Traumatic Brain Injury, Part I - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444528926, 9780444634986

Traumatic Brain Injury, Part I, Volume 127

1st Edition

Editors: Jordan Grafman Andres Salazar
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444528926
eBook ISBN: 9780444634986
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st February 2015
Page Count: 490
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Table of Contents

  • Handbook of Clinical Neurology 3rd Series
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • SECTION 1: Risk and predisposition
    • Chapter 1: Epidemiology of traumatic brain injury
      • Abstract
      • Overview: importance of injury and traumatic brain injury
      • Overall traumatic brain injury rates
      • Definitions
      • Cost: burden of injury
      • Severity measures
      • Emergency department rates
      • Hospitalizations
      • Deaths
      • Mechanism (external causes)
      • Peaks within age groups
      • Gender
      • Race
      • Traumatic brain injury in the military
      • Disability
      • Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy
      • Rehabilitation
      • Conclusions
      • Disclaimer
    • Chapter 2: Classification of traumatic brain injury: past, present, and future
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • History of and approaches to disease classification
      • An ideal classification system
      • Classifying traumatic brain injury
      • The future of traumatic brain injury classification
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 3: Genetic predictors of outcome following traumatic brain injury
      • Abstract
      • Traumatic brain injury is a chronic debilitating condition
      • State of genomics research on traumatic brain injury
      • Goals
      • Candidate gene approaches
      • Candidate gene targets
      • Going beyond candidate gene association studies
      • Future directions
      • Conclusions
  • SECTION 2: Pathology and mechanisms of traumatic brain injury
    • Chapter 4: The neuropathology of traumatic brain injury
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Acute moderate-severe traumatic brain injury
      • Acute mild traumatic brain injury
      • Chronic effects of traumatic brain injury
      • Future areas for research
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 5: Cellular and molecular mechanisms of injury and spontaneous recovery
      • Abstract
      • Cellular and molecular mechanisms of injury and spontaneous recovery
      • Focal brain injury
      • Diffuse/generalized change
      • Generalized injury
      • Biological mediators of traumatic brain injury-induced damage
      • Long-term neurodegenerative change and its implications
      • Recovery from traumatic brain injury
      • The relationship between nonpenetrating traumatic brain injury and the pathobiology of blast or missile wound/penetrating brain injury
      • Perspectives on therapeutic interventions for blunting the damaging consequences of nonpenetrating traumatic brain injury
    • Chapter 6: Injury biomechanics, neuropathology, and simplified physics of explosive blast and impact mild traumatic brain injury
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Human mechano-anatomy of head injury
      • Head impact and acceleration
      • Explosive blast
      • Neuropathology of explosive blast mTBI
      • Neurpopathology of nonblast impact mTBI
      • Summary
      • Disclaimer
    • Chapter 7: Cellular biomechanics of central nervous system injury
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Mechanical loading in the brain: how it occurs, and what influences it
      • Recreating trauma in vitro
      • What are the critical cellular inputs for recreating the mechanical spectrum?
      • Are there important mechanosensors?
      • Do these mechanosensors cause functional changes?
      • Can we use in silico simulations as a complement to in vitro systems?
      • Looking into the future: multiscale questions and the key for the future
    • Chapter 8: Animal models of traumatic brain injury
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Biomechanics of traumatic brain injury
      • Contusion models of traumatic brain injury
      • Models of traumatic axonal injury
      • Animal model of blast-induced traumatic brain injury
      • Models of acute hematoma
      • Genetic manipulation and models of traumatic brain injury
      • Conclusion
  • SECTION 3: Special considerations
    • Chapter 9: Mild traumatic brain injury
      • Abstract
      • Definitions and diagnostic criteria
      • Epidemiology
      • Pathophysiology
      • Neuroimaging
      • Serum biomarkers
      • Clinical markers: eye motility
      • Clinical problems, natural history, and outcome
      • The domains of symptomatology after mild tbi
      • Natural history and outcome
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 10: Acute sports-related traumatic brain injury and repetitive concussion
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Pathophysiology of sports-related traumatic brain injury
      • Evaluation of acute sports-related traumatic brain injury
      • Long-term neurologic sequelae of repetitive concussion
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 11: Brain injury from explosive blast: description and clinical management
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Explosive blast versus penetrating and conventional traumatic brain injury
      • Severity levels of explosive blast traumatic brain injury
      • Clinical management
      • Conclusion
      • Disclaimer
    • Chapter 12: Surgical management of civilian gunshot wounds to the head
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Epidemiology
      • Pathogenesis
      • Pathology
      • Clinical presentation
      • Prehospital triage
      • Emergency department management
      • Imaging studies
      • Intracranial pressure monitoring
      • Surgical management
      • Complications
      • Summary
    • Chapter 13: Acute loss of consciousness
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Etiology of acute loss of consciousness: natural, induced, and acquired models
      • Classification of the disorders of consciousness
      • The acute phase following traumatic brain injury
      • Defining the level of consciousness
