Handbook of Terahertz Technology for Imaging, Sensing and Communications - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780857092359, 9780857096494

Handbook of Terahertz Technology for Imaging, Sensing and Communications

1st Edition

eBook ISBN: 9780857096494
Hardcover ISBN: 9780857092359
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 16th January 2013
Page Count: 688
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Table of Contents

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Woodhead Publishing Series in Electronic and Optical Materials


Part I: Fundamentals of terahertz technology for imaging, sensing and communications

Chapter 1: Optoelectronic techniques for the generation and detection of terahertz waves


1.1 Introduction

1.2 Terahertz detector technologies

1.3 Terahertz signal generation in terahertz photoconductive antennas (THz-PCAs)

1.4 Terahertz signal detection with terahertz photoconductive antennas (THz-PCAs)

1.5 Parametric interaction in nonlinear crystals

1.6 Difference frequency mixing in nonlinear crystals

1.7 Conclusion

Chapter 2: Transmission and propagation of terahertz waves in plastic waveguides


2.1 Introduction

2.2 Main challenges of the plastic-based terahertz fiber optics

2.3 Devices based on subwavelength fibers

2.4 Hollow-core fibers

2.5 Composite terahertz materials

2.6 Experimental characterization of terahertz waveguides

2.7 Conclusions

2.8 Acknowledgments

Chapter 3: Fundamental aspects of surface plasmon polaritons at terahertz frequencies


3.1 Introduction

3.2 The Drude model

3.3 Surface plasmon polaritons on planar surfaces

3.4 Multilayered structures

3.5 New trends in terahertz plasmonics

3.6 Acknowledgments

Chapter 4: Fundamental aspects of terahertz near-field imaging and sensing


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Terahertz near-field measurements

4.3 Near-fields of various subwavelength holes

4.4 Kirchhoff formalism for near-field estimate

4.5 Conclusions

Chapter 5: Field effect transistors for terahertz applications


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Plasma waves in low-dimensional structures

5.3 Instability of the steady state with a dc current in field effect transistors (FETs)

5.4 Detection of terahertz radiation by an FET

5.5 Studies of terahertz emission from FETs

5.6 Experimental studies of terahertz detection by FETs

5.7 Conclusions

5.8 Acknowledgements

Chapter 6: Terahertz wireless communications


6.1 Introduction

6.2 Motivation for terahertz wireless communications

6.3 Atmospheric propagation for communications

6.4 Modeling of terahertz communication channels

6.5 Hardware for terahertz communications: sources and detectors

6.6 Modulators for terahertz waves

6.7 Modulation formats for terahertz signals

6.8 Examples of terahertz communication systems

6.9 Experimental characterization of rain, fog and scintillations on terahertz communication links

6.10 Future trends

6.11 Sources of further information

6.12 Acknowledgments

Part II: Recent progress and novel techniques in terahertz technology

Chapter 7: Terahertz bio-sensing techniques


7.1 Introduction

7.2 Sensing of water dynamics by terahertz waves

7.3 Sensing of proteins

7.4 Binding-state dependent sensing

7.5 Characteristic resonances of biomolecules in the terahertz range

7.6 Water-mediated terahertz molecular imaging

7.7 Conclusion

7.8 Acknowledgements

Chapter 8: Terahertz array imagers: towards the implementation of terahertz cameras with plasma-wave-based silicon MOSFET detectors


8.1 Introduction

8.2 Resistive mixing – a quasi-static analysis

8.3 Plasmonic mixing – a hydrodynamic analysis

8.4 Technology, design and implementation of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) field effect transistors as terahertz detectors

8.5 Characterization and optimization of field effect transistor (FET) detectors

8.5.6 Results for MOSFET THz detectors

8.6 Developments towards a terahertz camera

8.7 Overview of other focal-plane technologies for terahertz imaging

8.8 Acknowledgements

Chapter 9: Resonant field enhancement of terahertz waves in subwavelength plasmonic structures


9.1 Introduction

9.2 Fundamentals of surface plasmon polaritons at terahertz frequencies

9.3 Extraordinary transmission of terahertz waves through metallic hole arrays

9.4 Active control of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons

9.5 Conclusion

Chapter 10: Fiber-coupled terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) systems


10.1 Introduction

10.2 Fiber guiding

10.3 Experimental layout and system characterization

10.4 Measurement results of fiber-based terahertz systems

10.5 Comparison of THz-TDS with other systems and techniques

10.6 Future trends and conclusions

Chapter 11: State-of-the-art in terahertz continuous-wave photomixer systems


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Continuous-wave emitter and detector technologies

