Handbook of Thin Film Deposition - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780815514428, 9780815517788

Handbook of Thin Film Deposition

1st Edition

Authors: Krishna Seshan Krishna Seshan
Hardcover ISBN: 9780815514428
eBook ISBN: 9780815517788
Imprint: William Andrew
Published Date: 1st February 2001
Page Count: 430
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Description

New second edition of the popular book on deposition (first edition by Klaus Schruegraf) for engineers, technicians, and plant personnel in the semiconductor and related industries. This book traces the technology behind the spectacular growth in the silicon semiconductor industry and the continued trend in miniaturization over the last 20 years. This growth has been fueled in large part by improved thin film deposition techniques and the development of highly specialized equipment to enable this deposition. The book includes much cutting-edge material. Entirely new chapters on contamination and contamination control describe the basics and the issues—as feature sizes shrink to sub-micron dimensions, cleanliness and particle elimination has to keep pace. A new chapter on metrology explains the growth of sophisticated, automatic tools capable of measuring thickness and spacing of sub-micron dimensions. The book also covers PVD, laser and e-beam assisted deposition, MBE, and ion beam methods to bring together all the physical vapor deposition techniques.

Two entirely new areas receive full treatment: chemical mechanical polishing which helps attain the flatness that is required by modern lithography methods, and new materials used for interconnect dielectric materials, specifically organic polyimide materials.

Readership

New second edition of the popular book on deposition (first edition by Klaus Schruegraf) for engineers, technicians, and plant personnel in the semiconductor and related industries.

Table of Contents

Foreword: Gordon Moore
Recent Changes in the Semiconductor Industry
Krishna Seshan
1.0 Cost of Device Fabrication
2.0 Technology Trends, Chip Size, Performance, and Moore's Law
1. Deposition Technologies and Applications: Introduction and Overview
Werner Kern and Klaus K. Schuegraf
1.0 Objective and Scope of this Book
2.0 Importance of Deposition Technology in Modern Fabrication Processes
3.0 Classification of Deposition Technologies
4.0 Overview of Various Thin Film Deposition Technologies
5.0 Criteria for the Selection of a Deposition Technology for Specific Applications
6.0 Summary and Perspective for the Future
2. Silicon Epitaxy by Chemical Vapor Deposition
Martin L. Hammond
1.o Introduction
2.0 Theory of Silicon Epitaxy by CVD
3.0 Silicon Epitaxy Process Chemistry
4.0 Commercial Reactor Geometries
5.0 Theory of Chemical Vapor Deposition
6.0 Process Adjustments
7.0 Equipment Considerations for Silicon Epitaxy
8.0 Other Equipment Considerations
9.0 Defects in Epitaxy Layers
10.0 Safety
11.0 Key Technical Issues
12.0 New Materials Technology for Silicon Epitaxy
13.0 Low Temperature Epitaxy
3. Chemical Vapor Deposition of Silicon Dioxide Films
John Foggiato
1.0 Introduction
2.0 Overview of Atmospheric Pressure CVD
3.0 Plasma Enhanced CVD
4.0 Properties of Dielectric Films
5.0 New Deposition Technologies
6.0 Future Directions for CVD of Dielectric Films
4. Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition
John L. Zitko
1.0 Introduction
2.0 Applications of MOCVD
3.0 Physical and Chemical Properties of Sources Used in MOCVD
4.0 Growth Mechanisms, Conditions, and Chemistry
5.0 System Design and Construction
6.0 Future Developments
5. Feature Scale Modeling
Vivek Singh
1.0 Introduction
2.0 Components of Etch and Deposition Modeling
3.0 Etch Modeling
4.0 Etch Examples
5.0 Deposition Modeling
6.0 Deposition Examples
7.0 Real Life
6. The Role of Metrology and Inspection to Semiconductor Processing
Mark Keefer, Rebecca Pinto, Cheri Dennison, James Turlo
1.0 Overview
2.0 Introduction to Metrology and Inspection
3.0 Metrology and Inspection Trends
4.0 Theory of Operation, Equipment Design Principles, Main Applications, and Strengths and Limitations of Metrology and Inspection Principles
7. Contamination Control, Defect Detection and Yield Enhancement in Gigabit Manufacturing
Suresh Bhat and Krishna Seshan
1.0 Introduction
2.0 Contamination and Defect Goals for ULSI Devices
3.0 Sources of Particles
4.0 Contamination and Defect Detection: Tools of the Trade
5.0 Advanced Techniques for Trace Contamination Monitoring
6.0 Substrate Surface Preparation Techniques
7.0 Challenges to ULSI (Gigabit) Contamination Control
8.0 Process Evolution
9.0 Evolution of Circuit Based Electrical Defect Detection
8. Sputtering and Sputter Deposition
Stephen Rossnagel
1.0 Introduction
2.0 Physical Sputtering Theory
3.0 Plasmas and Sputtering Systems
4.0 Deposition Rates and Efficiencies
5.0 Reactive Sputter Deposition
6.0 Sputtering Systems
9. Laser and Electron Beam Assisted Processing
Cameron A. Moore, Zeng-qi Yu, Lance R. Thompson, George J. Collins
1.0 Introduction
2.0 Beam Assisted CVD of Thin Films
3.0 Submicron Pattern Delineation with Large Area Glow Discharge Pulsed Electron Beams
4.0 Beam Induced Thermal Processes
10. Molecular Beam Epitaxy: Equipment and Practice
Walter S. Knodle and Robert Chow
1.0 The Basic MBE Process
2.0 Competing Deposition Technologies
3.0 MBE Grown Devices
4.0 MBE Deposition Equipment
5.0 Principles of Operation
6.0 Recent Advances
7.0 Future Developments
11. Ion Beam Deposition
John R. McNeil, James J. McNally, Paul D. Reader
1.0 Introduction
2.0 Overview of Ion Beam Applications
3.0 Ion Beam Probing
4.0 Substrate Cleaning with Ion Beams
5.0 Applications
12. Chemical Mechanical Polishing
Kenneth C. Cadien
1.0 Introduction
2.0 Processing
3.0 Polish Equipment
4.0 History
5.0 Innovations
6.0 Automation
7.0 Wafer/Pad Relative Motion
8.0 Future Challenges
13. Organic Dielectrics in Multilevel Metallization of Integrated Circuits
Krishna Seshan, Dominic J. schepis, Laura B. Rothman
1.0 General Introduction
2.0 Historical Perspective
3.0 Fundamental Chemistry of Organic Dielectrics
4.0 Processing of Polymer Films
5.0 Process Integration with Organic Dielectrics
6.0 Reliability
7.0 Performance Advantages of Organic Dielectrics
14. Performance, Processing, and Lithography Trends
Krishna Seshan
1.0 Introduction
2.0 Scaling the Transistor
3.0 Low Resistance: Change to Copper-Based Metallurgy
4.0 Trend to Low K Materials
5.0 Lithography and Planarization
6.0 Challenges to Contamination and Cleaning
7.0 Summary
Index

Details

No. of pages:
430
Language:
English
Copyright:
© William Andrew 2001
Published:
Imprint:
William Andrew
Hardcover ISBN:
9780815514428
eBook ISBN:
9780815517788

About the Author

Krishna Seshan

Affiliations and Expertise

was formerly Assistant Professor in Materials Science at the University of Arizona and has extensive professional experience as a technologist with both the IBM and Intel Corporations.

Krishna Seshan

Affiliations and Expertise

was formerly Assistant Professor in Materials Science at the University of Arizona and has extensive professional experience as a technologist with both the IBM and Intel Corporations.