      • Post-traumatic amnesia
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 14: Systemic manifestations of traumatic brain injury
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Primary systemic manifestations
      • Secondary systemic manifestations
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 15: Special considerations in infants and children
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Epidemiology of pediatric head injury
      • Injury classification schemes: special considerations in children
      • Pathophysiologic differences relevant to injury
      • Clinical assessment tools for infants and children
      • Imaging considerations in pediatric traumatic brain injury
      • Management of pediatric head injury: general principles
      • Acute phase management of pediatric head injury
      • Specific injury patterns in children
      • Profound injuries and brain death in children
      • Outcomes and rehabilitation
      • Follow-up considerations for children
      • Summary
  • SECTION 4: Current and emerging diagnostic tools
    • Chapter 16: Biomarkers
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Currently available biomarkers accessible in biofluids
      • Brain markers and clinical practice
      • Future directions: multimarker strategies
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 17: Current and future diagnostic tools for traumatic brain injury: CT, conventional MRI, and diffusion tensor imaging
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Assessment goal
      • Future directions
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 18: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography to detect consciousness after severe brain injury
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Differential diagnosis in disorders of consciousness
      • Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies
      • Electroencephalographic studies
      • Implications
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 19: Resting functional imaging tools (MRS, SPECT, PET and PCT)
      • Abstract
      • Magnetic resonance spectroscopy
      • Single photon emission computed tomography
      • Positron emission tomography
      • Perfusion computed tomography
      • Functional resting state imaging in children
      • Comparison of clinical applicability of spect, pet, and mrs
    • Chapter 20: Advances in imaging explosive blast mild traumatic brain injury
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Diffusion tensor imaging
      • Functional imaging
      • Metabolic imaging
      • Summary
      • Disclaimer
    • Chapter 21: Electrophysiologic recordings in traumatic brain injury
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Background
      • Historical background and early experimental studies
      • Experimental models of seizures in traumatic brain injury
      • Clinical EEG in acute mild traumatic brain injury
      • Quantitative EEG and mild traumatic brain injury
      • Clinical EEG and seizures following moderate and severe traumatic brain injury
      • Clinical EEG and prognosis following moderate to severe traumatic brain injury
      • EEG in traumatic brain injury, post-traumatic epilepsy, and epileptogenesis
      • Intracranial EEG and limitations of scalp EEG
      • Intracranial EEG and cortical spreading depression
      • EEG in the evaluation of post-traumatic epilepsy
      • Evoked potentials and traumatic brain injury
      • Event-related potentials and traumatic brain injury
      • Bispectral index and traumatic brain injury
      • Magnetoencephalography and traumatic brain injury
  • SECTION 5: Management and treatment
    • Chapter 22: Neuroprotection for traumatic brain injury
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Neuronal cell death: morphology versus mechanism
      • Cell death mechanisms in traumatic brain injury
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 23: The prehospital management of traumatic brain injury
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Prehospital patient assessment
      • Patient management
      • Special considerations for suspected herniation
      • Patient transport decisions
      • Future directions
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 24: Acute management of military-related injury
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Historical experience
      • Type of wounds
      • Penetrating brain injury
      • Closed head injury
      • Blast-related traumatic brain injury
      • Echelons of care
      • Conclusion
      • Disclaimer
    • Chapter 25: Clinical management of the minimally conscious state
      • Abstract
      • Assessment of the minimally conscious state
      • Clinical management of the minimally conscious state
      • A systematic approach to clinical management of patients in the minimally conscious state
      • Conclusions and future directions
      • Acknowledgment
    • Chapter 26: Rehabilitation after traumatic brain injury
      • Abstract
      • Epidemiology
      • Early rehabilitation after traumatic brain injury
      • Prognosis and recovery
      • Rehabilitation and disorders of consciousness
      • Rehabilitation strategies for cognitive dysfunction
      • Motor recovery after traumatic brain injury
      • Post-traumatic agitation
      • Spasticity
      • Dysautonomia
      • Heterotopic ossification
      • Other traumatic brain injury complications that impact rehabilitation
      • Rehabilitation of mild traumatic brain injury and concussion
      • Health systems change
      • Future developments in traumatic brain injury rehabilitation
    • Chapter 27: Long-term social integration and community support
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Factors related to social functioning following traumatic brain injury
      • Interventions to improve social functioning
      • Using existing technology to increase social functioning
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgment
    • Chapter 28: Recent developments in clinical trials for the treatment of traumatic brain injury
      • Abstract
      • Introduction and background
      • Hormonal agents
      • Glutamate antagonists
      • Immunomodulators
      • Antioxidants
      • Coagulation (dic) modulator therapies
      • Conclusions
      • Disclosures
  • Index


