Hazard Assessment of Chemicals - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123124029, 9781483261898

Hazard Assessment of Chemicals

1st Edition

Current Developments

Editors: Jitendra Saxena
eBook ISBN: 9781483261898
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th April 1983
Page Count: 376
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Description

Hazard Assessment of Chemicals: Current Developments, Volume 2 contains authoritative articles, which provide a comprehensive review and evaluation of important information on chemical spills, and presents case studies that show the applications of methods and approaches to environmental and health hazard assessment of chemicals. The book is comprised of five subject reviews and two case studies of chemical spills. Experts tackle subjects on the use of simulation models to determine pollutant behavior and pollutant migration; use of microcosms to assess chemical effects on the properties of aquatic ecosystems; and metabolism and disposition of potentially hazardous chemicals in maternal-embryonic/fetal systems. Epidemiological approaches to chemical hazard assessment and a review of The National Toxicology Program (NTP) in the Department of Health and Human Services are also presented. Environmentalists, ecologists, toxicologists, public safety officers and workers, and those concerned with the health effects of chemical agents in the environment will find this text invaluable.

Table of Contents


Contents

Contributors

Preface

Contents of Volume 1

Use of Models for Assessing Relative Volatility, Mobility, and Persistence of Pesticides and Other Trace Organics in Soil Systems

I. Introduction

II. Pathways of Pesticide Loss in Soil

III. Benchmark Properties Needed to Predict Pesticide Loss from Soils

IV. Theory

V. Chemicals and Properties Used in Screening Tests

VI. Results of Screening Tests

VII. Discussion

VIII. Limitations of Screening Model

IX. Application to Other Chemicals

X. Summary and Conclusions

List of Symbols

References

Microcosms for Assessment of Chemical Effects on the Properties of Aquatic Ecosystems

I. Introduction

II. Measurements of Aquatic Ecosystem Properties

III. Mixed-Culture Microcosms

IV. Pond Microcosms

V Pelagic Microcosms

VI. Discussion

References

Disposition of Chemical Contaminants in Maternal-Embryonic/Fetal Systems

I. Introduction

II. Entrance of Chemicals into Maternal Circulatory Fluids

III. Transfer of Chemicals from Maternal Circulatory Fluids to Other Maternal Tissues and Organs

IV Elimination of Chemicals from the Maternal Organism

V Factors Affecting Transfer of Chemicals from Maternal Plasma to Embryonic/Fetal Tissues

VI. Disposition of Chemicals in the Embryo and Fetus

VII. Summary and Conclusions

References

Epidemiologic Approaches to Chemical Hazard Assessment

I. Introduction

II. Developing Clues to Chemically Related Disease: Descriptive Approaches

III. Testing Etiologic Hypotheses: An Overview of Analytic Approaches

IV Crucial Aspects of Environmental Study Design

V Relating Measures of Dose to Measures of Response

VI. Conclusion

References

The National Toxicology Program's Research and Testing Activities

I. Introduction

II. Program Components and Resources

III. Oversight and Review

IV. Program Organization and Management

V Toxicology Research and Testing

VI. Chemical Nomination and Chemical Selection

VII. Information Generation and Dissemination

VIII. Future Directions

Selected References

Accidental Release of Vinyl Chloride: The Train Derailment near MacGregor, Manitoba

I. Introduction

II. Chronology of the Accident

III. Sequence of Events. Analysis Based on the Physical/Chemical Properties of Vinyl Chloride

IV Vinyl Chloride Toxicity

V Analysis of Vinyl Chloride

VI. Guidelines Concerning Instructions for Action in the Event of an Accident

VII. Guidelines Concerning Communications in the Event of an Accident

VIII. Conclusion

References

Anatomy of a TCDD Spill: The Seveso Accident

I. Introduction

II. Chronology of the Accident

III. Cause of the Accident

IV Evidence of TCDD Contamination and Assessment of the Risk to Humans

V Medical Surveillance of the Exposed Population

VI. Rehabilitation of the Damaged Area

VII. Compensation for Damage to Environment and Property

VIII. Postaccident Analyses

References

Chemical Substance Index

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
376
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1983
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483261898

About the Editor

Jitendra Saxena