Handbook of Solid State Diffusion: Volume 2

Handbook of Solid State Diffusion: Volume 2

Diffusion Analysis in Material Applications

1st Edition - April 10, 2017

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  • Editors: Aloke Paul, Sergiy Divinski
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128045480
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128045787

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Handbook of Solid State Diffusion, Volume 2: Diffusion Analysis in Material Applications covers the basic fundamentals, techniques, applications, and latest developments in the area of solid-state diffusion, offering a pedagogical understanding for students, academicians, and development engineers. Both experimental techniques and computational methods find equal importance in the second of this two volume set. Volume 2 covers practical issues on diffusion phenomena in bulk, thin film, and in nanomaterials. Diffusion related problems and analysis of methods in industrial applications, such as electronic industry, high temperature materials, nuclear materials, and superconductor materials are discussed.

Key Features

  • Presents a handbook with a short mathematical background and detailed examples of concrete applications of the sophisticated methods of analysis
  • Enables readers to learn the basic concepts of experimental approaches and the computational methods involved in solid-state diffusion
  • Covers bulk, thin film, and nanomaterials
  • Introduces the problems and analysis in important materials systems in various applications
  • Collates contributions from academic and industrial problems from leading scientists involved in developing key concepts across the globe


Students, academicians, researchers dealing with solid-state diffusion. Scientists and professionals involved in materials for various applications and for the development of new materials

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1: Diffusion Measurements in Nanostructures

    • Abstract
    • 1.1. Analytical Solutions
    • 1.2. Simulations
    • 1.3. Atom Probe Tomography
    • 1.4. Atomic Transport Kinetic Measurements
    • Conclusion
    • References

    Chapter 2: Diffusion-Controlled Phase Transformations in Open Systems

    • Abstract
    • 2.1. General Review of Flux-Driven Transformations
    • 2.2. Standard Model of the Simultaneous, Diffusion-Controlled Phase Layers Growth in the Diffusion Couple
    • 2.3. Flux-Driven Ripening of Cu6Sn5 Scallops During Reaction of Cu Substrate With Liquid Tin-Based Solder
    • 2.4. Flux-Driven Lamellar Precipitation of Cu6Sn5 into Porous Cu3Sn Structure
    • 2.5. Flux-Driven Nucleation During Reactive Diffusion
    • 2.6. Summary
    • References

    Chapter 3: Thermodynamic-Kinetic Method on Microstructural Evolutions in Electronics

    • Abstract
    • 3.1. Introduction
    • 3.2. Thermodynamic Evaluation of Phase Equilibria
    • 3.3. Kinetic Considerations
    • 3.4. Thermodynamic-Kinetic Method
    • 3.5. Utilization of the T-K Method in Microsystems Technology
    • Conclusions
    • References

    Chapter 4: Microstructural Evolution by Reaction–Diffusion: Bulk, Thin Film, and Nanomaterials

    • Abstract
    • 4.1. Mathematical Formulations for Estimation of the Diffusion Coefficients Utilizing Physicochemical Model
    • 4.2. Estimation of the Diffusion Parameters Following Physicochemical Approach
    • 4.3. Evolution of Microstructure Depending on the Location of Kirkendall Marker Plane
    • 4.4. A Few Examples of Morphological Evolutions and Indications of Diffusion Rates of Components
    • References

    Chapter 5: Electromigration in Metallic Materials and Its Role in Whiskering

    • Abstract
    • Acknowledgements
    • 5.1. Introduction to Electromigration
    • 5.2. Introduction to Whiskering in Tin Coatings
    • 5.3. Role of Electromigration in Whiskering
    • 5.4. Summary
    • References

    Chapter 6: Diffusion Couple Technique: A Research Tool in Materials Science

    • Abstract
    • 6.1. Introduction
    • 6.2. Basic Experimental Procedures Used in Diffusion Couple Method
    • 6.3. Derivation of Kinetic Data From Diffusion Couple Experiments
    • 6.4. The Diffusion Couple Technique in Phase Diagram Determination – Revisited
    • 6.5. A Diffusion Couple Approach in Studying Composition–Structure–Property Relationships in Solid Solution Alloy Systems
    • References

    Chapter 7: Diffusion-Controlled Internal Precipitation Reactions

    • Abstract
    • 7.1. Introduction
    • 7.2. Basic Experimental Procedures Used in Research on Solid-State Internal Reactions
    • 7.3. Diversity of Forms and Variations of Microstructures Generated by Internal Precipitation Reactions – Selected Experimental Results
    • 7.4. Thermodynamic-Diffusion Kinetics Approach in Evaluating Internal Solid-State Reactions
    • 7.5. Kinetic Analysis of the Internal Precipitation Reactions in Binary Alloys
    • 7.6. Internal Precipitation Reactions as a “Research Tool” for Evaluating Interstitial Transport in Metals
    • 7.7. Deformation Phenomena Accompanying Internal Precipitation Reactions in Metals
    • 7.8. Concluding Remarks
    • References

    Chapter 8: Diffusion in Nuclear Materials

    • Abstract
    • 8.1. Diffusion in Nuclear Fuels
    • 8.2. Diffusion in Clad Materials
    • 8.3. Diffusion in Structural Materials
    • References

    Chapter 9: The Growth of Silicides and Germanides

    • Abstract
    • Acknowledgements
    • 9.1. Introduction
    • 9.2. Experimental Procedure
    • 9.3. Growth of Silicides: Bulk Diffusion Couple Versus Thin Film
    • 9.4. Mechanisms of Formation of Ni Silicides and Germanides
    • 9.5. Alloy Elements
    • 9.6. Dopant and Silicide
    • 9.7. Formation of Silicide in Transistors
    • 9.8. Conclusion
    • References

Product details

  • No. of pages: 476
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2017
  • Published: April 10, 2017
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128045480
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128045787

About the Editors

Aloke Paul

Professor Aloke Paul heads a research group working on various aspects of diffusion in solids in the Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, India. Major research areas include developing new phenomenological models, materials in electronic packaging, bond coat in jet engine applications, the growth of A15 intermetallic superconductors etc. He teaches a postgraduate level course on Diffusion in solids. He has guided several Ph.D. and M.E. students and co-authored around 100 articles in various international journals. During his Ph.D. at the Eindhoven University of Technology, he was part of one of the most important discoveries of recent times on previously unknown phenomena related to the Kirkendall effect. After joining the Indian Institute of Science, his group developed new methods for estimation of the diffusion coefficients such as a physicochemical approach that relates microstructural evolution with the rate of diffusing components and a pseudo-binary method in multicomponent diffusion. These are included in course curriculum in many universities and also included in the books written on this topic. He has co-authored a textbook titled Thermodynamics, Diffusion and the Kirkendall effect in Solids.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science

Sergiy Divinski

Professor Dr. Sergiy Divinski leads the radiotracer laboratory at the Institute of Materials Physics, University of Münster, Germany. The research activities are concentrated on kinetic and thermodynamic properties of interfaces in solids, including intergranular and interphase boundaries. Other major interests include diffusion phenomena in intermetallic compounds, effects of ordering on diffusion kinetic and diffusion mechanisms, interfaces in severely deformed materials. He teaches graduate and postgraduate courses on Diffusion in Solids, Numerical methods in Material Science and different aspects of Materials Science. He has co-authored more than 150 articles in various international journals, several book chapters in the field of Diffusion in Solids and a textbook titled Thermodynamics, Diffusion and the Kirkendall effect in Solids.

Affiliations and Expertise

Institute of Materials Physics, University of Münster, Germany

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