Handbook of Traffic Psychology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123819840, 9780123819857

Handbook of Traffic Psychology

1st Edition

Editors: Bryan Porter
eBook ISBN: 9780123819857
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123819840
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 11th July 2011
Page Count: 536
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The Handbook of Traffic Psychology covers all key areas of research in this field including  theory, applications, methodology and analyses, variables that affect traffic, driver problem behaviors, and countermeasures to reduce risk on roadways.  Comprehensive in scope, the methodology section includes case-control studies, self-report instruments and methods, field methods and naturalistic observational techniques, instrumented vehicles and in-car recording techniques, modeling and simulation methods, in vivo methods, clinical assessment, and crash datasets and analyses.  Experienced researchers will better understand what methods are most useful for what kinds of studies and students can better understand the myriad of techniques used in this discipline.

Key Features

  • Focuses specifically on traffic, as opposed to transport
  • Covers all key areas of research in traffic psychology including theory, applications, methodology and analyses, variables that affect traffic, driver problem behaviors, and countermeasures to reduce the risk of variables and behavior
  • Contents include how to conduct traffic research and how to analyze data
  • Contributors come from more than 10 countries, including US, UK, Japan, Netherlands, Ireland, Switzerland, Mexico, Australia, Canada, Turkey, France, Finland, Norway, Israel, and South Africa


Libraries, researchers, and applied practitioners in traffic psychology.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors


Chapter 1. How Many E’s in Road Safety?

1. Introduction

2. Education

3. Enforcement

4. Engineering

5. Exposure

6. Examination of Competence and Fitness

7. Emergency Response

8. Evaluation

9. Conclusion

Chapter 2. Driver Control Theory

1. Introduction

2. The Task–Capability Interface Model

3. Task Difficulty Allostasis: Temporary Influences on Risk Threshold

4. Compliance

5. Risk Allostasis Theory

6. Alternative Conceptualizations of Driver Goals

Chapter 3. Case–Control Studies in Traffic Psychology

1. Introduction

2. Epidemiological Study Designs

3. Case–Control Studies

4. Conclusions

Chapter 4. Self-Report Instruments and Methods

1. Introduction

2. For What Kind of Traffic Research Can Self-Report be Used?

3. Self-Reports of Accidents, Near Accidents, and Mileage

4. Validity of Self-Reports of Driving

5. Conclusion

Chapter 5. Naturalistic Observational Field Techniques for Traffic Psychology Research

