Handbook of Spent Hydroprocessing Catalysts

Handbook of Spent Hydroprocessing Catalysts

Regeneration, Rejuvenation, Reclamation, Environment and Safety

2nd Edition - January 18, 2017

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  • Authors: Meena Marafi, Anthony Stanislaus, Edward Furimsky
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444638854
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780444638816

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Handbook of Spent Hydroprocessing Catalysts, Second Edition, covers all aspects of spent hydroprocessing catalysts, both regenerable and non-regenerable. It contains detailed information on hazardous characteristics of spent and regenerated catalysts. The information forms a basis for determining processing options to make decisions on whether spent catalysts can be either reused on refinery site after regeneration or used as the source of new materials. For non-regenerable spent catalysts, attention is paid to safety and ecological implications of utilizing landfill and other waste handling and storage options to ensure environmental acceptance. As such, this handbook can be used as a benchmark document to develop threshold limits of regulated species.

Key Features

  • Includes experimental results and testing protocols which serve as a basis for the development of methodologies for the characterization of solid wastes
  • Presents a database which assists researchers in selecting/designing research projects on spent catalysts, i.e., regeneration vs. rejuvenation and metal reclamation
  • Provides the environmental laws, acts, and liabilities to raise awareness in safety and health issues in all aspects of spent catalysts
  • Contains solid waste management procedures specific to hydroprocessing that serve as a model for designing research projects in other solid waste areas


Chemists and chemical engineers in catalysis as well as to catalyst regenerators, catalyst manufacturers, metal reclaiming companies as well as governments and agencies involved in regulatory affairs. For decision makers, the Handbook serves as guidance with respect to developing new and improving existing strategic options for the refining industry

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1. Introduction

    Chapter 2. Developments in Petroleum Refining

    • 2.1. Conventional Refinery
    • 2.2. Revamped Conventional Refinery
    • 2.3. Advanced Refineries
    • 2.4. Environmental, Safety, and Health Aspects of Petroleum Refining

    Chapter 3. Hydroprocessing Technology

    • 3.1. Feeds for Hydroprocessing
    • 3.2. Hydroprocessing Reactions
    • 3.3. Conventional Hydroprocessing Catalysts
    • 3.4. Hydroprocessing Reactors and Processes

    Chapter 4. Catalyst Deactivation

    • 4.1. Deactivation Due to Structural Change of Catalyst
    • 4.2. Deactivation During Hydroprocessing of Distillate Feeds
    • 4.3. Deactivation During Hydroprocessing of Heavy Feeds
    • 4.4. Effect of Temperature and Hydrogen Pressure
    • 4.5. Effect of Mechanical Properties of Catalyst
    • 4.6. Mechanism of Catalyst Deactivation
    • 4.7. Kinetics of Catalyst Deactivation
    • 4.8. Modeling of Deactivation

    Chapter 5. Regeneration

    • 5.1. Regenerability of Spent Catalysts
    • 5.2. Oxidative Regeneration
    • 5.3. Other Regeneration Methods
    • 5.4. Economic Aspects of Regeneration
    • 5.5. Industrial Regeneration
    • 5.6. Commercial Regeneration Processes
    • 5.7. Comparison of Regeneration Processes

    Chapter 6. Rejuvenation

    • 6.1. Organic Agents
    • 6.2. Inorganic Agents
    • 6.3. Solvent Extraction
    • 6.4. Hydrothermal Removal of Coke
    • 6.5. Biorejuvenation
    • 6.6. Nonleaching Methods for Contaminant Metal Removal

    Chapter 7. Cascading

    • 7.1. Cascading of Spent Catalyst
    • 7.2. Cascading of Regenerated Catalysts
    • 7.3. Cascading of Rejuvenated Catalysts

