HCI Models, Theories, and Frameworks

HCI Models, Theories, and Frameworks

Toward a Multidisciplinary Science

1st Edition - April 4, 2003

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  • Editor: John Carroll
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080491417

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HCI Models, Theories, and Frameworks provides a thorough pedagological survey of the science of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). HCI spans many disciplines and professions, including anthropology, cognitive psychology, computer graphics, graphical design, human factors engineering, interaction design, sociology, and software engineering. While many books and courses now address HCI technology and application areas, none has addressed HCI’s multidisciplinary foundations with much scope or depth. This text fills a huge void in the university education and training of HCI students as well as in the lifelong learning and professional development of HCI practitioners. Contributors are leading researchers in the field of HCI. If you teach a second course in HCI, you should consider this book. This book provides a comprehensive understanding of the HCI concepts and methods in use today, presenting enough comparative detail to make primary sources more accessible. Chapters are formatted to facilitate comparisons among the various HCI models. Each chapter focuses on a different level of scientific analysis or approach, but all in an identical format, facilitating comparison and contrast of the various HCI models. Each approach is described in terms of its roots, motivation, and type of HCI problems it typically addresses. The approach is then compared with its nearest neighbors, illustrated in a paradigmatic application, and analyzed in terms of its future. This book is essential reading for professionals, educators, and students in HCI who want to gain a better understanding of the theoretical bases of HCI, and who will make use of a good background, refresher, reference to the field and/or index to the literature.

Key Features

  • Contributors are leading researchers in the field of Human-Comptuter Interaction
  • Fills a major gap in current literature about the rich scientific foundations of HCI
  • Provides a thorough pedogological survey of the science of HCI


Professionals, educators, and students in human-computer interaction (HCI) who want to gain a better understanding of the theoretical bases of HCI, and who will make use of a good background, refresher, reference to the field and/or index to the literature.

Table of Contents

  • 1. Introduction: Toward a Multidisciplinary Science of Human-Computer Interaction
    by John M. Carroll, Virginia Tech

    1.1 The Golden Age
    1.2 Let 100 Flowers Bloom
    1.3 Scientific Fragmentation
    1.4 Teaching and Learning References

    2. Design as Applied Perception
    by Colin Ware, University of New Hampshire

    2.1 Motivation
    2.2 Scientific Foundation
    2.2.1 Stage 1: Features in Early Vision
    2.2.2 Stage 2: Pattern Perception
    2.2.3 Stage 3: Objects
    2.2.4 Claims and Limitations
    2.3 Case Study
    2.4 Current Status of Theoretical Approach
    2.4.1 Application References

    3. Motor Behavior Models for Human-Computer Interaction
    by I. Scott MacKenzie, York University, Toronto, Canada

    3.1 Motivation
    3.2 Overview: Models and Modeling
    3.2.1 Predictive Models
    3.2.2 Descriptive Models
    3.3 Scientific Foundations and Model Descriptions
    3.3.1 Fitts's Law
    3.3.2 Guird's Model of Bimanual Skill
    3.4 Case Studies
    3.4.1 Case Study #1: Fitts's Law Prediction of Text-Entry Rates on Mobile Phones
    3.4.2 Case Study #2: Bimanual Control and Desktop Computer Affordances
    3.5 Current Status and Further Reading

    4. Information Processing and Skilled Behavior
    by Bonnie E. John, Carnegie Mellon University

    4.1 Motivation for Using the Human Information Processing Theory in Human-Computer Interaction
    4.2 Overview of GOMS
    4.3 Scientific Foundations Underlying GOMS
    4.3.1 Conceptual Frameworks
    4.3.2 Computational Cognitive Architectures
    4.3.3 Task-Analysis Techniques
    4.4 Detailed Description
    4.4.1 KLM
    4.4.2 CMN-GOMS
    4.4.3 CPM-GOMS
    4.5 Case Study: Project Ernestine
    4.5.1 Details of Project Ernestine's CPM-GOMS Modeling Effort
    4.6 Current Status
    4.6.1 GOMS in Particular
    4.6.2 Human Information Processing in General
    4.7 Further Reading
    4.7.1 Seminal Text in Human Information
    4.7.2 Human Information Processing in HCI
    4.7.3 Human Information Processing Embodied in Computational Cognitive Architectures
    4.7.4 ACT-R
    4.7.5 EPIC

    5. Notational Systems—The Cognitive Dimensions of Notations Framework
    by Alan Blackwell and Thomas Green, Cambridge University, Cambridge, England