11.3 Coherent signal detection

11.4 Laser sources

11.5 Selected applications of photomixing continuous-wave terahertz systems

11.6 Conclusion

11.7 Acknowledgements

Chapter 12: Novel techniques in terahertz near-field imaging and sensing


12.1 Introduction

12.2 State-of-the-art terahertz near-field approaches

12.3 Novel micro-machined terahertz near-field probe-tips

12.4 Analysis of nanophotonic second-order nonlinear-optic waveguides with terahertz near-field probing

12.5 Failure analysis in integrated electronic structures based on terahertz time-domain reflectometry

12.6 High-resolution imaging of free-carrier concentrations for photovoltaic material inspection

12.7 Conclusion and future trends

Chapter 13: Terahertz nano-devices and nano-systems


13.1 Introduction

13.2 Nanoscale terahertz detector

13.3 Near-field terahertz imager

13.4 Conclusion

13.5 Acknowledgments

Chapter 14: Terahertz integrated devices and systems


14.1 Integrated terahertz biosensor chip

14.2 Terahertz oscillators integrated with patch antennas

14.3 Results and discussion of fabricated resonant tunneling diodes

Chapter 15: Terahertz frequency metrology based on frequency comb techniques


15.1 Introduction

15.2 Coherent frequency linking with a frequency comb

15.3 Terahertz-comb-referenced spectrum analyzer

15.4 Optical-comb-referenced terahertz synthesizer

15.5 Terahertz-comb-referenced spectrometer

15.6 Conclusions and future trends

Chapter 16: Semiconductor material development for terahertz applications


16.1 Introduction

16.2 Generation and detection of broadband pulsed terahertz radiation

16.3 Generation of continuous wave terahertz radiation using photomixing

16.4 Photoconductive semiconductor materials

16.5 Conclusions

16.6. Acknowledgements

Part III: Applications of terahertz technology

Chapter 17: Terahertz applications in tomographic imaging and material spectroscopy: a review


17.1 Introduction

17.2 Tomographic imaging applications

17.3 Quantitative analysis of powdered chemicals

17.4 Conclusion

Chapter 18: Terahertz applications in the aerospace industry


18.1 Introduction

18.2 Non-destructive evaluation of aircraft composites using transmissive terahertz time domain spectroscopy

18.3 Non-destructive evaluation of aircraft composites using reflective terahertz time domain spectroscopy

18.4 Continuous-wave non-destructive terahertz imaging for aerospace applications

18.5 Comparison of non-destructive imaging for glass fiber reinforced plastics

18.6 Conclusion

Chapter 19: Terahertz applications in the wood products industry


19.1 Introduction

19.2 Applications of terahertz technology in the wood products industry

19.3 Wood structure and morphology

19.4 Far infrared properties of wood

19.5 Probing wood characteristics at terahertz frequencies

19.6 Terahertz sensing in the oriented strand board industry

19.7 Future trends

Chapter 20: Terahertz applications in the pharmaceutical industry


20.1 Introduction

20.2 Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) spectroscopy set-up and analysis

20.3 Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS): identification, quantification and analysis

20.4 Terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI): imaging set-up and analysis

20.5 Terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI): process monitoring, spectroscopic imaging and chemical mapping

20.6 Conclusions and future trends

20.7 Acknowledgement

Chapter 21: Terahertz applications in art conservation


21.1 Introduction

21.2 Material analysis using terahertz waves

21.3 Observation of the internal structure of artworks using terahertz waves

21.4 Prospective development of terahertz technology as a tool for heritage science

Chapter 22: Applications of terahertz technology in the semiconductor industry


22.1 Introduction

22.2 Characterizations of electro-optical terahertz pulse reflectometry (EOTPR)

22.3 Examples of failure analysis using electro-optical terahertz pulse reflectometry (EOTPR)

22.4 Conclusions and future trends



The recent development of easy-to-use sources and detectors of terahertz radiation has enabled growth in applications of terahertz (Thz) imaging and sensing. This vastly adaptable technology offers great potential across a wide range of areas, and the Handbook of terahertz technology for imaging, sensing and communications explores the fundamental principles, important developments and key applications emerging in this exciting field.

Part one provides an authoritative introduction to the fundamentals of terahertz technology for imaging, sensing and communications. The generation, detection and emission of waves are discussed alongside fundamental aspects of surface plasmon polaritons, terahertz near-field imaging and sensing, room temperature terahertz detectors and terahertz wireless communications. Part two goes on to discuss recent progress and such novel techniques in terahertz technology as terahertz bio-sensing, array imagers, and resonant field enhancement of terahertz waves. Fiber-coupled time-domain spectroscopy systems (THz-TDS), terahertz photomixer systems, terahertz nanotechnology, frequency metrology and semiconductor material development for terahertz applications are all reviewed. Finally, applications of terahertz technology are explored in part three, including applications in tomographic imaging and material spectroscopy, art conservation, and the aerospace, wood products, semiconductor and pharmaceutical industries.

With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, the Handbook of terahertz technology for imaging, sensing and communications is an authoritative guide to the field for laser engineers, manufacturers of sensing devices and imaging equipment, security companies, the military, professionals working in process monitoring, and academics interested in this field.

Key Features

  • Examines techniques for the generation and detection of terahertz waves
  • Discusses material development for terahertz applications
  • Explores applications in tomographic imaging, art conservation and the pharmaceutical and aerospace industries


Laser engineers; Manufacturers of sensing devices and imaging equipment, security companies, the military; Professionals working in process monitoring and academics


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