Handbook on Natural Pigments in Food and Beverages

Handbook on Natural Pigments in Food and Beverages

Industrial Applications for Improving Food Color

1st Edition - April 19, 2016

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  • Editors: Reinhold Carle, Ralf Schweiggert
  • eBook ISBN: 9780081003923
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780081003718

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Handbook on Natural Pigments: Industrial Applications for Improving Food Colour is unique in its approach to the improvement of food colors. The book is written with industrial applications in mind, with each chapter focusing on a color solution for a specific commodity that will provide food scientists with a one-stop, comprehensive reference on how to improve the color of a particular food product. The first section of the book looks at the legal frameworks which underpin natural food colorings, also investigating the consumer expectations of food color. The second section of the book focuses on specific industrial applications of natural colorants with chapters covering the use of natural colorants in aqueous food products, cereal-based foods, and meat products, amongst many other topics. The various pigments which can be used to effectively color these commodities are presented with information on safety and testing included throughout. The final section in the book looks at recent developments and future perspectives in natural food colorings. There are chapters which cover the health benefits of natural pigments, the use of novel fruits and vegetables in pigments, and stable natural solutions for blue colorings.

Key Features

  • Presents recent advances in consumer demand and worldwide legislation regarding natural food colorants
  • Discusses the use of natural food colorants for one specific product category per chapter rather than one pigment class per chapter – this makes the book extremely useable for industrialists working in a specific sector
  • Contains a comprehensive array of product-specific coloration approaches, from using pigment-enriched feed additives to the direct addition of color formulations


R&D staff working within food companies and academics (Professors, research staff, teaching staff, postgraduate students)

Table of Contents

  • Part One. Consumer Expectations and Legal Framework of Food Colorants

    • 1. Food Color and Coloring Food: Quality, Differentiation and Regulatory Requirements in the European Union and the United States
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Coloring Principles Used for Food Coloring
      • 3. Coloring Food With Food
      • 4. Food Colors: EU Regulations
      • 5. Guidance Notes
      • 6. Food Color Regulations in the United States
      • 7. Consumer Expectations
    • 2. The Psychological Effects of Food Colors
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Psychological Effects of Food Color: Setting Sensory Expectations
      • 3. Names, Brands, and Colors
      • 4. Psychological Effects of Food Color on Behavior
      • 5. Marketing Color
      • 6. Individual Differences in the Psychological Effects of Color
      • 7. The Future of Color in Food
      • 8. Conclusions

    Part Two. General Considerations About Pigment Stability

    • 3. Anthocyanins
      • 1. Structural Diversity of Anthocyanins and Their Occurrence in Food Plants
      • 2. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors Having an Impact on Color Evolution and Anthocyanin Stability
      • 3. Factors Affecting Anthocyanin Stability Upon Processing and Storage
      • 4. Future Perspectives
    • 4. Betalains
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Stability Related to Structure and Degradation Pathways
      • 3. Factors Affecting Betalain Stability
      • 4. Effect of Processing on Betalain Stability
      • 5. Effect of Storage Conditions on Betalain Stability
      • 6. Improving Betalain Stability in the Production of Betalain-Based Natural Colorants
      • 7. Biological Effects of Betalains
      • 8. Conclusions
    • 5. Carotenoids
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Chemical and Physical Properties of Carotenoids
      • 3. Effects of Food Processing on the Stability of Carotenoids
      • 4. Analytical Perspectives
      • 5. Conclusions
    • 6. Chlorophylls
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Structure, Localization, and Function
      • 3. Biosynthesis and Catabolism
      • 4. Structures Present in Foods
      • 5. Biological Actions
      • 6. Analysis
      • 7. Chlorophylls as Food Additives
      • 8. Future Trends

