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Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis is written by experts in the measurement of radioactivity. The book describes the broad scope of analytical methods available and instructs the reader on how to select the proper technique. It is intended as a practical manual for research which requires the accurate measurement of radioactivity at all levels, from the low levels encountered in the environment to the high levels measured in radioisotope research. This book contains sample preparation procedures, recommendations on steps to follow, necessary calculations, computer controlled analysis, and high sample throughput techniques. Each chapter includes practical techniques for application to nuclear safety, nuclear safeguards, environmental analysis, weapons disarmament, and assays required for research in biomedicine and agriculture.
The fundamentals of radioactivity properties, radionuclide decay, and methods of detection are included to provide the basis for a thorough understanding of the analytical procedures described in the book. Therefore, the Handbook can also be used as a teaching text.
- Includes sample preparation techniques for matrices such as soil, air, plant, water, animal tissue, and surface swipes
- Provides procedures and guidelines for the analysis of commonly encountered na
All researchers and professionals concerned with the analysis of radionucleotides
Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Symbols. Foreword. Preface. M.F. L'Annunziata,<$> Nuclear Radiation, Its Interaction with Matter and Radioisotope Decay.<$> Introduction. Particulate Radiation. Electromagnetic Radiation. Interaction of High-energy Electromagnetic Radiation with Matter. Radioisotope Decay. Radioactivity Units and Radionuclide Mass. References. K. Buchtela,<$> Gas Ionization Detectors.<$> Introduction: Principles of Radiation Detection by Gas Ionization. Characterization of Gas Ionization Detectors. Definition of Operating Characteristics of Gas Ionization Detectors. Ion Chambers. Proportional Gas Ionization Detectors. Geiger-Mueller Counters. Special Types of Ionization Detectors. References. P. F. Fettweis and H. Schwenn,<$> Semiconductor Detectors.<$> Introduction. Ge-Detectors. The Si Detectors. Spectroscopic Analysis with Semiconductor Detectors. References. M.F. L'Annunziata and M.J. Kessler,<$> Radiotracer Liquid Scintillation Analysis.<$> Introduction. Basic Theory. Liquid Scintillation Counter or Analyzer (LSC or LSA). Quench in Liquid Scintillation Counting. Methods of Quench Correction in Liquid Scintillation Counting. Common Interferences in Liquid Scintillation Counting. Multiple Radionuclide Analysis. Radionuclide Standardization. Microplate Scintillation and Luminescence Counting. PERALS Spectrometry. Simultaneous a/b Analysis. Radionuclide Identification. Air Luminescence Counting. Liquid Scintillation Counter Performance. References. G.T. Cook, C.J. Passo, Jr., and B.D. Carter,<$> Environmental Liquid Scintillation Analysis.<$> Introduction. Low-level Liquid Scintillation Counting Theory. Alpha/Beta Discrimination. Analysis of Beta Emitting Radionuclides. Analysis of Alpha Emitting Radionuclides Using Conventional LS Spectrometers with Pulse Shape Discrimination. References. M.J. Kessler,<$> Statistical Computations in Counting.<$> Introduction. Statistics of Nuclear Counting. References. J. Thomson,<$> Sample Preparation Techniques for Liquid Scintillation Analysis.<$> Introduction. LSC Cocktail Components. Dissolution. Solubilization. Combustion. Carbon Dioxide Trapping and Counting. Biological Samples. Filter and Membrane Counting. Sample Stability Troubleshooting. Swipe Assays. References. M.F. L'Annunziata,<$> Cherenkov Counting.<$> Introduction. Theory. Quenching and Quench Correction. Counting Parameters. Cherenkov Counting in Microplate Format. Multiple Radionuclide Analysis. Radionuclide Standardization. Applications. Advantages and Disadvantages. Recommendations. References. M.F. L'Annunziata,<$> Solid Scintillation Analysis.<$> Introduction. Principle of Solid Scintillation. Solid Scintillation Analyzer. Concepts and Principles of Solid Scintillation Analysis. Automated Solid Scintillation Analyzers. Solid scintillation in Noncrystalline Media. Lucas Cell. Phoswich Detectors. Summary of Applications. References. M.F. L'Annunziata,<$> Flow Scintillation Analysis.<$> Introduction. Basics of Flow Scintillation Analysis Instrumentation. Principles of Flow Scintillation Counting. Flow Scintillator Selection. Applications. References. L.V. Upham and D.F. Englert,<$> Radionuclide Imaging.<$> Introduction. Film Autoradiography. Storage Phosphor Screen Imaging. Electronic Autoradiography. The Future of Radionuclide Imaging. References. T.J. Beugelsdijk and R.M. Hollen,<$> Robotics and Automation in Radiochemical Analysis.<$> Introduction. Materials Compatibility and Operational Considerations for Robot and Workcell Construction. Applications of Robotic Systems to Radiochemical Analysis. Systems Integration: Building the Fully-Automated Method. Conclusions. References. Appendix. Table of Radioactive Isotopes. Subject Index.