    5.1 Motivation
    5.1.1 Example
    5.2 Overview
    5.3 Scientific Foundations
    5.4 Detailed Description
    5.4.1 Activities
    5.4.2 The Components of Notational Systems
    5.4.3 Notational Dimensions
    5.4.4 Profiles
    5.4.5 Trade-Offs
    5.4.6 Use by an Analyst
    5.4.7 A Questionnaire Approach
    5.4.8 Cognitive Dimensions of Interactive Devices
    5.5 Case Study: Evaluating a Visual-Programming Language
    5.5.1 Illustrating the Notation
    5.5.2 Conclusions
    5.6 Current Status
    5.6.1 Dissemination
    5.6.2 Clarification and Formalization
    5.6.3 Coverage
    5.6.4 Analysis Tools
    5.6.5 Beyond CDs: Misfit Analysis
    5.7 Further Reading

    6. Users' Mental Models: The Very Ideas
    by Stephen J. Payne, Cardiff University, Wales

    6.1 Motivation
    6.2 Scientific Foundations
    6.2.1 Idea 1. Mental Content vs. Cognitive Architecture: Mental Models as Theories
    6.2.2 Idea 2. Models vs. Methods: Mental Models as Problem Spaces
    6.2.3 Idea 3. Models vs. Descriptions: Mental Models as Homomorphisms
    6.2.4 Idea 4. Models of Representations: Mental Models Can Be Derived from Language, Perception, or Imagination
    6.3 Detailed Description
    6.3.1 Idea 1. Mental Representations of Representational Artifacts
    6.3.2 Idea 2. Mental Models as Computationally Equivalent to External
    6.4 Case Study
    6.4.1 A Yoked State Spaces Analysis of Calendar Design
    6.4.2 Experiments on Internalization of Device Instructions
    6.5 Further Reading (ed—please confirm—this isn't in my notes) References

    7. Exploring and Finding Information
    by Peter Pirolli, Palo Alto Research Center

    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Motivation: Man the Informavore
    7.2.1 Emergence of the Global Information Ecology
    7.3 Scientific Foundations
    7.3.1 Influence of Evolutionary Theory: Adaptationist Approaches
    7.3.2 Information-Foraging Theory
    7.3.3 Optimal-Foraging Theory
    7.4 Detailed Description: Scatter/Gather
    7.4.1 Simulating Users
    7.4.2 Information Scent
    7.4.3 Information-Foraging Evaluations
    7.4.4 Simulating Users and Evaluating Alternative Scatter/Gather Diagrams
    7.5 Case Study: The World Wide Web
    7.5.1 Information Scent as a Major Determinant of Web User Behavior
    7.5.2 Simulated Users and Usability Evaluation
    7.6 Current Status
    Author Notes

    8. Distributed Cognition
    by Mark Perry, Brunel University, London, England

    8.1 Motivation
    8.1.1 Designing Collaborative Technologies
    8.1.2 Distributed Cognition in Context
    8.2 Overview
    8.3 Scientific Foundations
    8.3.1 External Support for Thought and Systems Perspectives in Cognition
    8.4 Detailed Description
    8.4.1 Computation and Cognition
    8.4.2 The Social Organization of Group Problem Solving
    8.4.3 Communication and Coordination of Distributed Knowledge
    8.4.4 "Doing" DCog
    8.5 Case Study: Engineering Design and Construction
    8.5.1 Organizational Coordination and Control in Representation Transformation
    8.5.2 Representational Transformations in Information Processing
    8.5.3 Coordination of Representational Transformations
    8.5.4 Summary
    8.6 Current Status
    Author Notes
    Further Reading

    9. Cognitive Work Analysis
    by Penelope M. Sanderson, University of Queensland, Australia

    9.1 Motivation
    9.1.1 Connection of CWA with Other Areas
    9.1.2 Designing for Unanticipated Events in First-of-a-Kind Systems
    9.2 Overview of CWA
    9.3 Scientific Foundations
    9.3.1 A Systems Perspective
    9.3.2 An Ecological Orientation
    9.3.3 The Role of Cognition
    9.3.4 Summary
    9.4 Detailed Description
    9.4.1 Overviews of CWA
    9.4.2 Description of CWA Classes of Constraint
    9.4.3 CWA and the System Life Cycle
    9.5 Case Studies
    9.5.1 Display Design
    9.5.2 Systems Engineering and Human-System Integration
    9.6 Current Status
    9.7 Further Reading

    10. Common Ground in Electronically Mediated Communication: Clark's Theory of Language Use
    by Andrew Monk, University of York, England

    10.1 Motivation
    10.1.1 Production Plus Comprehension Multiplied by Communication
    10.1. 2 Language Use as a Collaborative Activity
    10.2 Overview
    10.3 Scientific Foundations
    10.4 Detailed Description
    10.4.1 Fundamentals
    10.4.2 Grounding, Levels, Layers, and Tracks
    10.5 Case Studies—Applying the Theory to the Design of Technology for Communication
    10.5.1 The Costs of Grounding (Clark & Brennan)
    10.5.2 Why Cognoter Did Not Work (Tatar, Foster, & Bobrow)
    10.5.3 Predicting the Peripherality of Peripheral Participants (Watts & Monk)
    10.6 Current Status
    10.7 Further Reading

