Health of HIV Infected People - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128007679, 9780128011416

Health of HIV Infected People

1st Edition

Food, Nutrition and Lifestyle without Antiretroviral Drugs

Editors: Ronald Watson
eBook ISBN: 9780128011416
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128007679
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 2nd March 2015
Page Count: 420
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Health of HIV Infected People: Food, Nutrition and Lifestyle Without Antiretroviral Drugs defines the supportive roles of bioactive foods, exercise, and dietary supplements on the health of HIV infected people who do not have access to resources or those who choose not to utilize antiretroviral drugs.

Approaches such as the application of traditional herbs and foods are given careful definition by experts who define the risks and benefits of such practices within this important context.

Readers learn how to treat or ameliorate the effects of chronic retroviral disease using readily available, cheap foods, and dietary supplements. Ultimately, this work delivers a current, concise, scientific appraisal of the efficacy of key foods, nutrients, dietary plants, and behavioral changes in preventing and improving the quality of life of HIV infected infants and adults who are not undergoing antiretroviral therapy.

Key Features

  • Covers the role of nutrients in the prevention and treatment of HIV-induced physiological changes
  • Delivers important coverage on the relationship between HIV infection and infant feeding practice, along with public health policy recommendations in social and cultural context
  • Provides coverage of fitness and exercise regimens, physical activity, and behavioral and lifestyle changes on HIV infected individuals
  • Explores food and treatment of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in HIV infected patients, including those without antiretroviral therapeutic treatmen


graduate students, researchers, nutritionists, and clinicians with a focus on HIV/AIDS, virology and infectious disease

Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • List of Contributors
  • Acknowledgement
  • Section I: Overview and Food
    • Chapter 1. Dietary Supplements Among People Living with HIV and Vulnerability to Medical Internet Misinformation
      • 1.1 Section 1: Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use Among People Living with HIV
      • 1.2 Section 2: Correlates of CAM Use Among People Living with HIV
      • 1.3 Section 3: Efficacy and Utility of CAM for People Living with HIV
      • 1.4 Section 4: Disclosure of CAM Use to Standard HIV Care Providers
      • 1.5 Section 5: Seeking Information About Herbal Supplements and Other CAM
      • 1.6 Section 6: Recommendations for Patients
      • 1.7 Section 7: Recommendations for Providers
      • 1.8 Section 8: Recommendations for Researchers
      • 1.9 Section 9: Summary
      • Acknowledgment
      • References
    • Chapter 2. Eating Coffee Candy: HIV Risk at Huli Funerals
      • 2.1 Method
      • 2.2 Results: Eating Coffee and Candy at Huli Funerals
      • 2.3 Discussion: “Eat and Die”
      • 2.4 Responses
      • References
    • Chapter 3. Infant Feeding Policies and HIV
      • 3.1 Introduction
      • 3.2 To Breastfeed or Not to Breastfeed? Is That the Right Question?
      • 3.3 Harm Reduction Approaches
      • 3.4 Antiretroviral Interventions Transform the Policy Arena
      • 3.5 Key Gaps in Infant Feeding Policies and HIV
      • References
    • Chapter 4. Alcohol Use and Food Insecurity in HIV Disease Management
      • 4.1 Food Insecurity and HIV Disease
      • 4.2 Alcohol Misuse and HIV Disease
      • 4.3 Food and Alcohol as Competing Needs
      • 4.4 Food Insecurity, Alcohol Misuse, and HIV Disease
      • 4.5 HIV Treatment Adherence
      • 4.6 Implications for Interventions
      • 4.7 Conclusions
      • Acknowledgment
      • References
    • Chapter 5. Carotid Intima–Media Thickness and Plaque in HIV-Infected Patients on the Mediterranean Diet
      • 5.1 Introduction
      • 5.2 Ultrasound Measurement of CIMT
      • 5.3 Characteristics of Mediterranean Diet
      • 5.4 CIMT in HIV-Infected Patients
      • 5.5 CIMT in HIV-Infected Patients Adherent to Mediterranean Diet
      • References
  • Section II: Nutrition and Lifestyle
    • Chapter 6. Nutritional Treatment Approach for ART-Naïve HIV-Infected Children
      • 6.1 Introduction
      • 6.2 Nutritional Treatment and Ready-to-Use Formulas
      • 6.3 Vitamins and Minerals
      • 6.4 Probiotics
      • 6.5 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 7. Nutrition Therapy for HAART-Naïve HIV-Infected Patients
      • 7.1 Introduction
      • 7.2 Malnutrition and Diarrhea
      • 7.3 Minerals
      • 7.4 Vitamins
      • 7.5 Multivitamins
      • 7.6 Probiotics
      • 7.7 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 8. The Role of Nutrition Training for Health Workers in Addressing Poor Feeding Practices and Undernutrition Among HIV-Positive Children
      • 8.1 Introduction
      • 8.2 HIV-Positive Children: Nutritional Needs and the Need for Tailored Interventions
      • 8.3 Nutrition Training for Health Workers Providing Care to HIV-Positive Children
      • 8.4 Conducting Nutrition Training
      • 8.5 Challenges of Implementing Nutrition Training
      • 8.6 Use of Successful Models to Implement Nutrition Training and Programs
      • 8.7 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 9. Nutrition and Food in AIDS Patients
      • 9.1 Introduction
      • 9.2 Nutrition and ART
      • 9.3 Summary
      • References
    • Chapter 10. Zinc Supplementation for Infants and Children with HIV Infection
      • 10.1 Introduction
      • 10.2 Effects of HIV Infection on Micronutrient (Zinc) Status
      • 10.3 Effects of Zinc on HIV Infection
      • 10.4 Implication for Future Research
      • References
    • Chapter 11. HIV AIDS in India: A Nutritional Panorama
      • 11.1 HIV/AIDS in India: Stabilization of the Epidemic
      • 11.2 QoL of PLHIV
      • 11.3 Nutritional Status of Adult PLHIV
      • 11.4 Nutritional KAP of HIV-Positive Individuals
      • 11.5 HIV-Affected Infants and Children
      • 11.6 Mother-to-Child Transmission
      • 11.7 HIV and IYCF
      • 11.8 Malnutrition and HIV-Affected Children
      • 11.9 Integrating HIV Interventions into Maternal and Child Health Services
      • 11.10 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 12. Undernutrition, Food Insecurity, and Antiretroviral Outcomes: An Overview of Evidence from sub-Saharan Africa
      • 12.1 Overview of HIV, Nutrition, and Food Security in sub-Saharan Africa
      • 12.2 Undernutrition and HIV Treatment Outcomes
      • 12.3 Food Insecurity and HIV Treatment Outcomes
      • 12.4 Impact of Nutritional Support on HIV Treatment Outcomes
      • 12.5 Summary
      • References
    • Chapter 13. How the HIV Epidemic Carved an Indelible Imprint on Infant Feeding
      • 13.1 Impact of Breastfeeding on Child Survival
      • 13.2 Breastfeeding and Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV
      • 13.3 Implementation of Infant Feeding and ART Guidelines for PMTCT
      • 13.4 Combination and Convergence of Health Service Programs
      • 13.5 The Agency of Culture and Political Organization on HIV
      • References
    • Chapter 14. Nutrition Care of the HIV-Exposed Child
      • 14.1 Introduction
      • 14.2 Nutritional Needs of HIV-Exposed Infants
      • 14.3 Feeding Options for HIV-Exposed Infants Younger Than 6 Months of Age
      • 14.4 Feeding of HIV-Exposed Infants OLDER Than 6 Months of Age
      • 14.5 Follow-up of HIV-Exposed Infants
      • 14.6 Role of Micronutrient Supplementation
      • 14.7 Role of Nutritional Support Services
      • 14.8 Challenges in Nutritional Management of Exposed Infants
      • Key Messages
      • References
    • Chapter 15. HIV-Positive Patients Respond to Dietary Supplementation with Cysteine or Glutamine
      • 15.1 HIV–Host Cell Interactions
      • 15.2 Glutathione
      • 15.3 Nutrition Interventions in Antioxidants
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 16. Micronutrients in HIV Infection Without HAART: A Focus on Resource-Limited Settings
      • 16.1 Introduction
      • 16.2 Vitamin A
      • 16.3 Vitamin D
      • 16.4 Vitamins E and C
      • 16.5 Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, and Folic Acid
      • 16.6 Zinc
      • 16.7 Selenium
      • 16.8 Iron
      • 16.9 Multiple Supplements
      • 16.10 Conclusions
      • References
  • Section III: Exercise and Behavioral Lifestyle Changes in the Prevention and Treatment of HIV/AIDS Nutritional Changes
    • Chapter 17. Exercise and Management of Body Weight in Older People Living with HIV
      • 17.1 Introduction
      • 17.2 Background
      • 17.3 Exercise
      • 17.4 Methods
      • 17.5 Results
      • 17.6 Discussion
      • 17.7 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 18. Exercise Treadmill Test for the Assessment of Cardiac Risk Markers in HIV
      • 18.1 Introduction
      • 18.2 Exercise Testing
      • 18.3 Exercise Testing and HIV
      • 18.4 The ETT as a Screening Tool in HIV-Infected Individuals
      • 18.5 Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 19. Measures of Physical Function in the Management of Individuals Living with HIV/AIDS
      • 19.1 Introduction
      • 19.2 Overall Basis of Poor Functional Capacity in HIV/AIDS
      • 19.3 Lean Tissue Mass and Muscular Strength
      • 19.4 Cardiorespiratory Function
      • 19.5 Perspective on the Limitations of Functional Testing
      • 19.6 Conclusion
      • References
  • Section IV: Models of HIV: Lessons to be Learned from Animal Viruses
    • Chapter 20. Animal Lentiviruses: Models for Human Immunodeficiency Viruses and Nutrition
      • 20.1 Introduction
      • 20.2 Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses
      • 20.3 Feline Immunodeficiency Viruses
      • 20.4 Bovine Immunodeficiency Virus
      • 20.5 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 21. T-Cell Number, Nutritional Status, and HIV: The Cuban Experience in the Provision of Food and Nutrition Care to People with HIV/AIDS
      • 21.1 T-Cell Number, Nutritional Status, and HIV
      • 21.2 Tools for Nutritional Assessment of Persons with HIV/AIDS
      • 21.3 The Importance of Healthy Feeding for HIV/AIDS Patients
      • 21.4 The Cuban Experience in the Provision of Food and Nutrition Care to People with HIV/AIDS
      • 21.5 Conclusions
      • References
  • Index