- No. of pages:
- © Academic Press 1998
- 3rd August 1998
- Academic Press
- eBook ISBN:
Michael F. L’Annunziata, Ph.D. appears with a detailed biography in the annual editions of Who’s Who in the World from 1987 to 2016 and Who’s Who in America from 2000 to 2016. He majored in chemistry with a BSc degree from St. Edward's University in 1965; and he was awarded MSc and PhD degrees from the University of Arizona, Tucson in 1967 and 1970, respectively, and an Honorary Teaching Degree from the Central University of Ecuador in 1978. His graduate thesis research in the 1960s, financed by the then U.S. Atomic Energy Commission directed by Nobel laureate Glenn T. Seaborg, dealt with the analysis of radioactive strontium-89 and strontium-90 in the environment and the remediation of soils contaminated with strontium-90 in the event of nuclear fallout. L’Annunziata was a member of the Board of Governors, International Science Programs at Uppsala University between 1988 and 1991. He was Head of Fellowships and Training at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna, Austria from 1987-1991 and has served as IAEA Expert on peaceful applications of nuclear energy for development to over 50 countries of the world from 1976 to 2007. His main research interests have been focused on the development of chemical and instrumental methods for the detection and measurement of radioactive nuclides in the environment and the application of radioactive tracers in biological research. L'Annunziata was first to demonstrate in 1971 the separation of strontium-90 from its daughter nuclide yttrium-90 by electrophoresis as a potential method for strontium-90 analysis (J. Chem. Educ. 48, 700-703). He was the first to postulate in 1970 and 1975 the soil microbial epimerization of myo-inositol to other inositol isomers as a source of inositol phosphate isomers in soils (University of Arizona, Ph.D. dissertation, 1970 (http://dissexpress.umi.com/dxweb/search.html) and SSSA Journal 30(2), 377-379) and to demonstrate in 1977, with the use of radioactive carbon-14, the soil microbial epimerization of myo-inositol to D-chiro-inositol as a mechanism for the origin of the unique inositol phosphate isomers in soils (SSSA Journal 41(4), 733-736). Michael F. L’Annunziata was Honorary Professor at Zhejiang University in Hangzhou, China in 1992. He has authored several books among which his recent book entitled "Radioactivity: Introduction and History" published by Elsevier was on the LibraryJournal’s Best Sellers List in Physics..
Former Head, IAEA Fellowships and Training, Vienna, Austria; Current office: Oceanside, CA, USA
"The aim of the authors--to write a practical work that includes both principles and applications of modern radio analytical techniques--has been achieved. [Recommended to] upper-division undergraduates through professionals." --CHOICE, 1999
"This book, written by experienced specialists, covers the basic principles and, most importantly, the practical aspects of the radioanalytical methods that are in widespread use. ...The book not only serves as a reliable guide to the use of well-established methods, but also draws attention to recent developments, thus providing new and stimulating ideas for readers who may regard themselves as already knowledgeable in the field." --ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE, 1999
"...the information in the text is exquisitely presented and very readable... . Excellent applications to current research problems are given. There is also a good index and table of radioactive isotopes, the latter being very useful in such a book. The major strength of this book is its in-depth coverage of scintillation analysis and its prolific use of figures, diagrams, and tables." --ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, 1999
"This book is a practical handbook in line with the current trend of radiation measurement. The content is organized as follows. The 1st Chapter: Nuclear radiation, its interaction with matter and radioisotope decay; the 2nd Chapter: Gas ionization detectors (ion chambers, proportional detectors, GM counters); the 3rd Chapter: Semiconductor detectors; the 4th Chapter: Radiotracer liquid scintillation analysis; the 5th Chapter: Environmental liquid scintillation analysis; the 6th Chapter: Statistical computations in counting; the 7th Chapter: Sample preparation techniques for liquid scintillation analysis; the 8th Chapter: Cherenkov counting (by liquid scintillation analysis); the 9th Chapter: Solid scintillation analysis; the 10th Chapter: Flow scintillation analysis; the 11th Chapter: Radioisotope imaging; the 12th Chapter: Robotics and automation in radiochemical analysis and Appendix: Table of radioactive isotopes. As is clear from the title, the coverage of this book is limited to the analysis of radiation from radioisotopes. While it includes even very specific techniques of analysis, the content is quite easy to understand as each specific field is treated by its respective specialist. The description and explanation are well harmonized throughout the entire book and a number of articles are quoted for ease of reference to the readers. It is remarkable that liquid scintillation analysis has two separate chapters devoted to sample preparation and environmental sample analysis. Listing the latest developments extensively, this book is definitely useful not only to specialists but also to those wishing to have an overview of the current status of radioisotope analysis." --MAKOTO TAKIUE, Ph.D., Radioisotope Research Center, Jikei University School of Medicine
"For the experienced scientist, and for many novices, this handbook will offer a treasure trove of advice and ideas of the anaylsis of radioactivity. . . .it is a valuable reference work and should find its way onto the shelves of university libraries." --TRENDS IN ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, VOLUME 18, 1999