The Handbook of Clinical Neurology volume on traumatic brain injury (TBI) provides the reader with an updated review of emerging approaches to traumatic brain injury (TBI) research, clinical management and rehabilitation of the traumatic brain injury patient. Chapters in this volume range from epidemiology and pathological mechanisms of injury, and neuroprotection to long-term outcomes with a strong emphasis on current neurobiological approaches to describing the consequences and mechanisms of recovery from TBI. The book presents contemporary investigations on blast injury and chronic traumatic encephalopathy, making this state-of-the-art volume a must have for clinicians and researchers concerned with the clinical management, or investigation, of TBI.

Key Features

  • Internationally renowned scientists describe cutting edge research on the neurobiological response to traumatic brain injury, including descriptions of potential biomarkers and indicators of potential targets for treatments to reduce the impact of the injury
  • Explores cellular and molecular mechanisms as well as genetic predictors of outcome
  • Offers coverage of various diagnostic tools – CT, MRI, DDTI, fMRI, EEG, resting functional imaging, and more
  • State-of-the-art traumatic brain injury management and treatment principles are presented for both civilian and military care


Neurologists and neuroscientists


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About the Editors

Jordan Grafman Editor

Jordan Grafman, PhD, is director of Brain Injury Research at the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. Before joining RIC, Dr. Grafman was director of the Traumatic Brain Injury Research at Kessler Foundation. His investigation of brain function and behavior contributes to advances in medicine, rehabilitation, and psychology, and informs ethics, law, philosophy, and health policy. His study of the human prefrontal cortex and cognitive neuroplasticity incorporates neuroimaging and genetics, an approach that is expanding our knowledge of the impact of traumatic brain injury, as well as other diseases that impair brain function, such as stroke, multiple sclerosis and degenerative diseases. Dr. Grafman aims to translate his research into more effective, targeted rehabilitation to achieve the best outcomes for people with cognitive disabilities. Dr. Grafman’s background includes 30 years of experience in brain injury research. He has studied brain function in dementia, depression, and degenerative neurological diseases, as well as TBI. He has authored more than 300 research publications, co-editor of the journal Cortex, and provides peer review for numerous specialty journals. At the National Institutes of Health, he served as chief of the Cognitive Neuroscience Section at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. While in the US Air Force, he served at Walter Reed Army Medical Center as neuropsychology chief of the Vietnam Head Injury Project, a long-term study of more than 500 soldiers with serious injuries of the head and brain. He is the leading expert on the long-term effects of penetrating brain injuries in military personnel. His expertise includes the scope of challenges faced during recovery, including behavioral changes like aggression, late sequelae such as seizures, and the impact on TBI on family life and employment, and legal implications. He is an elected fellow of the American Psychological Association and the New York Academy of Sciences. Dr. Grafman is the recipient of many prestigious awards including the Department of Defense Meritorious Service Award, the National Institutes of Health Award of Merit, 2010 National Institutes of Health Director’s Award, and the Humboldt Reserach Award. He is a frequent speaker at national and international conferences. His expert opinion is often sought by national media on issues related to brain function and behavior, cognitive rehabilitation, and policy and legal issues related to brain-behavior research.

Affiliations and Expertise

Northwestern University Medical School and Department of Psychology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA

Andres Salazar Editor

Andres M. Salazar, MD, is CEO, Scientific Director and cofounder of Oncovir, Inc., a pharmaceutical company developing the immunomodulator, Hiltonol® (Poly-ICLC). He is a retired US Army Colonel and formerly Professor of Neurology at USUHS. He was Director of the Vietnam Head Injury Study and Founder, Principal Investigator, and first Director of the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Program, an ongoing U.S. National Head Injury clinical management and research effort. His research background includes neurotraumatology, neurodegenerative diseases, multiple sclerosis (MS), AIDS, and Oncology. He has over 200 publications, several patents, and has conducted multiple clinical studies, including in head injury, AIDS, pilot and pivotal clinical trials of beta-interferon (Avonex) in multiple sclerosis, and clinical trials of Hiltonol® in various cancers, MS, and AIDS. Dr. Salazar is a graduate of Dartmouth College and Jefferson Medical College. He completed Neurology training at Walter Reed Army Medical Center, and a Neurovirology Fellowship at the CNSSL, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

Affiliations and Expertise

Chairman, CEO, & Scientific Director, Oncovir, Inc., Washington, DC, USA