Handbook of The Biology of Aging - 3rd Edition - ISBN: 9780126278705, 9780323162142

Handbook of The Biology of Aging

3rd Edition

Editors: Edward Schneider
eBook ISBN: 9780323162142
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th December 1989
Page Count: 508
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Description

Handbook of the Biology of Aging, Third Edition presents the methodology for biological aging studies. This book discusses the three main sources of influence on aging, namely, the biological, the psychological, and the social.

Organized into six parts encompassing 19 chapters, this edition begins with an overview of the pathophysiology of the processes that lead to the array of age-dependent conditions. This text then examines the clinical studies on aging, with emphasis on study design, subject selection and characterization, and the clinical relevance of the aging changes studied. Other chapters consider various topics related to aging, including circadian rhythms, protein modifications with aging, special senses, and the adrenocortical axis. This book discusses as well the study of immune dysfunction in the aged organism. The final chapter deals with odor deficits as well as subtle taste changes associated with aging.

This book is a valuable resource for scientists, gerontologists, graduate students, and professionals.

Table of Contents


Contributors

Foreword

Preface

Part One Introduction to Aging

1. Demography and Epidemiology of Aging in the United States

I. Introduction

II. Population Characteristics

III. Mortality

IV. Morbidity and Disability

V. Conclusions

References

2. Aging in Protozoa

I. Background

II. Evolution of Longevity and Ciliates

III. Clonal Aging in Ciliates

IV. Nucleocytoplasmic Interactions

V. Cell Cycle Determination

VI. Molecular Biology of Ciliate Nuclear Differentiation

VII. Relation of DNA and RNA Processing to Aging

VIII. Environmental Alteration of Longevity

IX. Conclusions

References

3. Caenorhabditis elegans Offers the Potential for Molecular Dissection of the Aging Processes

I. Introduction

II. Advantages for Aging

III. General Biology of Caenorhabditis elegans

IV. Age-Specific Changes: Biomarkers of Aging?

V. The Genetic Approach to the Study of Aging

VI. Summary and a Speculation

References

Part Two Methodology for Biological Aging Studies

4. Design, Conduct, and Analysis of Human Aging Research

I. Introduction

II. Methodological Issues in Clinical Studies

III. Methodological Issues in Studies with Human Tissues

IV. Conclusions

References

5. Animal Models in Aging Research

I. Introduction

II. Criteria for Use of Mammalian Models for Aging Research

III. Rodents

IV. Carnivores

V. Nonhuman Primates

VI. Summary

References

Part Three Molecular and Cellular Aging

6. Alterations in Gene Expression with Aging

I. Transcription and Aging

II. Protein Synthesis and Degradation

III. Conclusions

References

7. Modifications of Proteins and Nucleic Acids by Reducing Sugars: Possible Role in Aging

I. Introduction

II. Hemoglobin

III. Lens Crystallins

IV. Collagen

V. Chemistry

VI. Inhibition

VII. Receptors

VIII. DNA

IX. Discussion

References

8. Aging at the Cellular Level: The Human Fibroblastlike Cell Model

I. Introduction

II. Growth Potential of Vertebrate Cells in Vitro

III. Relevance to in Vivo Aging

IV. The Phenotype of the Senescent Cell

V. Hypotheses of in Vitro Cellular Aging

VI. Concluding Remarks

References

Part Four Physiology of Aging

9. Aging and the Immune Response

I. Introduction

II. Lymphocyte Subpopulations

III. T-Lymphocyte Function

IV. T-Cell Activation Defects

V. Β Lymphocytes

VI. Antigen-Presenting Cells

VII. Natural Cytotoxic Cells

VIII. Lymphopoiesis

IX. Autoreactivity

X. Regional Immunity

XI. Intervention

XII. Immune Function and Disease

References

10. Heart and Circulation

I. Introduction

II. Interaction of Disease, Life-style, and Aging

III. The Effect of Adult Age on Cardiovascular Performance

IV. Summary

References

Part Five Neurobiology

11. Age-Related Changes in Synaptic Neurochemistry

I. Sources for This Review

II. General Comments on the Neurochemistry of Aging

III. Summaries of the Age-Related Changes in Specific Neurotransmitter Systems

IV. Concluding Comments

References

12. Synaptic Plasticity, Neurotrophic Factors, and Transplantation in the Aged Brain

I. Introduction

II. Axon Sprouting and Reactive Synaptogenesis

III. Neural Grafting (Transplantation) to Replace Lost Neurons

IV. Growth Factors (Neurotrophic Factors) Are Involved in the Natural Healing Processes of the Brain

V. Conclusions

References

13. Circadian Rhythms and Aging

I. Introduction

II. Circadian Clocks in Mammalian Systems

III. Effects of Age on the Circadian Clock

IV. Significance

V. Summary and Conclusions

References

14. Central Nervous System Disorders in Aging

I. Introduction

II. Syndromes

III. Specific Diseases

IV. Summary

References

15. The Adrenocortical Axis

I. Introduction

II. The Adrenocortical Axis in the Aging Rat: Likely But Not Obligatory Dysfunction

III. Marsupial Mice: Elevated Glucocorticoid Exposure as a Mechanism for Programmed Aging

IV. Human Aging: The Potential for Adrenocortical Dysfunction

References

Part Six Human Biology

16. Pharmacology and Aging

I Introduction

II. General Aspects of Drug Use in the Elderly

III. Effects of Age on Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics

IV. Effects of Age on Pharmacodynamics

V. Conclusion

References

17. Nutrition and Aging

I. Introduction

II. Animal Models

III. Nutritional Status of the Elderly

IV. Nutrient Requirements in Aging

V. Drug-Nutrient Interaction

References

18. Physical Exercise in the Elderly

I. Introduction

II. Principles of Exercise Physiology

III. Influence of Physical Exercise on Specific Physiologic Systems

IV. Summary and Conclusions

References

19. Chemical Senses and Aging

I. Introduction

II. Anatomy and Physiology

III. Neural Regeneration after Injury

IV. Taste and Smell Localization Is Illusory

V. Differences between Taste and Smell

VI. Taste and Aging

VII. Smell and Aging

VIII. Effects of Disease and Pathology on Olfaction

IX. Summary

References

Author Index

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
508
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1990
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323162142

About the Editor

Edward Schneider