Handbook of Silicon Based MEMS Materials and Technologies

Handbook of Silicon Based MEMS Materials and Technologies

1st Edition - April 1, 2000

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  • Editors: Markku Tilli, Mervi Paulasto-Krockel, Teruaki Motooka, Veikko Lindroos, Veli-Matti Airaksinen, Sami Franssila, Ari Lehto, Teruaki Motooka
  • eBook ISBN: 9780815519881

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Description

A comprehensive guide to MEMS materials, technologies and manufacturing, examining the state of the art with a particular emphasis on current and future applications. Key topics covered include: Silicon as MEMS material Material properties and measurement techniques Analytical methods used in materials characterization Modeling in MEMS Measuring MEMS Micromachining technologies in MEMS Encapsulation of MEMS components Emerging process technologies, including ALD and porous silicon Written by 73 world class MEMS contributors from around the globe, this volume covers materials selection as well as the most important process steps in bulk micromachining, fulfilling the needs of device design engineers and process or development engineers working in manufacturing processes. It also provides a comprehensive reference for the industrial R&D and academic communities. Veikko Lindroos is Professor of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science at Helsinki University of Technology, Finland. Markku Tilli is Senior Vice President of Research at Okmetic, Vantaa, Finland. Ari Lehto is Professor of Silicon Technology at Helsinki University of Technology, Finland. Teruaki Motooka is Professor at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu University, Japan.

Key Features

  • Provides vital packaging technologies and process knowledge for silicon direct bonding, anodic bonding, glass frit bonding, and related techniques
  • Shows how to protect devices from the environment and decrease package size for dramatic reduction of packaging costs
  • Discusses properties, preparation, and growth of silicon crystals and wafers
  • Explains the many properties (mechanical, electrostatic, optical, etc), manufacturing, processing, measuring (incl. focused beam techniques), and multiscale modeling methods of MEMS structures

Readership

Engineers, researchers and scientists in sensor manufacturing

Table of Contents

  • PART I: Silicon as MEMS Material
    Edited by Markku Tilli
    1. Properties of silicon
    2. CZ Growth of silicon crystals
    3. Properties of silicon crystals
    4. Oxygen in Silicon
    5. Silicon wafers; preparation and properties
    6. Epi wafers; preparation and properties
    7. Thick-Film SOI wafers; preparation and properties
    8. Silicon dioxides

    PART II: Modeling in MEMS
    Edited by Teruaki Motooka and Risto Nieminen
    9. Multiscale modeling methods
    10. Manufacture and processing of MEMS structures
    11. Mechanical properties of silicon microstructures
    12. Electrostatic and RF properties of MEMS structures
    13. Optical Modelling of MEMS
    14. Gas Damping in Vibrating MEMS structures

    PART III: Measuring MEMS
    Edited by Veli-Matti Airaksinen
    15. Introduction to Measuring MEMS
    16. Silicon wafer and thin film measurements
    17. Optical measurement of static and dynamic displacement
    18. MEMS residual stress characterization, methodology and perspective
    19. Strength of bonded interfaces
    20. Focused ion and electron beam techniques
    21.Oxygen and Bulk Microdefects in Silicon

    PART IV: Micromachining Technologies in MEMS
    Edited by Helmut Seidel
    22. MEMS litography
    23. Deep reactive ion etching (DRIE)
    24. Wet etching of silicon
    25. Porous silicon based MEMS
    26. Atomic layer deposition in MEMS technology
    27. Metallic glass
    29. Surface micromachining
    29. Silicon based bioMEMS micromachining technologies

    PART V: Encapsulation of MEMS Components
    Edited by Heikki Kuisma and Ari Lehto
    30. Introduction to encapsulation of MEMS devices
    31. Silicon direct bonding
    32. Anodic bonding
    33. Glass frit bonding
    34. Metallic alloy seal bonding
    35. Bonding CMOS processed wafers
    36. Non-Destructive Bond Strength Testing of Anodic Bonded Wafers
    37. Wafer Bonding Equipment
    38. Encapsulation by Film Deposition
    39. Via Technologies for MEMS
    40. Outgassing and Gettering
    41. Dicing of MEMS devices
    42. Hermecity Tests

Product details

  • No. of pages: 668
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © William Andrew 2010
  • Published: April 1, 2000
  • Imprint: William Andrew
  • eBook ISBN: 9780815519881

