HCI Models, Theories, and Frameworks - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781558608085, 9780080491417

HCI Models, Theories, and Frameworks

1st Edition

Toward a Multidisciplinary Science

Editors: John Carroll
Hardcover ISBN: 9781558608085
eBook ISBN: 9780080491417
Imprint: Morgan Kaufmann
Published Date: 10th April 2003
Page Count: 576
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Table of Contents

  1. Introduction: Toward a Multidisciplinary Science of Human-Computer Interaction by John M. Carroll, Virginia Tech

1.1 The Golden Age 1.2 Let 100 Flowers Bloom 1.3 Scientific Fragmentation 1.4 Teaching and Learning References

  1. Design as Applied Perception by Colin Ware, University of New Hampshire

2.1 Motivation 2.2 Scientific Foundation 2.2.1 Stage 1: Features in Early Vision 2.2.2 Stage 2: Pattern Perception 2.2.3 Stage 3: Objects 2.2.4 Claims and Limitations 2.3 Case Study 2.4 Current Status of Theoretical Approach 2.4.1 Application References

  1. Motor Behavior Models for Human-Computer Interaction by I. Scott MacKenzie, York University, Toronto, Canada

3.1 Motivation 3.2 Overview: Models and Modeling 3.2.1 Predictive Models 3.2.2 Descriptive Models 3.3 Scientific Foundations and Model Descriptions 3.3.1 Fitts's Law 3.3.2 Guird's Model of Bimanual Skill 3.4 Case Studies 3.4.1 Case Study #1: Fitts's Law Prediction of Text-Entry Rates on Mobile Phones 3.4.2 Case Study #2: Bimanual Control and Desktop Computer Affordances 3.5 Current Status and Further Reading References

  1. Information Processing and Skilled Behavior by Bonnie E. John, Carnegie Mellon University

4.1 Motivation for Using the Human Information Processing Theory in Human-Computer Interaction 4.2 Overview of GOMS 4.3 Scientific Foundations Underlying GOMS 4.3.1 Conceptual Frameworks 4.3.2 Computational Cognitive Architectures 4.3.3 Task-Analysis Techniques 4.4 Detailed Description 4.4.1 KLM 4.4.2 CMN-GOMS 4.4.3 CPM-GOMS 4.5 Case Study: Project Ernestine 4.5.1 Details of Project Ernestine's CPM-GOMS Modeling Effort 4.6 Current Status 4.6.1 GOMS in Particular 4.6.2 Human Information Processing in General 4.7 Further Reading 4.7.1 Seminal Text in Human Information 4.7.2 Human Information Processing in HCI 4.7.3 Human Information Processing Embodied in Computational Cognitive Architectures 4.7.4 ACT-R 4.7.5 EPIC References

  1. Notational Systems—The Cognitive Dimensions of Notations Framework by Alan Blackwell and Thomas Green, Cambridge University, Cambridge, England

5.1 Motivation 5.1.1 Example 5.2 Overview 5.3 Scientific Foundations 5.4 Detailed Description 5.4.1 Activities 5.4.2 The Components of Notational Systems 5.4.3 Notational Dimensions 5.4.4 Profiles 5.4.5 Trade-Offs 5.4.6 Use by an Analyst 5.4.7 A Questionnaire Approach 5.4.8 Cognitive Dimensions of Interactive Devices 5.5 Case Study: Evaluating a Visual-Programming Language 5.5.1 Illustrating the Notation 5.5.2 Conclusions 5.6 Current Status 5.6.1 Dissemination 5.6.2 Clarification and Formalization 5.6.3 Coverage 5.6.4 Analysis Tools 5.6.5 Beyond CDs: Misfit Analysis 5.7 Further Reading References