    Part Three. Specific Industrial Applications of Natural Colorants

    • Section One. Application Notes
      • 7. Coloring Aqueous Food Types
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. General Note on Coloring Foods
        • 3. Aqueous Food Systems Challenges
        • 4. Examples of Aqueous Food Systems
        • 5. Summary
      • 8. Coloring of Low-Moisture and Gelatinized Food Products
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Confectionery Products
        • 3. Aerated Confectionery
        • 4. Hard-Boiled Candy
        • 5. Dragees
        • 6. Fruit Preparations, Jams, and Fruit-Based Spreads
        • 7. Conclusions
      • 9. Ice Cream
        • 1. Definition and Classification of Frozen Desserts
        • 2. Legislation
        • 3. Ice Cream
        • 4. Sorbets
        • 5. Packaging and Light Stability
        • 6. Distribution and Storage
      • 10. Applications of Different Curing Approaches and Natural Colorants in Meat Products
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. General Considerations and History
        • 3. Stabilization of Meat Color by Complexing Myoglobin
        • 4. Red Colorants of Animal Origin: Carmine/Cochenille
        • 5. Applications of Plant-Derived Colorants
        • 6. Applications of Microbial Pigments
        • 7. Toxicology, Food Safety Considerations, and Risk Assessment
        • 8. Regulatory Aspects Regarding Natural Curing Agents and Meat Colorants
        • 9. Conclusions
      • 11. Coloration of Cereal-Based Products
        • 1. Definition and Classification of Cereal-Based Products
        • 2. Legislation
        • 3. Extruded Ready-To-Eat Cereals
        • 4. Fine Bakery
    • Section Two. Reviews
      • 12. Improvement and Stabilization of Red Wine Color
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Chemistry of Red Wine Pigments
        • 3. Modulation of Anthocyanin Composition and Concentration in Red Wines
        • 4. Enological Practices to Improve and Stabilize Red Wine Color
        • 5. Conclusions and Outlook
      • 13. Feed Additives for Influencing the Color of Fish and Crustaceans
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Sources of Coloring Additives
        • 3. Legal Requirements for Fish Feed
        • 4. Routine Analytical Methods for Measuring Color in Fish Flesh
        • 5. Analytical Methods Based on Differences in Color
        • 6. Outlook
      • 14. Feed Additives for Influencing Chicken Meat and Egg Yolk Color
        • 1. Definition and Measurement of Color
        • 2. Consumer Preferences of Color
        • 3. Sources for Pigmentation and Legal Approval
        • 4. Coloring Efficiency
        • 5. Metabolism of Carotenoids in Poultry
        • 6. Deposition of Carotenoids in Egg Yolk and Tissues
        • 7. Factors Affecting Yolk and Tissue Pigmentation
        • 8. Human Intake Estimates
        • 9. Conclusions

    Part Four. Recent Developments and Future Perspectives

    • 15. Underutilized Fruits and Vegetables as Potential Novel Pigment Sources
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Present Regulatory Hurdles and Incentives for Application of Novel Pigment Sources
      • 3. Potential Novel Natural Pigment Sources
      • 4. Conclusion
    • 16. Current and Potential Natural Pigments From Microorganisms (Bacteria, Yeasts, Fungi, Microalgae)
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Carotenoids
      • 3. Azaphilones
      • 4. Anthraquinones
      • 5. Phycobiliproteins
      • 6. Conclusion
    • 17. Natural Solutions for Blue Colors in Food
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Spirulina
      • 3. Anthocyanins
      • 4. Genipin
      • 5. Further Potential Sources for Natural Blue Colorants
      • 6. Conclusion
    • 18. The “Carmine Problem” and Potential Alternatives
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Carmine—Chemistry and Sources
      • 3. Production of Cochineal
      • 4. Problems
      • 5. Potential Substitutes and Future Trends
    • 19. Improving Color Sources by Plant Breeding and Cultivation
      • 1. Introduction to Plant Breeding
      • 2. Tomato Breeding for Lycopene Content
      • 3. Beetroot Breeding for Betalain Content
      • 4. Carrot Breeding for Anthocyanin Content
      • 5. Perspectives
    • 20. Recent Insights Into Health Benefits of Carotenoids
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Mechanisms of Action
      • 3. Carotenoids and Diseases
      • 4. Conclusions

Product details

  • No. of pages: 538
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2016
  • Published: April 19, 2016
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9780081003923
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780081003718

About the Editors

Reinhold Carle

Reinhold Carle holds a chair in food technology and analysis with particular focus on natural colors (antho¬cyanins, betalains, carotenoids and chlorophylls). He has published > 280 peer reviewed papers in this field. According to the Thomson Reuters’ Institute of Scientific Information (ISI), he ranks among the world’s highly cited researchers in the field of agricultural sciences including nutrition (H-Index 45), and has been a member of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) CONTAM panel. He is an active member of the Commission on Food Additives of the BfR (Federal Institute of Risk Assessment) and holds a position as Distinguished Adjunct Professor at the King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Due to his scientific achievements in food science and technology, he is an elected member of the Life Science Panel for Advanced Research Grants of the European Research Council (ERC) and has been awarded the designation of a fellow of the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT, Chicago, USA).

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Department of Plant Foodstuff Technology, University of Hohenheim, Germany

Ralf Schweiggert

Ralf Schweiggert is a post-doctoral researcher at the Chair of Plant Food Technology and Analysis of the University of Hohenheim (working with Prof. Reinhold Carle). The main research interests of his workgroup are plant pigments, e.g., the elucidation of their structure, their stabilization for food applications, their antioxidant activity, and their bioavailability in humans. He has published 15 peer-reviewed publications and 2 book chapters in this field and was an invited speaker at the Pigments in Food Conference in 2013 (Novara, Italy). Besides Hohenheim, he conducted several research stays at the Universidad de Costa Rica (working with Prof. Patricia Esquivel) and the Ohio State University (working with Prof. Steven J. Schwartz). His research and Ph.D. thesis was awarded with the Baumann-Gonser-Research Award (2012), the research award of the German Association for Quality Research (2014), and the Prof. Wild Award of the University of Hohenheim (2014).

Affiliations and Expertise

Post-Doctoral Researcher, Department of Plant Foodstuff Technology, University of Hohenheim, Germany

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