1. Introduction

2. Techniques

3. Applications in Traffic Psychology

4. How to Design A Community-Based Safety Belt Use Survey

5. Conclusions

Chapter 6. Naturalistic Driving Studies and Data Coding and Analysis Techniques

1. Introduction

2. Traffic Conflict Technique

3. Philosophy of Large-Scale Instrumented Vehicle Studies

4. Life Cycle of Naturalistic Vehicle Studies

5. Conclusions

Chapter 7. Driving Simulators as Research Tools in Traffic Psychology

1. Introduction

2. What is a Driving Simulator?

3. Why Use a Driving Simulator?

4. To Move or Not

5. What Kind of Simulator to Use

6. How Valid are Driving Simulators as Research Tools?

7. Problems in Using Simulators: Simulator Sickness

8. Experimental Design

9. Conclusions

Chapter 8. Crash Data Sets and Analysis

1. Introduction

2. Data

3. Data Analysis

Chapter 9. Neuroscience and Young Drivers

1. Younger Drivers

2. Evidence from Developmental Neuroscience Research

3. Critical Aspects of Driving Linked with Neurological Development

4. Discussion and Conclusions

Chapter 10. Neuroscience and Older Drivers

1. Neuroscience and Older Drivers

2. Medical Issues and Older Drivers

3. Other Considerations for Older Drivers

4. Conclusion

Chapter 11. Visual Attention While Driving

1. Introduction

2. Do Drivers Look at Critical Information?

3. Measures of Glance Duration

4. Measures of Spread

5. Conclusions

Chapter 12. Social, Personality, and Affective Constructs in Driving

1. Introduction

2. Personal Factors and Driving Outcomes

3. The Context in Driving Outcomes

4. Conclusions and Future Directions

Chapter 13. Mental Health and Driving

1. Mental Health Impacts

2. The Effects of Mental Health on Driving

3. Effects of Driving on Mental Health

4. Summary

Chapter 14. Person and Environment

1. Person and Environment: Behavior and Accidents

2. Traffic Culture: Goals and Mechanisms

3. Conclusion

Chapter 15. Human Factors and Ergonomics

1. Introduction

2. The View from the Driver’s Seat: Driver-Centered Design Implications

3. Driver Variables Affecting the Driver–Vehicle Interaction

4. Vehicle Variables Affecting the Driver–Vehicle Interaction

5. Environmental Variables

6. Conclusion

Chapter 16. Factors Influencing Safety Belt Use

1. Introduction

2. Effectiveness

3. Measurement

4. International Safety Belt Use

5. Safety Belt Use in the United States

6. Factors that Influence Safety Belt Use

7. Conclusions

Chapter 17. Alcohol-Impaired Driving

1. Introduction

2. Background

3. Large-Scale Prevention of Alcohol-Impaired Driving

4. Non-Policy Programs for Large-Scale Prevention of Dui

5. Policy and Legal Initiatives for Large-Scale Prevention of Dui

6. Multicomponent Community Systems Approaches to the Prevention of Dui

7. Conclusion

Chapter 18. Speed(ing)

1. Introduction

2. Speed(ing) Research as a Quality Control Initiative

3. The Consequences of Speed(ing): A Postmortem Analysis

4. Antecedents to Speed(ing)

5. Using Big Pictures in Practice: is it Possible to Improve the Quality of Speed(ing)?

Chapter 19. Running Traffic Controls

1. Crashes: the Basis for Concern

2. Frequency of Violations

3. Driver Characteristics

4. Driver Attitudes

5. Driver Response to Enforcement

6. Summary

Chapter 20. Driver Distraction

1. Introduction

2. Driver Distraction: Definition

3. Driver Inattention: Definition

4. A Model of Driver Inattention

5. Sources and Types of Distraction

6. Moderating Factors

7. Interference and Theories of Interference

8. Impact on Driving Performance

9. Impact on Safety

10. Managing Distraction

11. Conclusion

Chapter 21. Driver Fatigue

1. Introduction

2. Crash Statistics and National Surveys

3. Causal Factors of Driver Fatigue

4. High-Risk Populations

5. Countermeasures and Detection/Warning Technologies

6. Conclusions and Future Research

Chapter 22. Young Children and “Tweens”