  1. Users' Mental Models: The Very Ideas by Stephen J. Payne, Cardiff University, Wales

6.1 Motivation 6.2 Scientific Foundations 6.2.1 Idea 1. Mental Content vs. Cognitive Architecture: Mental Models as Theories 6.2.2 Idea 2. Models vs. Methods: Mental Models as Problem Spaces 6.2.3 Idea 3. Models vs. Descriptions: Mental Models as Homomorphisms 6.2.4 Idea 4. Models of Representations: Mental Models Can Be Derived from Language, Perception, or Imagination 6.3 Detailed Description 6.3.1 Idea 1. Mental Representations of Representational Artifacts 6.3.2 Idea 2. Mental Models as Computationally Equivalent to External Representations 6.4 Case Study 6.4.1 A Yoked State Spaces Analysis of Calendar Design 6.4.2 Experiments on Internalization of Device Instructions 6.5 Further Reading (ed—please confirm—this isn't in my notes) References

  1. Exploring and Finding Information by Peter Pirolli, Palo Alto Research Center

7.1 Introduction 7.2 Motivation: Man the Informavore 7.2.1 Emergence of the Global Information Ecology 7.3 Scientific Foundations 7.3.1 Influence of Evolutionary Theory: Adaptationist Approaches 7.3.2 Information-Foraging Theory 7.3.3 Optimal-Foraging Theory 7.4 Detailed Description: Scatter/Gather 7.4.1 Simulating Users 7.4.2 Information Scent 7.4.3 Information-Foraging Evaluations 7.4.4 Simulating Users and Evaluating Alternative Scatter/Gather Diagrams 7.5 Case Study: The World Wide Web 7.5.1 Information Scent as a Major Determinant of Web User Behavior 7.5.2 Simulated Users and Usability Evaluation 7.6 Current Status Author Notes References

  1. Distributed Cognition by Mark Perry, Brunel University, London, England

8.1 Motivation 8.1.1 Designing Collaborative Technologies 8.1.2 Distributed Cognition in Context 8.2 Overview 8.3 Scientific Foundations 8.3.1 External Support for Thought and Systems Perspectives in Cognition 8.4 Detailed Description 8.4.1 Computation and Cognition 8.4.2 The Social Organization of Group Problem Solving 8.4.3 Communication and Coordination of Distributed Knowledge 8.4.4 "Doing" DCog 8.5 Case Study: Engineering Design and Construction 8.5.1 Organizational Coordination and Control in Representation Transformation 8.5.2 Representational Transformations in Information Processing 8.5.3 Coordination of Representational Transformations 8.5.4 Summary 8.6 Current Status Author Notes Further Reading References

  1. Cognitive Work Analysis by Penelope M. Sanderson, University of Queensland, Australia

9.1 Motivation 9.1.1 Connection of CWA with Other Areas 9.1.2 Designing for Unanticipated Events in First-of-a-Kind Systems 9.2 Overview of CWA 9.3 Scientific Foundations 9.3.1 A Systems Perspective 9.3.2 An Ecological Orientation 9.3.3 The Role of Cognition 9.3.4 Summary 9.4 Detailed Description 9.4.1 Overviews of CWA 9.4.2 Description of CWA Classes of Constraint 9.4.3 CWA and the System Life Cycle 9.5 Case Studies 9.5.1 Display Design 9.5.2 Systems Engineering and Human-System Integration 9.6 Current Status 9.7 Further Reading References

  1. Common Ground in Electronically Mediated Communication: Clark's Theory of Language Use by Andrew Monk, University of York, England

10.1 Motivation 10.1.1 Production Plus Comprehension Multiplied by Communication
10.1. 2 Language Use as a Collaborative Activity 10.2 Overview 10.3 Scientific Foundations 10.4 Detailed Description 10.4.1 Fundamentals 10.4.2 Grounding, Levels, Layers, and Tracks 10.5 Case Studies—Applying the Theory to the Design of Technology for Communication 10.5.1 The Costs of Grounding (Clark & Brennan) 10.5.2 Why Cognoter Did Not Work (Tatar, Foster, & Bobrow) 10.5.3 Predicting the Peripherality of Peripheral Participants (Watts & Monk) 10.6 Current Status 10.7 Further Reading Acknowledgments References