    Chapter 8. New Catalysts From Spent Catalysts

    • 8.1. Petroleum Applications

    Chapter 9. Environmental Applications of Spent Hydroprocessing Catalysts

    • 9.1. Gas Treatment Applications
    • 9.2. Wastewater Treatment Agents

    Chapter 10. Valuable Materials From Spent Hydroprocessing Catalysts

    • 10.1. Utilization in the Cement Industry
    • 10.2. Abrasives and Alloys
    • 10.3. Ceramic Materials
    • 10.4. Synthetic Aggregates
    • 10.5. Brick Production

    Chapter 11. Metal Reclamation From Spent Hydroprocessing Catalysts

    • 11.1. Leaching Studies on Metal Recovery
    • 11.2. Roasting With Alkali Compounds
    • 11.3. Comparison of Leaching and Roasting Methods
    • 11.4. Chlorination
    • 11.5. Metal Recovery by Carbothermic Reduction
    • 11.6. Metal Recovery Using Electrolytic Cells
    • 11.7. Metal Recovery by Applying Thermal Plasma
    • 11.8. Summary of Laboratory Studies
    • 11.9. Separation of Metals From Leach Solution
    • 11.10. Commercial Processes

    Chapter 12. Spent Unconventional Hydroprocessing Catalysts

    • 12.1. Bifunctional Catalysts
    • 12.2. Other Noble Metal-Supported Catalysts
    • 12.3. Regeneration of Unconventional Catalysts
    • 12.4. Metal Reclamation

    Chapter 13. Environmental and Safety Aspects of Spent Hydroprocessing Catalysts

    • 13.1. Regulatory Affairs
    • 13.2. Hazardous Characteristics of Spent Hydroprocessing Catalysts
    • 13.3. Pretreatment of Spent Catalysts for Disposal
    • 13.4. Environmental and Safety Aspects of Spent Unconventional Hydroprocessing Catalysts

    Chapter 14. Markets and Price Trends for Metals in Spent Hydroprocessing Catalysts

    • 14.1. Conventional Metals
    • 14.2. Platinum Group Metals

    Chapter 15. Future Perspectives

Product details

  • No. of pages: 468
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2017
  • Published: January 18, 2017
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444638854
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780444638816

About the Authors

Meena Marafi

Dr. Marafi received her Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from Aston University/England. Her areas of specialization include: petroleum refining/processes and catalysis, catalyst deactivation, regeneration, rejuvenation and recycling, crude oil assay, petroleum characterization and catalyst development. Dr. Marafi has over 88 publications, including, 2 books, 25 papers published in refereed journals, 25 papers presented in international/local conferences, and 36 reports (technical reports/final reports/progress reports related to projects carried out). Lead 14 contractual projects in the area of petroleum refining and catalysis.

Affiliations and Expertise

Petroleum Refining Department, Petroleum Research and Studies Center, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat, Kuwait

Anthony Stanislaus

Dr. Stanislaus has over 30 years of research experience in catalysts and processes related to petroleum refining. His research experience includes: upgrading of petroleum residues by catalytic hydroprocessing, deep desulfurization and aromatics hydrogenation of diesel blending streams (clean fuels production), naphtha catalytic reforming for octane improvement, kinetics of hydrotreating reactions, catalyst deactivation and regeneration, spent catalyst reactivation and utilization, catalyst development, characterization, and performance testing. He has published over 100 scientific papers in International Journals and books.

Affiliations and Expertise

Petroleum Refining Department, Petroleum Research and Studies Center, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat, Kuwait

Edward Furimsky

Dr. Furimsky has some forty years of research in the conversion of petroleum, coal and natural gas to various commercial products. The studies on upgrading petroleum feeds included hydrodesulfurization, hydrodenitrogenation, hydrodeoxygenation, catalyst deactivation and regeneration. The environmental and safety aspects as well as utilization options for spent refinery catalysts were part of the research as well. Scientific productivity includes two books, several book chapters and a dozen of reviews on various aspects of hydroprocessing catalysis, petroleum refining and utilization of refinery residues. Some 130 articles appeared in the referred scientific journals.

Affiliations and Expertise

Research Scientific, IMAF Group, Canada

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