1. Introduction

2. Global Economic Disparities in Road Traffic Injuries

3. Regional Differences in Priority Issues and Standard Practices for Protecting Children

4. Key Strategies for Preventing Road Traffic Injuries Among Children

5. Recommendations for Protecting Child Occupants in Motor Vehicles

6. Conclusions

Chapter 23. Young Drivers

1. Introduction

2. Epidemiology of Teen Driving in the United States: Risk and Protective Factors for Crashes

3. Developmental and Psychosocial Considerations for Teen Drivers

4. Impact of Developmental Disabilities on Teen Driving

5. Recommendations for Developing Evidence-Based Interventions to Promote Safe Driving Among Teens

6. Conclusion

Chapter 24. Older Drivers

1. Introduction

2. Challenges Faced by Older Drivers

3. Summary and Recommendations

Chapter 25. Pedestrians

1. The Nature of the Problem

2. Need for Multifaceted Programs

3. Engineering Elements

4. Educational Elements

5. Enforcement Elements

6. Specific Issues Regarding Pedestrian Safety

7. Summary

Chapter 26. Bicyclists

1. Introduction

2. Bicycles, Cars, and Public Acceptance

3. Bicycling, Infrastructure, and Driver Attention

4. The Minority Status of Bicycling, Stereotypes, and Driver Behavior

5. The Human Nature of Bicyclists

6. Summary

Chapter 27. Motorcyclists

1. Introduction

2. Trends in Motorcycle Use and Safety

3. Characteristics of Crashes

4. Correlates of Crashes

5. Understanding Riding Behavior

6. Conclusion

Chapter 28. Professional Drivers

1. Introduction

2. Truck Drivers

3. Bus Drivers

4. Taxi Drivers

5. Summary

Chapter 29. Driver Education and Training

1. Introduction

2. Education and Training without a Theory

3. Connections between Typical Novice Driver Accidents and the Goals and Contents of Driver Education

4. Basic Driver Licensing Models and Presuppositions Behind Different Models

5. How Effective are Driver Licensing Models in Practice?

6. Goals and Contents of Driver Education: GDE

7. Future of Driver Education and Training

Chapter 30. Persuasion and Motivational Messaging

1. Overview

2. Reviewing Current Research

3. Laying the Foundations

4. Step 1: Understand the need and Audience

5. Step 2: Clarify the Assumptions

6. Step 3: Prepare the Plan

7. Step 4: Build the Content

8. Step 5: Plan, Pilot Test, and Refine

9. Step 6: Implement

10. Step 7: Review, Refine, and Regenerate

11. Conclusion

Chapter 31. Enforcement

1. Introduction

2. The Enforcement System

3. Theoretical Bases for Enforcement

4. The Technology of Enforcement: Live Officers Versus Automation

5. Enforcement Effectiveness in Reducing Risk Behaviors

6. Enforcement Effectiveness in Reducing Crashes and Casualties

7. Challenges for Enforcement Effectiveness

8. Future Considerations for Research

9. Conclusions

Chapter 32. The Intersection of Road Traffic Safety and Public Health

1. Introduction

2. History and Burden of the Traffic Injury Problem

3. A Public Health Perspective

4. Documenting Progress

5. Using Public Health and Traffic Psychology to Improve Traffic Safety

6. Challenges and Opportunities for the Future

7. Conclusions

Chapter 33. Public Policy

1. An Analytic Model of Policy Making

2. Outline of the Potential Contribution of Traffic Psychology to Policy Making

3. The Scope for Improving Road Safety: An Overview and a Discussion of Some Measures

4. Discussion and Summary

Chapter 34. Travel Mode Choice

1. Introduction and some History

2. Impact of Motorized Transport on the Planet

3. Public Values and Attitudes on Car use and Climate Change in the United Kingdom

4. The Costs of Change

5. The Journey Experience

6. Attitudes Toward Car use and the Environment

7. Substituting More Sustainable Modes for Car use

8. Demand-Side Behavior Change

9. Conclusions

Chapter 35. Road Use Behavior in Sub-Saharan Africa

1. Introduction

2. Method

3. Results

4. Summary



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About the Editor

Bryan Porter

Bryan Porter is Professor of Psychology at Old Dominion University in Norfolk, Virginia. His work examines psychology’s role in solving community problems, where he regularly involves government, media, engineering, and law enforcement partners in his work. His research areas include driving safety, public health and safety, and large-scale behavioral interventions. He is Co-Editor-in-Chief of Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour (Elsevier) and editor of Handbook of Traffic Psychology (Elsevier, 2011).


"Overall, I was impressed by the breadth of coverage of Handbook of Traffic Psychology as well as the inclusion and representation of several international sources. Although there are some chapters that are less comprehensive in scope, they all contribute to the overall effort. The editor should be commended for gathering an impressive list of authors who, in my opinion, adequately fulfilled his ambitious goals for the handbook."--PsycCritiques June 27, 2012, Vol. 57, Release 25, Article 8