  1. Activity Theory by Olav W. Bertelsen and Susanne Bødker, University of Aarhus, Denmark

11.1 Motivation 11.1.1 Through the Interface—Artifacts Used in Context 11.1.2 In Search of a New Theoretical Foundation 11.1.3 What Does It Offer? 11.1.4 What Is It Like? 11.1.5 What Sets It Apart? 11.2 Overview 11.3 Scientific Foundations 11.4 Detailed Description 11.4.1 Mediation 11.4.2 Internationalization—Externalization 11.4.3 Computer Artifacts in a Web of Activities 11.4.4 Development 11.4.5 Activity Theory in Practical Design and Evaluation 11.5 Case Study 11.5.1 Focus and Focus Shifts 11.5.2 The Concept of Artifacts in Use as a Tool in the Redesign of the CPN Tool 11.5.3 The User Interface 11.6 Current Status 11.7 Further Reading References

  1. Applying Social Psychological Theory to the Problems of Group Work by Robert E. Kraut, Carnegie Mellon University

12.1 Motivation 12.2 An Overview of CSCW Research 12.3 Scientific Foundations 12.3.1 Input-Process-Output Models of Group Functioning 12.3.2 Process Losses 12.3.3 Social Loafing 12.4 Detailed Description—Explaining Productivity Loss in Brainstorming Teams 12.4.1 Application to System Design 12.5 Case Study: Applying Social-Psychological Theory to the Problem of Undercontribution to Online Groups 12.5.1 Social Loafing and Online Groups 12.6 Current Status References

  1. Studies of Work in Human-Computer Interaction by Graham Button, Xerox Research Centre Europe, Grenoble, France

13.1 Motivation 13.2 Overview: A Paradigmatic 13.3. Scientific Foundations 13.3.1 Ethnography 13.3.2 Situated Action 13.3.3 Ethnomethodology 13.4 Detailed Description 13.4.1 Critique 13.4.2 Evaluation 13.4.3 Requirements 13.4.4 Foundational Reconceptualizations 13.5 Case Study 13.6 Current Status 13.7 Further Reading References

  1. Upside-Down Vs and Algorithms—Computational Formalisms and Theory by Alan Dix, Lancaster University, England

14.1 Motivation 14.1.1 What Is Formal? 14.1.2 The Myth of Informality 14.1.3 Chapter Overview 14.2 First Steps 14.2.1 Two Examples 14.2.2 Lessons 14.3 Scientific Foundations 14.3.1 A Brief History of Formalism 14.3.2 The Limits of Knowledge 14.3.3 The Theory of Computing 14.3.4 Complexity 14.3.5 Good Enough 14.3.6 Agents and Interaction 14.3.7 Notations and Specifications 14.3.8 Kinds of Notation 14.4 Detailed Description 14.4.1 Two Plus Two—Using Simple Calculation 14.4.2 Detailed Specification 14.4.3 Modeling for Generic Issues 14.4.4 Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Groupware 14.4.5 Time and Continuous Interaction 14.4.6 Paradigms and Inspiration 14.4.7 Socio-Organizational Church-Turing Hypothesis 14.5 Case Study—Dialogue Specification for Transaction Processing 14.5.1 Background—Transaction Processing 14.5.2 The Problem . . . 14.5.3 All About State 14.5.4 The Solution 14.5.5 Why It Worked . . . 14.6 Current Status 14.6.1 Retrospective—Formal Methods in Computing 14.6.2 Retrospective—Formal Methods in HCI 14.6.3 Prospective 14.7 Further Reading References

  1. Design Rationale as Theory by John M. Carroll and Mary Beth Rosson, Virginia Polytechnic Institute

15.1 Motivation 15.2 Overview 15.3 Scientific Foundations 15.3.1 Ecological Science 15.3.2 Action Science 15.3.3 Synthetic Science 15.4 Detailed Description 15.5 Case Study 15.5.1 MOOsburg as a Case Study in Action Science 15.5.2 MOOsburg as a Case Study in Ecological Science 15.5.3 MOOsburg as a Case Study in Synthetic Science 15.6 Current Status and Further Reading Acknowledgments References


HCI Models, Theories, and Frameworks provides a thorough pedagological survey of the science of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). HCI spans many disciplines and professions, including anthropology, cognitive psychology, computer graphics, graphical design, human factors engineering, interaction design, sociology, and software engineering. While many books and courses now address HCI technology and application areas, none has addressed HCI’s multidisciplinary foundations with much scope or depth. This text fills a huge void in the university education and training of HCI students as well as in the lifelong learning and professional development of HCI practitioners. Contributors are leading researchers in the field of HCI. If you teach a second course in HCI, you should consider this book.