About the Editors

Markku Tilli

Markku Tilli obtained a degree in Materials Science (Physical Metallurgy) at Helsinki University of Technology (HUT) in 1974. Until 1980 he had various research and teaching positions at HUT specializing in crystal growth technologies. From 1981 to 1984 he managed process research and development in Silicon project at HUT silicon wafer manufacturing pilot plant. Since 1985 he has had various managing positions at Okmetic in research, development and customer support areas, and held a position of Senior Vice President, Research until his retirement in 2018. His MEMS related activities started in 1982 when he developed a process to make double side polished silicon wafers for bulk micromachined sensors. Since then he has developed advanced new silicon wafer types for MEMS, including special epitaxial wafers, SOI and SOI wafers with buried cavities. His publication topics include oxygen precipitation in silicon, silicon crystal growth, wafer cleaning as well as silicon wafer manufacturing technologies and applications in MEMS. He is member of the Technology Academy of Finland and has received the honorary degree of Doctor of Science in Engineering from Aalto University.

Affiliations and Expertise

Director and Senior Vice President of Research, Okmetic, Finland (retired)

Mervi Paulasto-Krockel

Dr. Mervi Paulasto-Kröckel is professor at Aalto University School of Electrical Engineering in Finland. She studied materials science and semiconductor technology in Helsinki University of Technology, and gradudated as MSc Tech in 1990. She continued her studies in the Technical Universities of Aachen (RWTH Aachen) and Helsinki and attained her doctoral degree in 1995. After a 2-years post-doctoral appointment at the Joint Research Centre of European Commission in the Netherlands, her professional career continued in the electronics industry. She was a Staff Principal Engineer at Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector in Munich. In 2004 Paulasto-Kröckel joined Infineon Technologies where she was the Director Package Development responsible for semiconductor assembly and interconnect development for automotive products worldwide. At the end of 2018 Dr. Paulasto-Kröckel became a professor at Helsinki University of Technology, which is now called Aalto University after a merger with two other leading universities in the Helsinki area. Her current research focus is on advanced materials and interconnect technologies for MEMS/NEMS and power electronics, as well as multi-material assemblies behavior under different loads and their characteristic failure mechanisms. Her group has extensive experience in studying interactions and interfacial reactions between dissimilar materials, such as different oxide and nitride materials, metals and semiconductors. The group has developed a combined methodology approach to solve multi-materials compatibility issues in microelectronics and microsystems. Prof. Paulasto-Kröckel has over 110 international publications in the fields of microelectronics packaging and interfacial compatibility of dissimilar materials. She is IEEE EPS Distinguished Lecturer and a member of the Finnish Academy of Technical Sciences.

Affiliations and Expertise

Aalto University, School of Electrical Engineering, Finland

Teruaki Motooka

Teruaki Motooka received PhD degree in 1981 in Applied Physics from Kyushu University. He was a research scientist in the Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd. for 1971-1984, a visiting research assistant professor at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA for 1984-1988, an associate professor in the Institute of Applied Physics at University of Tsukuba, Japan for 1988-1993, and became a full professor at Kyushu University in 1993. He retired from Kyushu University in 2010. He has published more than 150 scientific papers on various international journals and these papers have been cited more than 2000 times.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor Emeritus, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu University, Japan

Veikko Lindroos

Veikko Lindroos is Professor Emeritus, Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, Aalto University, Finland. His research covers a broad spectrum of materials science and technology, such as metallic materials, silicon technology and MEMS materials magnetic, electronic and composite materials as well as shape memory effect and materials.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor Emeritus, Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, Aalto University, Finland

Veli-Matti Airaksinen

Affiliations and Expertise

Director, Aalto University at Micronova, Aalto Nanofabrication Centre, Finland

Sami Franssila

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Technology, Aalto University, Finland

Ari Lehto

Teruaki Motooka

Teruaki Motooka received PhD degree in 1981 in Applied Physics from Kyushu University. He was a research scientist in the Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd. for 1971-1984, a visiting research assistant professor at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA for 1984-1988, an associate professor in the Institute of Applied Physics at University of Tsukuba, Japan for 1988-1993, and became a full professor at Kyushu University in 1993. He retired from Kyushu University in 2010. He has published more than 150 scientific papers on various international journals and these papers have been cited more than 2000 times.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor Emeritus, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu University, Japan

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