    11. Activity Theory
    by Olav W. Bertelsen and Susanne Bødker, University of Aarhus, Denmark

    11.1 Motivation
    11.1.1 Through the Interface—Artifacts Used in Context
    11.1.2 In Search of a New Theoretical Foundation
    11.1.3 What Does It Offer?
    11.1.4 What Is It Like?
    11.1.5 What Sets It Apart?
    11.2 Overview
    11.3 Scientific Foundations
    11.4 Detailed Description
    11.4.1 Mediation
    11.4.2 Internationalization—Externalization
    11.4.3 Computer Artifacts in a Web of Activities
    11.4.4 Development
    11.4.5 Activity Theory in Practical Design and Evaluation
    11.5 Case Study
    11.5.1 Focus and Focus Shifts
    11.5.2 The Concept of Artifacts in Use as a Tool in the Redesign of the CPN Tool
    11.5.3 The User Interface
    11.6 Current Status
    11.7 Further Reading

    12. Applying Social Psychological Theory to the Problems of Group Work
    by Robert E. Kraut, Carnegie Mellon University

    12.1 Motivation
    12.2 An Overview of CSCW Research
    12.3 Scientific Foundations
    12.3.1 Input-Process-Output Models of Group Functioning
    12.3.2 Process Losses
    12.3.3 Social Loafing
    12.4 Detailed Description—Explaining Productivity Loss in Brainstorming Teams
    12.4.1 Application to System Design
    12.5 Case Study: Applying Social-Psychological Theory to the Problem of Undercontribution to Online Groups
    12.5.1 Social Loafing and Online Groups
    12.6 Current Status

    13. Studies of Work in Human-Computer Interaction
    by Graham Button, Xerox Research Centre Europe, Grenoble, France

    13.1 Motivation
    13.2 Overview: A Paradigmatic
    13.3. Scientific Foundations
    13.3.1 Ethnography
    13.3.2 Situated Action
    13.3.3 Ethnomethodology
    13.4 Detailed Description
    13.4.1 Critique
    13.4.2 Evaluation
    13.4.3 Requirements
    13.4.4 Foundational Reconceptualizations
    13.5 Case Study
    13.6 Current Status
    13.7 Further Reading

    14. Upside-Down Vs and Algorithms—Computational Formalisms and Theory
    by Alan Dix, Lancaster University, England

    14.1 Motivation
    14.1.1 What Is Formal?
    14.1.2 The Myth of Informality
    14.1.3 Chapter Overview
    14.2 First Steps
    14.2.1 Two Examples
    14.2.2 Lessons
    14.3 Scientific Foundations
    14.3.1 A Brief History of Formalism
    14.3.2 The Limits of Knowledge
    14.3.3 The Theory of Computing
    14.3.4 Complexity
    14.3.5 Good Enough
    14.3.6 Agents and Interaction
    14.3.7 Notations and Specifications
    14.3.8 Kinds of Notation
    14.4 Detailed Description
    14.4.1 Two Plus Two—Using Simple Calculation
    14.4.2 Detailed Specification
    14.4.3 Modeling for Generic Issues
    14.4.4 Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Groupware
    14.4.5 Time and Continuous Interaction
    14.4.6 Paradigms and Inspiration
    14.4.7 Socio-Organizational Church-Turing Hypothesis
    14.5 Case Study—Dialogue Specification for Transaction Processing
    14.5.1 Background—Transaction Processing
    14.5.2 The Problem . . .
    14.5.3 All About State
    14.5.4 The Solution
    14.5.5 Why It Worked . . .
    14.6 Current Status
    14.6.1 Retrospective—Formal Methods in Computing
    14.6.2 Retrospective—Formal Methods in HCI
    14.6.3 Prospective
    14.7 Further Reading

    15. Design Rationale as Theory
    by John M. Carroll and Mary Beth Rosson, Virginia Polytechnic Institute

    15.1 Motivation
    15.2 Overview
    15.3 Scientific Foundations
    15.3.1 Ecological Science
    15.3.2 Action Science
    15.3.3 Synthetic Science
    15.4 Detailed Description
    15.5 Case Study
    15.5.1 MOOsburg as a Case Study in Action Science
    15.5.2 MOOsburg as a Case Study in Ecological Science
    15.5.3 MOOsburg as a Case Study in Synthetic Science
    15.6 Current Status and Further Reading

Product details

  • No. of pages: 576
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Morgan Kaufmann 2003
  • Published: April 4, 2003
  • Imprint: Morgan Kaufmann
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080491417

About the Editor

John Carroll

John M. Carroll is Professor of Computer Science, Education, and Psychology, and Director of the Center for Human-Computer Interaction, at Virginia Tech. He has written more than 250 technical papers, more than 25 conference plenary addresses, and 12 books. He serves on 10 editorial boards for journals and handbooks, has won the Rigo Career Achievement Award from ACM, received the Silver Core Award from IFIP, and is a member of the CHI Academy.

Affiliations and Expertise

Penn State University

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