This book provides a comprehensive understanding of the HCI concepts and methods in use today, presenting enough comparative detail to make primary sources more accessible. Chapters are formatted to facilitate comparisons among the various HCI models. Each chapter focuses on a different level of scientific analysis or approach, but all in an identical format, facilitating comparison and contrast of the various HCI models. Each approach is described in terms of its roots, motivation, and type of HCI problems it typically addresses. The approach is then compared with its nearest neighbors, illustrated in a paradigmatic application, and analyzed in terms of its future.

This book is essential reading for professionals, educators, and students in HCI who want to gain a better understanding of the theoretical bases of HCI, and who will make use of a good background, refresher, reference to the field and/or index to the literature.

Key Features

  • Contributors are leading researchers in the field of Human-Comptuter Interaction
  • Fills a major gap in current literature about the rich scientific foundations of HCI
  • Provides a thorough pedogological survey of the science of HCI


Professionals, educators, and students in human-computer interaction (HCI) who want to gain a better understanding of the theoretical bases of HCI, and who will make use of a good background, refresher, reference to the field and/or index to the literature.


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© Morgan Kaufmann 2003
Morgan Kaufmann
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"Not since Card, Moran, and Newell's Psychology of Human Computer Interaction in 1983 has so much been brought together to advance the science of HCI. This book is a must-read for researchers and Ph. D. students. I am very impressed with the undertaking of this book and with its results. We have many models and theories in HCI, and this book collects them and encourages people to think about them together. I'm sure good things will come from those who digest this all." --Judith Olson, University of Michigan "Only with slowly evolving frameworks such as these can we understand and guide the advances in technology and its uses that lie ahead. This landmark collection will be of lasting value." --Jonathan Grudin, Microsoft Research "Computing and information technologies are providing profound advances for individuals and society. We have gained new insights from perceiving dynamic visualizations; enhanced our thinking by manipulating flexible representations; increased our knowledge through global search technologies; discovered new modes of communication and collaboration through networked technologies; formed new communities and relationships from near-universal access to the Web; developed new methods of buying and selling; and so on. The phenomena underlying the relation between people and technology are complex and varied. Understanding these phenomena is a real challenge, especially given that they span perceptual, cognitive, social, organizational, commercial, and cultural factors. Practitioners in HCI disciplines (interaction designers, information architects, usability testers, ethnographic field investigators, etc.) offer skills, methods, and practices to design and evaluate these technologies. Researchers in HCI provide innovations and empirical groundings, as well as theoretical perspectives, which are critical for a robust field. But the theoretical work is scattered across many sources, and practitioners are largely unaware of the range of theoretical work that has been done. This volume is a valuable collection of diverse theoretical perspectives by some of the most articulate advocates in the field of Human-Computer Interaction. It is a unique resource for grasping the broad landscape of theoretical thinking that frames HCI. HCI practitioners should study it to deepen their understanding of the phenomena they are trying to influence. And HCI researchers should study it for inspiration to broaden and strengthen the theoretical foundations of HCI." --Tom Moran, IBM Almaden Research Center

About the Editors

John Carroll Editor

John M. Carroll is Professor of Computer Science, Education, and Psychology, and Director of the Center for Human-Computer Interaction, at Virginia Tech. He has written more than 250 technical papers, more than 25 conference plenary addresses, and 12 books. He serves on 10 editorial boards for journals and handbooks, has won the Rigo Career Achievement Award from ACM, received the Silver Core Award from IFIP, and is a member of the CHI Academy.

Affiliations and Expertise

Penn State University