Hazard Assessment of Chemicals - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123124012, 9780323149051

Hazard Assessment of Chemicals

1st Edition

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Editors: Jitendra Saxena
eBook ISBN: 9780323149051
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th December 1981
Page Count: 474
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Hazard Assessment of Chemicals: Current Developments, Volume 1 is a comprehensive and authoritative account of major developments in hazard assessment of chemicals. In addition to subject reviews, this volume contains case histories of topical chemicals and/or chemical classes in order to show examples of the applications of available methods and approaches for evaluating chemicals. Primary and secondary sources of information on chemicals are considered, along with the environmental and health hazards associated with chemicals.

Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an assessment of information sources on toxic substances, followed by a discussion on pre-concentration of trace metals from aquatic environmental samples. Subsequent chapters focus on the reproductive toxicology of aquatic contaminants; partition coefficient and water solubility in environmental chemistry; in vitro metabolism and activation of chemical carcinogens; and modeling of toxic spills into waterways. Estimation of exposure to hazardous chemicals is also described, along with structure-activity relationships in hazard assessment. The final chapter presents a case study of azaarenes, with emphasis on their sources, distribution, environmental impact, and health effects.

This book will be of interest to toxicologists, chemists, and environmental and public health officials.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


Assessment of Toxic Substances Information Sources

I. Introduction

II. Computerized Data Bases

III. Data Compendia and Handbooks

IV. Problems in Data Gathering

V. Future Developments

Recommended Additional Reading

Preconcentration of Trace Metals from Aquatic Environmental Samples

I. Introduction

II. Precipitation Methods

III. Electrodeposition

IV. Evaporation Methods

V. Freezing

VI. Sorption Methods

VII. Solvent Extraction

VIII. Miscellaneous Methods

IX. Conclusion


The Reproductive Toxicology of Aquatic Contaminants

I. Introduction

II. Testing Procedures Used to Evaluate Xenobiotics

III. Effects of Xenobiotics on the Reproduction of Aquatic Organisms


Partition Coefficient and Water Solubility in Environmental Chemistry

I. Introduction

II. Partition Theory

III. Relationship between Partition Coefficients

IV. Bioconcentration from Water

V. Soil-Water Distribution

VI. Conclusion


Chemical Carcinogens: In Vitro Metabolism and Activation

I. Introduction

II. Aromatic Amines

III. Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons

IV. Nitrosamines

V. Hydrazines and Azoxy Compounds

VI. Halogenated Hydrocarbons

VII. Aflatoxins and Substituted Propenylbenzenes: Carcinogenic Natural Products


Modeling of Toxic Spills into Waterways

I. Introduction

II. Development of Diffusion Equations

III. Coefficient Selection

IV. Techniques for Solution of Diffusion Equation

V. Available Models

VI. Example of Estimation of Spill Behavior

VII. Conclusions


Environmental and Laboratory Rates of Volatilization of Toxic Chemicals from Water

I. Introduction

II. Mechanisms of Air-Water Exchange

III. Equilibrium between Phases

IV. Overall Transport Equation

V. Laboratory Measurements

VI. Conclusions


Estimation of Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals

I. Importance of Exposure Estimation as Part of the Chemical Risk Assessment Process

II. Information Required to Characterize Exposure

III. Steps in the Exposure-Assessment Process

IV. Sources of Data for Human Exposure Estimation

V. Environmental Exposure Estimation

VI. Uses of Exposure Estimates

VII. Conclusions


Structure-Activity in Hazard Assessment

I. Basic Considerations

II. Development of Structure-Activity Relationship Methods

III. Applications of QSAR Methods to Toxicity Data


Azaarenes: Sources, Distribution, Environmental Impact, and Health Effects

I. Introduction

II. Structure and Properties

III. Sources

IV. Environmental Levels

V. Biological Activity

VI. Conclusions


Chemical Substance Index

Subject Index


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© Academic Press 1981
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Jitendra Saxena

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