemorrhage

    8. Cerebral Thrombosis

    9. Aortic Regurgitation

    10. Hyperthyroidism

    11. Bilateral Carotid Pulsation

    12. Ocular Changes


    Effect on Mortality of High Arterial Pressures

    Chapter XI Prevention of High Arterial Pressure

    1. The Hours of Activity

    2. The Hours of Rest

    Chapter XII Control of High Arterial Pressure

    High Arterial Pressures at times protective or compensatory

    Control varies in the following groups :-

    1. Simple High Pressure Group

    2. Cardiovascular Group .

    A. The Heart

    B. The Arteries

    3. Renal Group .

    Psychical Measures


    Physical Measures:-

    1. Rest

    2. Exercise

    3. Deep Breathing Exercises

    4. Relaxation Exercises and Passive Movements

    5. Resistance Exercises

    6. Massage

    7. Diaphoresis

    8. High Frequency and Diathermic Currents

    9. Ultra-Violet Rays

    10. X-Rays

    11. Lumbar Puncture

    12. Venesection and Fasting

    13. Drug Therapy

    Appendix. The Treatment of High Arterial Pressure by Baths and Waters

    Chapter XIII Arterial Pressure in Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Low Arterial Pressures not the Rule in Chronic Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Decline in Arterial Pressures depends on Absorption of Toxins

    Fluctuations with Altitude


    The Author's Observations on Simultaneous Brachial Pressures in Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Effect of Tuberculous Toxins upon Nervous and Endocrine Systems

    Diminution in Inspiratory Descent of Diaphragm in Pulmonary Tuberculosis and its Effects

    Results of Treatment on Arterial Pressure in Tuberculosis

    Chapter XIV Arterial Pressure in Relation to Life Assurance

    Indications afforded by the Diastolic Pressure

    Importance of recording the Complete Arterial Pressure Picture

    Value of Serial Estimations of Arterial Pressure

    Effects of Associated Conditions on Arterial Pressure

    General Hints on Life Assurance Examination

    Value of Sphygmomanometry in Life Assurance

    Chapter XV Epochs in the Clinical Estimation of Arterial Pressure

    1. The Circulation of the Blood

    2. Direct Estimation of Arterial Pressure—Physiological:—

    The Mercurial Manometer

    The Kymograph

    The Elastic or Spring Manometer

    3. Indirect Estimation of Arterial Pressure—Clinical:—The Sphygmograph and the Weighted Sphygmograph

    Other Methods applying Pressure through Solids

    Sphygmomanometers applying Pressure through Fluids

    Pioneers in the Clinical Study of Arterial Pressure


Product details

  • No. of pages: 304
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 1934
  • Published: January 1, 1934
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483194448

About the Author

J. F. Halls Dally

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