Table of Contents

Part 1: Introduction and Overview 1. Overview and Evolution of Silicon Wafer Cleaning Technology 2. Overview of Wafer Contamination and Defectivity Part 2: Wet-Chemical Processes 3. Particle Deposition and Adhesion 4. Aqueous Cleaning and Surface Conditioning Processes Part 3: Dry Cleaning Processes 5. Gas-phase Wafer Cleaning Technology 6. Plasma Stripping and Cleaning 7. Cryogenic Aerosols and Supercritical Fluid Cleaning Part 4: Analytical and Control Aspects 8. Detection and Measurement of Particulate Contaminants 9. Surface Chemical Composition and Morphology 10. Ultratrace Impurity and Surface Morphology Analysis 11. Analysis and Control of Electrically Active Contaminants Part 5: Directions for the Near Future


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© 2008
William Andrew
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About the editors

Karen Reinhardt

Karen A. Reinhardt is Principle Consultant at Cameo Consulting in San Jose, California. At Cameo Consulting she assists companies investigating and assessing new and unique cleaning technologies that will allow realization of the ITRS roadmap with respect to smaller geometries, new materials, and the environmental issues associated with current cleaning processes. Karen has published over 30 technical papers ranging from plasma processing to damage characterization and cleaning technology assessment. She has been awarded eight patents. Karen formerly co-chaired the ITRS Surface Preparation Technical Working Group. Prior to forming a contracting and consulting company, Karen was employed at Novellus Systems and Advanced Micro Devices. Karen has a BS degree in Chemistry from the University of California at Riverside and a MS degree in Inorganic Chemistry from Texas Tech University.

Affiliations and Expertise

Cameo Consulting, San Jose, California, U.S.A

Werner Kern

Affiliations and Expertise

Lam Research, San Diego, California