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© Academic Press 2015
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About the Editor

Ronald Watson

Ronald Ross Watson PhD is a professor of Health Promotion Sciences in the University of Arizona Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health. He was one of the founding members of this school serving the mountain west of the USA. He is a professor of Family and Community Medicine in the School of Medicine at the University of Arizona. He began his research in public health at the Harvard School of Public Health as a fellow in 1971 doing field work on vaccines in Saudi Arabia. He has done clinical studies in Colombia, Iran, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and USA which provides a broad international view of public health. He has served in the military reserve hospital for 17 years with extensive training in medical responses to disasters as the chief biochemistry officer of a general hospital, retiring at a Lt. Colonel. He published 450 papers, and presently directs or has directed several NIH funded biomedical grants relating to alcohol and disease particularly immune function and cardiovascular effects including studying complementary and alternative medicines. Professor Ronald Ross Watson was Director of a National Institutes of Health funded Alcohol Research Center for 5 years. The main goal of the Center was to understand the role of ethanol-induced immunosuppression on immune function and disease resistance in animals. He is an internationally recognized alcohol-researcher, nutritionist and immunologist. He also initiated and directed other NIH-associated work at The University of Arizona, College of Medicine. Dr. Watson has funding from companies and non-profit foundations to study bioactive foods’ components in health promotion. Professor Watson attended the University of Idaho, but graduated from Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah, with a degree in Chemistry in 1966. He completed his Ph.D. degree in 1971 in Biochemistry from Michigan State University. His postdoctoral schooling was completed at the Harvard School of Public Health in Nutrition and Microbiology, including a two-year postdoctoral research experience in immunology. Professor Watson is a distinguished member of several national and international nutrition, immunology, and cancer societies. Overall his career has involved studying many foods for their uses in health promotion. He has edited 120 biomedical reference books, particularly in health and 450 papers and chapters. His teaching and research in foods, nutrition and bacterial disease also prepare him to edit this book. He has 4 edited works on nutrition in aging. He has extensive experience working with natural products, alcohol, exercise, functional foods and dietary extracts for health benefits and safety issues, including getting 12 patents. Dr. Watson has done laboratory studies in mice on immune functions that decline with aging and the role of supplements in delaying this process as modified by alcohol and drugs of abuse.

Affiliations and Expertise

Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health and School of Medicine, Arizona Health Sciences Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA

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